Skip to main content

Full text of "Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society"

See other formats


942.4101 
B77a 

Y*29 GENEALOGY COLLECTION 

1396890 




3 1833 00668 6221 



94 
B7 
Y. 
13 



94 
B7 
Y, 
13 



TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

Bristol and Gloucestershire 
Archaeological Society 

FOR 

I906. 



Ge 

94 
B", 
V. 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



Bristol ano (3loucestersbi're 
Hrcbaeolocjkal Society 

FOR 
I906. 



Edited by Rev. C. S. TAYLOR, M.A., F.S.A. 



VOL. XXIX. 



BRISTOL : 

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY BY J. W. ARROWSMITH, QUAY STREET. 



The Council of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological 
Society desires that it should be distinctly understood that the 
Council is not responsible for any statement made, or opinions 
expressed, in the Transactions of the Society. The Authors 
are alone responsible for their several Papers and Communica- 
tions, and the Editor, the -Rev. C. S. Taylor, M.A., F.S.A., 
Banwell Vicarage, Somerset, for the Notices of Books. 



I 



1396890 

TABLE OF CONTENTS OF VOL. XXIX. 



61 



Page. 

Proceedings at the Annual Spring Meeting at 

Chepstow, St. Briavels, and Tintern i 

Proceedings at the Annual Summer Meeting at 

Bristol . . . • • • • • * I 7 

Exhibition of Old Bristol Plans, Bristol Coinage, 
Antiquities, &c, at the Conversazione, Bristol, 
on July 17TH, 1906 

The Religious Houses of Bristol and their Dissolu- 
tion 81 

Bristol Archaeological Notes for 1904- v - • • I2 7 

Notes on Crania found on the Site of the Carmelite 

Friary 142 

Monumental Effigies i47» 2 3° 

Certain Roman Remains at Watercombe, near Bisley 173 

In Memoriam : Henry Allen Prothero . • .181 

Notices of Publications • l82, 322 

Bristol Library 

On Early and Mediaeval Libraries and the Evolu- 
tion OF THE BOOKROOM AND THE BOOKCASE . ■ 205 

Bristol Archaeological Notes for 1905- VL 

Gilbert de Laci (? 1108-1163) and Pain Fitzjohn 

. 284 

(-11 37) • • 

Some Notes on the Purlieus of the Forest of Dean 293 



vi Contents. 

Page 

Olsr a Roman Road from Old Sarum to Uphill, and 

ITS STRUCTURE AT CHEWTON MeNDIP, WHERE CUT 

through in i906 . . ■ • ■ ■ 3°3 

Notes on the Iron Ore Mines of the Forest of 

Dean, and on the History of their working . 311 

Grant by Sir John Benet of Doyly in the County 
of Middlesex, Knight of the Bath, to the 
Master Fellows and Scholars of Pembroke 
College in the University of Oxford, made the 

' IOTH NOVEMBER IN THE EIGHT AND TWENTIETH YEAR 

(1676) of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord 
Charles II • • • • 3*7 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Page 

Map showing the extent of the Forest of Dean at 

various times 2 

Chepstow Castle . . . . • • • 3 

St. Tecla's Ruined Chapel . . • • • 4 

St. Briavel's Castle . . • • • • 7 

Turnspit Wheel in Kitchen . . . . . • 8 

Early English Fire-place in Jury Room ... 9 

Ancient Iron Mines at Sling 12 

Old Mining Tools . . • 12 

North Transept and Cloisters, Tintern Abbey . . 15 

Prior's Lodging and sub-dorter, Tintern Abbey . 15 

Frater, Tintern Abbey 16 

The Cellarium and West Front of Nave, Tintern 

Abbey 16 

Candlestick, Clapton-in-Gordano 35 

Wooden Domestic Screen, Clapton-in-Gordano . • 35 

Porch Gallery, Weston-in-Gordano 3 6 



viij List of Illustrations. 

Choir Stalls, Weston-in-Gordano 

Miserere, Weston-in-Gordano 

Miserere, Weston-in-Gordano 

Stone Pulpit, Weston-in-Gordano 

Clevedon Court, North Side .... 

Clevedon Court, South Front 

East Window, Private Chapel, Clevedon Court 

Court Pew and Tombs, Chelvey . . 

Early Benches and Altar, Chelvey . 

Early Benches, Chelvey 

Staircase, Chelvey Court . ... 

Porch, Chelvey Court ... • 

Pendant, Chelvey Court 

Ashton Court in 1802 . 

Old Windows, Ashton Court 

Jacobean Lead Rain Water Head, Ashton Court 
Shield of Arms, Ashton Court . 
Manor House, Cold Ashton . . . ■ 
Gateway, Cold Ashton Manor House . 
Pulpit, Cold Ashton Church . . 

Marble Figures, Marshfield . . . 
Culver House and Barn, Marshfield . 



List of Illustrations. ix 

Page 

The Porch, Hamswell House. '. . . . 57 

Kip's View of Wick Court, c. 1700 . . . -58 

Wick Court, South Front . ..... 59 

Old House, Mary-le-Port Street, Demolished . 1904 . 129 

St. Augustine's Place, Site of Church of Carmelite 

Friary 133 

Plan of Discoveries upon Site of Carmelite Friary, 

1904 • • J 35 

Tiles Discovered upon Site of Carmelite Church, 

1904 I 37 

Crania from the Site of the Carmelite Friary, 

Bristol, 1904 ........ 146 

Diminutive Figures, Berkeley Church . . . 151 

Helmet and Javelin, Described on . . .176 

Watercombe, Figure I. . ... . . . .176 

Watercombe, Figure II. . . . . . • • 177 

Watercombe, Tile I. . . . . ■ • .178 

Watercombe, Tile II • • • I 7 8 

A Carrell in the Cloisters of Gloucester Cathedral 212 

A Carmelite in his Study . . . . , 2I 3 

Jean Mielot, a.d. 1456 ....... 213 

Library, Merton College, Oxford . . , .219 

Medicean Library, Florence . . . • • .220 

Library of the Escorial . - . . - , 220 



x List of Illustrations. 

LIST OF PICTURES TO ILLUSTRATE MISS ROPER'S 
EFFIGY PAPERS. 

Berkeley Church. 

Thomas, 8th Lord Berkeley, and Katherine Page 

his Wife 2 44> 2 45 

James, iith Lord Berkeley, and his Son James 244, 245 
Henry, 17TH Lord Berkeley, and Katherine 

his Wife • • ■ 2 44> 2 45 

An Unknown Lady 2 44- 2 45 

Fr ampton - on - Severn Church , Two Unnamed 

Effigies 2 44> 2 45 

North Nibley Church, Grace Smyth . . .244, 245 

Ashchurch Church, William Ferrers^ . • 2 44> 2 45 

Bishop's Cleeve Church. 

An Unnamed Effigy 2 44. 2 45 

Richard Delabere and Margaret his Wife . 244, 245 

Tewkesbury Abbey. 

Hugh, 5TH Baron Despenser, and his Wife 
Elizabeth . 

Edward, 6th Baron Despenser 

John Roberts .... 

Guy de Brien, Lord Welwyn 

Two Unnamed Effigies . 

Twyning Church. 

_ . . 244, 245 

Sybil Clare *y r 

William Hancock and his Sons William and 



244. 2 45 
244. 245 
244. 245 
244. 2 45 
244. 245 



Charles 



244. 2 45 



Winchcombe Church, Thomas Williams . • 2 44, 2 45 



List of Illustrations. xi 

Page 

Lamb Inn, Bristol ........ 268 

Staircase, Lamb Inn, Bristol ..... 268 

East Side of Priests' House, All Saints, Bristol . 273 

Roof, East End of South Aisle, All Saints, Bristol 273 

Rocque's Plan of Bristol, 1742 ..... 274 

Plan of Part of Cotham, shewing Site of Gallows 

and Old Masonry in College Inclosure . .< 276 

Pewter Paten . . . 278 

Metal Spoons ....... 279, 280 

Tanged Dagger of the Bronze Age . . . .281 

Romano-British Coins ....... 282 

Plan Shewing Line of Old Road at Chewton Mendip 306 

Sections of Old Road at Chewton Mendip . . 307 



PROCEEDINGS 
At the Annual Spring Meeting 
At Chepstow, St. Briavels, and Tintern. 
Tuesday, May 29th, 1906. 



Starting from different points— Bristol, Bath, Cirencester, 
Stroud, Cheltenham, and Gloucester — the party by different 
routes reached Chepstow, whence they journeyed together to 
St. Briavels and Tintern. It is some years since the Society 
made Chepstow its head-quarters, but no doubt the elder 
members can recall an agreeable three days' gathering there 
in 1881, under the presidency of the late Sir John Maclean. 
On that occasion the excursions embraced some places away 
from the localities now selected, though Tintern, as might be 
presumed, was included in the spots visited. The Forest of 
Dean was then the selected neighbourhood for most of the 
sight-seeing, Lydney Park (at the invitation of Mr. Bathurst) 
and the Speech House coming in for attention, while the 
inaugural address of Sir John specially concerned the Forest 
district, a circumstance not to be surprised at when his 
official connection with it is recollected. At that meeting 
the well-known archaeologist, Mr. G. T. Clark, of Dowlais, 
delivered an address on Chepstow Castle, and a carriage 
excursion was taken to Beachley and Sedbury Park, in order 
to inspect Offa's Dyke. Time was also found to see St. 
Briavels. Some years after the Society paid another visit 
to Chepstow. 

2 

Vol. XXIX. 



2 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



The weather proved propitious for the excursion, and 
there was a large party, about sixty from Bristol and seventy 
from Gloucester and other places in the northern part of the 
county. Among those present were Mr. F. F. Fox (president 
of the council), the Rev. C. S. Taylor (hon. editor), Canon 
Bazeley (hon. general secretary), Mr. John E. Pritchard 
(hon. secretary for Bristol), Mr. G. M. Currie (hon. general 
treasurer), and others. 

The drive along the left bank of the Wye was delightful-the finely- 
wooded hills, looking at their best in their varied tints of green, and the 
coppices filled with blue-bells and ferns, charmed the eye. At Woodcroft 
a short stop was made to see the magnificent view obtained from this point 
of vantage. In ancient times it would seem that all the woodland 
enclosed by the Severn, the Wye, and the Leadon, and bounded on the 
north by a line drawn from Goodrich to Newent, was king's forest; but 
before the Norman Conquest many parts of this area had ceased to be 
Crown land and were held by private owners. It is likely that in 1086 the 
eastern and southern boundaries of the forest were very much what they 
are now ■ but Newland and Staunton certainly, and very probably English 
Bicknor were clearances from the forest at some later date. Under Kings 
Henry II Richard, and John, large tracts of country were brought under 
the range of the forest laws, but by the Charter of the Forest, 1217, the 
afforestations made by the two latter kings were at once disafforested, and 
those made by Henry II. were disafforested, if they were to the injury of 
landowners and outside the royal demesne. Finally, after a series of peram- 
bulations the limits of the afforested districts were brought back to very 
much what they had been at the accession of Henry II. by a confirmation 
of the charters by Edward I. in 1301. The Forest of Dean is not mentioned 
bv name in the Great Survey of 10S6, but we are told that certain tenants at 
Dene held their land by the service of guarding the king's forest, and that 
by command of King William the manors of Hewelsfield and Wyegate 
were afforested, also that ships going to the forest paid toll at the Castle of 
Estrighoiel. Giraldus Cambrensis, in his •■ Itinerary of Archbishop Baldwin 
through Wales in 1188," speaks of "the noble Forest of Dean " as supply- 
ing iron and venison to Gloucester. 

In An-lo-Saxon den or dmu signifies a valley, and also a forest ; and we 
find the w°ord used as an affix in other parts of England in which woodland 
abounded : in Arden (in Warwickshire) and in Tenterden and many others 
dens (in Kent). As long as the older English alone was spoken it would be 
the king's "den" or "dene." When Norman-French was transforming 
.our national tongue it would be called the " Forest (foret) of Dean " 



Chepstow. 



3 



Although we scarcely entered the confines of the forest, every village 
we passed through abounds in forest lore. Specially is this the case with 
St. Briavels, where dwelt the King's Constable, the ex-officio Warden of 
the Forest. Parallel to the roads along which we drove on either side of 
the Wye runs the dyke or boundary line, which one of the Mercian kings 
constructed more than eleven hundred years ago to mark the western 
limits of his conquest. If little is told us by British, Roman and English 
chroniclers of this land between the Severn and the Wye, the materials 
are ready to hand for reconstructing its early history in its earthworks, 
its rude stone monuments, its paved roads, its iron mines and cinder heaps,' 
its churches and its ruined chapels, hermitages, wells and castles. More- 
over the pickaxe and the shovel have recovered for us coins, ornaments, 
and tools, which bear the impress of those who have ruled or worked in its 
secluded depths. 

The name of Chepstow does not appear in Domesday. In the 
Conqueror's time Earl William FitzOsbern built a castle here, which was 
known as Castellum de Estrighoiel and later on as Striguil. At Hardwicke, 
on the right bank of the Wye, near its mouth, are some ramparts, called the 
Bulwarks, constructed probably as an outwork of the ancient town called 
by the British Caerwent and by the Romans Venta Silurum. These 
lines of earthworks were no doubt intended to command the entrance 
to the river and also a ford, a mile above the present town, where the 
Roman road from Glevum (Gloucester) to Caerwent crossed the Wye. 
It is likely that they were occupied by King Alfred's forces when the 
Danes were blockaded at Beachley and starved out in 894. 

Chepstow Castle is protected on the north by a high cliff rising out of 
the deep and rapid stream, and on the south by a ravine, which separates 
it from the town. On the west, its weakest point, a double line of ditch 
has been quarried in the rock. It does not appear that there are any 
traces of fortifications here earlier than the eleventh century, but it seems 
improbable that the earlier inhabitants would leave a post of such natural 
strength and importance unprotected by rampart and pallisade. The 
castle consists of a keep and northern gallery, on either side of which 
is a ward or fortified court ; to the west of the inner court a barbican has 
been constructed as an additional defence on the land side, whilst to the 
east of the middle court is another ward strongly defended by a wall 
or curtain and four towers. The gateway or main entrance faces the river, 
where it sweeps round towards the south. The principal Norman 
possessors of Striguil Castle were Earl William, Gilbert FitzRichard, 
Earl of Pembroke, and the Earls Mareschal. In 1306 it passed into the 
hands of the Crown. Edward II. granted it to the Despencers. The 
Dukes of Norfolk held it in the fifteenth century till the reign of 
Edward IV., when it was given to the Herberts. A daughter of that 



4 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



house brought it in marriage to Charles Somerset, and his descendant, 
the Duke of Beaufort, now holds it. 

An exhaustive paper on Chepstow Castle, with an excellent ground- 
plan, by the late Mr. G. O. Clark, will be found in the Transactions of 
this Society, vol. vi., pp. 51-74. 

The parochial, formerly the Benedictine Church of St. Mary, at 
Chepstow was originally a magnificent eleventh - century structure, with 
choir and choir aisles, central tower with transepts, and nave with north 
and south aisles and north doorway. It has, alas! undergone barbarous 
ill-treatment on three occasions, the last being the most wantonly 
destructive. The choir, with its aisles, was destroyed by Henry VIII. 's 
Commissioners as unnecessary, the rest of the church being made 
parochial. Late in the seventeenth century the tower fell, as many 
Norman towers have fallen, destroying irreparably the transepts , and 
the restorers of 1705-6 blocked up the western arcade of the nave, 
building over it a western tower, and carrying up the beautiful west 
front to form its western wall. 

But the Norman nave remained fairly intact until 1S41 with rive of 
its original arcades on either side, north and south aisles, and a north 
porch, within which was a beautiful Norman arch and a niche. The 
restorers of 184 1 took down the eastern pair of arcades, thus reducing the 
six original arcades to four ; they destroyed the aisles ard also the porch, 
and they only preserved the Norman arch of the north doorway by 
inserting it in the belfry. The niche they placed on one side of the altar 
and made an imitation of it to match it on the other side. There remain 
only the massive square pillars and round arches of four arcades with 
triforium and clerestory above them, and the west front of the nave, 
bereft of its gabled aisle ends and disfigured by the early eighteenth- 
century addition. Later builders in better taste have done their best to 
minimise these losses, but the church has suffered too terribly to be 
capable of true restoration. 

The church, we know from a charter of Henry II., belonged in the 
reign of his grandfather, Henry I., to the monks of Cormeilles in 
Normandy. It was probably built by Richard Fitz Gilbert, Earl of 
Hertford, and given by him to Cormeilles. 

An architectural account of this church, by the late Mr. E. A. 
Freeman, will be found in Archaologia Cambrensis, N.S., vol. ii., and the 
facts given above relating to the changes made in 1841 are taken from 
some valuable notes by the late Dr. Ormerod in Strigulensia. The Rev. 
G. T. B. Ormerod, his grandson, has kindly allowed us to reproduce the 
illustration of St. Tecla's Chapel from that valuable collection. 

On a rocky islet at the confluence of the Severn and the Wye, two or 
three miles below Chepstow, are the ruins of an anchorite's cell, which 



Chepstow. 



5 



William of Worcester calls - Rok seynt Tryacle," the Valor Ecclesiasticus 
"Capella sancti Triad," and Leland " St. Terendaca's Chapel." The name 
of this saint does not appear in our Calendar, though in the Calendar of 
the Old English Church St. Thecla, virgin and martyr of Iconium was 
commemorated on September 23rd, and her name also appears on that 
date in the Calendar of the Latin Prayer Book of 1560. Some, however, 
have thought that the name of the island is connected with the old name 
of Chepstow. Many such hermitages existed in the Severn Vale in olden 
days. They are relics of a Christianity distinctly Celtic, and mark a later 
development of the British and Irish Church, when men and women had 
ceased to dwell together in the same monastery under the rule of an 
abbess, when even the schools of the prophets had failed to satisfy the 
growing taste for a life of greater austerity, and holy priests and laymen 
preferred to dwell alone in desert places, existing on herbs and water, 
and preaching the Gospel of Christ to all who would hear them. Here on 
Tecla's isle the hardy fishermen of the Wye and the mariners of the 
Severn have bent the knee in prayer and received the blessing of many a 
forgotten saint. 1 

To the east of Chepstow, in Sedbury Park, where Offa's Dyke crosses 
the isthmus to reach the Severn cliff, is a formidable line of earthworks, 
which appears to be of Danish origin. This was the scene of Alfred's last 
victory in 894, when West Saxon, Hwiccian, and Welshman combined to 
crush the pagan pirate in his lair. 2 

There are three great boundary lines in Gloucestershire and the 
adjoining counties. (1) Wansdyke, in Somerset and Wilts, was constructed 
possibly by the Belga?, the last of the Celtic invaders of Britain, to mark 
the limits northwards of their conquest. More probably, perhaps, by the 
West Saxons in the seventh century as a protection against the Mercians, 
who were encroaching on their northern frontier. (2) The Red Earl's Dyke, 
which runs along the summit of the Malverns from the Ragged Stone Hill 
to North Hill, was made by Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Hertford and 
Gloucester, "the red earl," to tell the huntsmen of the Bishop of Hereford 
that they might come so far and no farther in pursuit of their lord's deer. 
(3) Between these two, as regards date, comes Offa's Dyke, which was 
constructed in the eighth century by the Mid-English, the men of the 
marches. The earliest document extant in which this dyke is mentioned is 
a grant of King Eadwig to Wulfgar, Abbot of Bath, of land at Tidenham, 
between the Severn and the Wye, in 956.3 

1 It has been suggested by Canon Bazeley that it was an anchorite dwelling here 
who was consulted by the Welsh bishops before they crossed the Severn in 603 to 
hold a conference with St. Augustine at Aust. 

■2 Matthew of Westminster, ed. 1601, p. 179. Saxon Chronicle, a.d. 894. 

s Cartulariuin Saxonicum, Nos. 927, 8. 



-6 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



Offa, whose name it bears, became King of the Mercians at a time 
when, after a series of military disasters, they had lost their supremacy 
over Kent, Essex, and East Anglia, and the earlier years of his reign were 
spent in its recovery. But in 779 he attacked the Welsh, who had availed 
themselves of their neighbours' troubles to make forays into their territory. 
Offa carried his victorious arms beyond the Severn, the original border- 
line of Mercia, and added to his dominions all the country which lay 
between it and the Wye. Then to mark the limits of his conquest he 
began to make the dyke which bears his name. This dyke, which has a 
political and not a military value, runs southwards from the mouth of the 
Dee through the present counties of Flint, Denbigh, Salop, Montgomery, 
Radnor, Hereford, and Gloucester, to the Wye. Camden says concisely, 
" a. Devae ostio, usque ad Vagae." It has been carefully traced by 
Pennant and other antiquaries from the estuary of the Dee to Bridge 
Solers • and the Gloucestershire or southern extremity has been traced by 
Fosbroke, Lysons, Ormerod, Sir John Maclean, and other local authorities, 
From Bishop's Wood, where the Wye reaches Gloucestershire, to Sedbury, 
where it joins the Severn, the dyke runs fairly parallel to the left bank of 
the river, either on the summit of the cliffs, where little of it is to be seen, 
or half a mile inland across the valleys which intervene. As might be 
expected, where the ancient woodland remains untouched by the plough 
the dyke' is nearly perfect ; where the ground has come under cultivation 
the tendency has been to obliterate it. The strip of land between the 
xiver and the dyke was no doubt neutral ground; the Welsh fishermen 
could land there in safety, and Welsh and English would meet and barter 
their wares. Chepstow derives its present name from the Saxon Up or 
Citing and Stow*, and signifies a market town. In 1881 our late editor, 
Sir John Maclean, accompanied by our old friends, Mr. Bagnall-Oakeley 
and Mr Taprell Allen, followed the course of the dyke from Sedbury to 
Bishop's Wood ; and he gave an account of his researches in our Transactions, 
vol xviii pp. 19-31. The dyke may be seen at the following points near 
our route from Chepstow to Bigswear :-At Lancaut, Madgets (Modesgat), 
St Briavels Common, where it is called "the devil's ridge" (there 
is a devil's dyke in East Anglia; in such matters the devil was the 
lineal descendant or substitute of Woden), Hudnol, Redhill Grove, 
St. Margaret's Grove, and Fencewood, where we examined it on our 
way to Bigswear. 

On arrival at St. Briavels the members were divided into two parties, 
the Rev. Canon Bazeley being in charge of one, and Mr. J. E. Pritchard 
of the other, and the castle and church were visited in turn. The Rev. 
Canon Bazeley mentioned that the tenant of the castle, the Hon. Mrs. 
Ronald Campbell, had written regretting her inability to be present to 
meet the members. He thought they owed the lady a great debt of 



St. /Briavels. 



7 



gratitude for allowing them to inspect the place just as she was moving 
in to take up her residence there The property belongs to the Crown, 
who are carrying out extensive alterations to meet the requirements of a 
modern residence, and the builders were at work there when the party 
visited the castle. St. Briavels Castle stands nearly on the summit of a 
hill which rises up from the Wye Valley to the height of 800 feet. On 
all sides save the south, where the ground in the rear is somewhat higher, 
there are fine views of the surrounding country. On the west and the 
north-west are seen Trellech Beacon, the Sugar Loaf, and the Skirrid 
Mountains ; on the north the Kymin, Buckstone, and Staunton Hills ; 
and farther away to the north-east May Hill, the most conspicuous feature 
in our Gloucestershire landscape ; on the east and south-east are the 
Forest of Dean and the Cotteswolds above Dursley. 

Giraldus tells us in his Annals that St. Briavels Castle was built by 
Milo FitzWalter to maintain the royal authority over the rough denizens 
•of the forest and to check the inroads of the Welsh. This was probably 
about 1131, four years before the death of Henry I. In most cases the 
Norman builders selected the sites of earlier fortresses for their strong- 
holds, erecting keeps of stone and curtained wards on artificial mounds 
which Briton or Saxon had defended with ditch and pallisade. The Welsh 
would naturally be indignant at the loss of the forest with its mineral 
wealth and wellnigh impregnable fastnesses, and would be ready at any 
moment to avail themselves of any Mercian disaster or weakness to cross 
the hated dyke and attack their hereditary foe. So Offa, or one of his 
successors, constructed a frontier fortress here, where the ancient track- 
ways from Brockwear and Bigswear to the forest met, and garrisoned it 
with his trustiest followers. 

St. Briavels is not mentioned as such in the Great Survey of 1086. 
It appears under the name of Ledenei, and was probably included in the 
grant of lands at Lydney by the Conqueror to William FitzOsbern. 
These lands escheated to the Crown in 1074, on the rebellion of Earl 
Roger, William's son, and in 1087 were held by William FitzBaderon. 
The name of St. Briavels seems to have been appropriated from the 
hamlet of St. Briavel — Stowe lying about a mile to the north of the road 
from Bigswear to the iron mines of Clearwell. Here, it is said, before 
the days of King Offa, a British prince, Briavellus, who ruled Cantref 
Coch (the Silurian name for the Forest of Dean) had his stronghold, still 
known as the Castle Tump, and, building for himself an anchorite's cell 
hard by, lived and died a saint. 

Milo FitzWalter, the builder of the castle, was Sheriff of Gloucester- 
shire in 1 131, and hereditary Constable of England. In the civil war 
that ensued on the death of Henry I. Milo espoused the cause of Matilda, 
and she created him Earl of Hereford. He was killed by accident in 



8 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



1145, whilst hunting in the Forest of Dean, and Flaxley Abbey was 
founded by his son Roger to commemorate his fate. 

A list of the Constables of St. Briavels is given in our Transactions, 
vol hi pp 360-3. The office was absorbed in that of the Chief 
Commissioner of Woods and Forests in 1838. The Society is greatly 
indebted to the Rev. W. Taprell Allen, a late Vicar of St. Briavels, and 
a distinguished member of this Society, for his careful researches into the 
history of his parish, and the papers on the castle and church which he 
has contributed to our Transactions. 1 

The remains of the castle at the present time are only a fragment of 
what existed in mediaeval times. 

The outer walls, forming an irregular figure of seven unequal sides, 
enclose a space of about an acre. At their base an embankment slopes 
down to what was once a deep moat. This was filled in about fifty years 
ago the only part remaining being the castle pool on the north-west. The 
castle is now under repair, being adapted to the requirements of a modern 
residence When the work has been completed the internal appearance 
will be very different from what it was when Mr. Taprell Allen described 
it in 1878 None of the actual work of Milo FitzWalter remains. The 
Norman square keep of Henry I.'s reign, which protected the enclosed 
space on its south side and was about 100 ft. high, fell down in 1752, and 

was destroyed in I774- 2 

We approach the castle on the north side by a permanent causeway, 
which superseded a drawbridge, and find ourselves in front of a gateway 
with a double arch, above which is a crenulated curtain pierced by one 
window. The portcullis protecting the heavy gates must have had long 
iron spikes, for the groove terminates at the spring of the arch. Flanking 
this entrance are two semicircular towers, rising from octagonal bases and 
strengthened by triangular buttresses. The eastern tower, which was 
roofless in 1752 and a ruin in 1783, was subsequently restored. Cellars or 
dungeons occupied the lowest floor. Above these were chambers which 
were lighted by loops. The first or outer court measured 15 ft. by 10 ft. 
In both towers spiral staircases ascended to the upper floors, but on the 
east side only the original stairs remain. At the foot of these was a 
guardroom with a chamber above it. An inner archway with a portcullis 
led from the outer court to a second (21 ft. by 9 ft-), which had two floors 
over it On either side two doors, each defended by a portcullis, led into 
the towers. On the right is a room which has served for many generations 
as a kitchen. The fireplace is of the date of Charles I., and there is a 
turnspit wheel in situ. On the second floor is a room which was used as 
a debtors' prison; this was visited about 1778 by John Howard, the 
l Vol. iii. 325-67, vii. 318, ix. 72-102, and x. 304-12. 
2 Plans of Castle, Transactions, iii. 332, 333- 



St. Briavels. 



9 



prison philanthropist. This and the adjoining room have Early English 
fireplaces. There are attics above. The gate-house appears to have been 
built in the middle of the thirteenth century, and is similar in style and 
arrangement to the corresponding part of Rockingham Castle, which was 
built at that period. An inner archway, with a portcullis groove, leads 
into a third court, known as the Chapel Court. The group of buildings 
adjoining this court are more than half a century older than the gate- 
house, and were probably built by one of the early De Bohuns. On the 
right, above a cellar, was a room (40 ft. by 20 ft.) thought to have been 
the state apartment. It had an Early English and Perpendicular window 
on the west side, overlooking the Wye Valley. These have been destroyed. 
At the north end is an Early English window, which must have been 
blocked up when the gate-house was added. On the east side were two 
windows and a fireplace. In the south east corner is an arched doorway 
which led to the chapel, converted in Queen Elizabeth's time to a court- 
room. This room has a piscina, showing its former sacred use. To the 
south of the court-room is the jury room (24 ft. by 20ft.), with an Early 
English fireplace, having shafts, capitals, and lamp brackets. The graceful 
chimney which surmounts this fireplace was removed from the east side of 
the castle enclosure in the beginning of the nineteenth century. On the 
summit is a forester's horn, a badge of the Constable of the Castle as. 
ex-officio Warden of the Forest. 

In the church the party was received by the Vicar (the Rev. J. C. May), 
who gave some details with regard to it. 

The church of St. Briavels is much older than any remaining part of 
the castle, as will be seen by the Early Norman character of the south aisle 
of the nave with its deeply-splayed clerestory. 1 Whether there was a 
chapel at St. Briavels in pre-Norman times does not appear, but it would 
seem probable, from the fact that Williarn FitzOsbern, Earl of Hereford, 
who died in 1071, gave the tithes of Ledenei Parva (the Domesday name 
of St. Briavels) to the abbey of Lire in Normandy, which he founded in 
1046. One of Earl William's successors gave tithes in the same vill to the 
abbey of St. Florent, Saumar, and a dispute arose between the two alien 
monasteries, which was settled by Roger, Bishop of Worcester, about 
1163. 2 

After this the church, which seems to have originally consisted of a 
nave, with aisles and a small apse, was enlarged by the addition of central 
tower, with .choir below, transepts, and chancel, and was consecrated 
under the name of " Capella Sancti Briavelli " in 1166. The Transitional 
Norman work would be of this date. Late in the thirteenth century the 

1 See illustration at page 198 in a paper by the late Rev. G. Ormerod on the Chapelry 
ol St. Briavels, in the Archtzologica' Journal, xvii., 194-98. 

2 Idem, p. 195. 



IO 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



morth aisle, which up to that time had probably been Early Norman, was 
rebuilt in the Decorated style, with lofty pointed arches resting on 
moulded capitals and octagonal pillars. The arches connecting the aisles 
with the transepts are Early English. A dragon's head, characteristic of 
Norman work, terminates the hood-moulding of each of these arches. In 
the fifteenth century a fine Perpendicular window was inserted at the west 
end of the nave. As Mr. Taprell Allen tells us in his excellent paper on 
the church, the sacred building has suffered sadly from injudicious 
nineteenth-century restoration, a story far too common. 

The tower was taken down and rebuilt on the site of the south porch 
in 1830. The chancel, which is now entirely modern, was rebuilt in 1861, 
and the west window of the nave was taken out. 

Few monuments of interest remain, and these are mutilated. An early 
fourteenth-century slab, bearing a triple cross with oak and laurel leaves, 
once covered the tomb of an ecclesiastic, perhaps an abbot of Lire ; but 
not long after it was carved the wimpled head of a lady was inserted. 1 

A costly monument to William Warren and his wife, Mariana 
Catchmay, was erected in the chancel in 1573. Atkyns also speaks of a 
raised tomb in memory of Mrs. Warren Gough, who died in 1636, and of 
a monument with the effigies of a man, woman, and three children of the 
James family of Sutwell. Effigies and fragments of tombs lie scattered 
about the church in hopeless confusion. 2 

There is a plain Norman font. The altar frontal is of pre-Reformation 
date, and retains all its original beauty. The staircase leading to the rood 
loft has been allowed to remain in the south aisle. The piscina, used as a 
credence, belongs to the chantry chapel of St. Mary the Virgin in the 
north transept. 

The following account of the heraldry which once existed in St. 
Briavels Church has been kindly contributed by Mr. F. Were :— 

"Sad indeed is the havoc that has been wrought with the heraldry 
that existed in St. Briavels Church even in Bigland's time: a perfect 
blotting out of all, except a partial daub of one shield that belongs to the 
James family. This now is ' Sable a chevron argent' with in base, what 
looks like a large grey beetle, intended to represent ' (Argent) a chevron 
between three millinks (sableV as Bigland read it. But it is yet sadder to 
see on the mock Norman capitals of the porch doorway, ' Saint-Briavel's,' 
as if it were a suburban villa that one was entering, It seems almost an 
unnecessary labour to point out what has entirely disappeared, except 
that it might prove a stepping-stone to some kind spirit who disapproves 
of such sacrilege. The two effigies on the floor against the north wall of 
1 See illustration in Mr. Taprell Alien's paper, Transactions, ix. 76. 
2 See the report on the effigies, by the late Mrs. Bagnall-Oakeley, in Transactions, 
xxv. 165-7. 



Sling. 



ii 



the chancel have come off a tomb of which Bigland has given an engraving 
<mite good enough to be reproduced from, provided its position can be 
fixed ; it is that of William Warren and Marianna Catchmay, his wife, 
the former's arms, ' Chequy or and az.,' being at the back, though hers do 
not appear. Now over a monument to William Catchmay, 1743, Bigland 
gives a shield which even in his time must have been removed from some 
monument ; yet it is a flat stone, showing the arms not of Catchmay, but 
of Ingler, '(Or) 2 bars (az.) on a canton (sa.) 5 billets in saltire (arg.).' 
Surrey Visitation says Thomas Hoskins, of co. Monmouth, of which county 
the Catchmay s were, married Jane, daughter of (Thomas) Catchmead, of 
co. Gloucester, and their son Charles married Ann, daughter of Thomas 
Ingler, of Reigate, Surrey. There is yet another shield connected with the 
Catchmays, ' (Argent) on a chevron (sable) 3 chess rooks (of the first) 
between as many rooks (proper),' and crest, 'Dexter arm (in armour) 
embowed (proper) holding a pistol (or),' for James Rooke, 1773, who 
married Jane, daughter of Tracey Catchmay and Barbara Bray. Again, 
there is the early coat of Warren Gough, 1625, showing his descent from 
the effigies, given by Atkyns and Nayler as ' Azure 3 boars' heads couped 
2 and 1 argent,' he being, as given in Glos. Vis., 1623, p. 67, the second 
son of George Gough, of Hewelsfield, and Mary, daughter and coheiress 
of William Warren, of St. Briavels. The Visitations show that the Warrens, 
Catchmays, Goughs and Bonds were all connected both with St. Briavels 
and Hewelsfield, of which places William Warren was lord of the manor. 
Curiously enough, there is no coat of the Catchmays in Bigland's list, so 
there must have been great destruction before his time, unless they have 
been removed elsewhere. Also the quarterly shield of Carpenter, 1 and 4 : 
^Paly of six gules and argent (really arg. and az.) on a chevron azure 
(really gu.) 3 crosses croslet or.' 2 and 3: '3 estoiles and a chief 

vaire ' (? a variation of Bay ley)." 

St. Briavels was a chapelry of Lydney till 1859, when it was made a 
separate parish. The Dean and Chapter of Hereford are the patrons, and 
must be held partly responsible for the havoc wrought by so-called 
restorers. 

After luncheon the party re-entered the vehicles and left St. Briavels 
for the Scowles, ancient iron workings at Sling, near Clearwell, which they 
viewed by permission of Mr. Williams and Mr. Rees. A walk down a hill 
and through a small coombe brought the members to the mine, in a deep 
fissure of the rock. Mr. W. H. Fryer gave the party an instructive 
address, which by his kindness is printed in this volume of our 
Transactions. 

As iron has been dug here from pre-historic times, probably in the Iron 
Age of Britain, most certainly by the Romans, and with few intervals ever 
since their departure, it is needless to say these workings are varied in 



12 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



appearance and character. Very little is known of their history, and, if 
we except Roman coins, ornaments, and cinder heaps, the relics of those 
who laboured here in distant ages are very scanty and of uncertain date ; 
there is therefore ample room for surmise and discussion. 

Sometimes these scomles take the form of caves, as at the Great Doward, 
on the Wye, where in King Arthur's Cave, Camden tells us, was found a 
human skeleton of gigantic dimensions. Nicholls 1 thinks that scawl is the 
corruption of a word of British origin, crowll, meaning cave. If this be so 
we have here probably the most ancient form of mining. Mr. C. E. 
Cardew has, however, pointed out that the derivation of this word was 
considered in Notes and Queries for 1885, and that the discussion seemed to 
favour a derivation from the old English word scjfl, a shovel, the scoides 
being places which are " shovelled out." 

Sometimes, as at "the devil's chapel " between Bream and Lydney 
Park (the finest example of scowles in the forest), they are wide and deep 
quarries. At Sling, Perry Grove, and elsewhere they are narrow passages, 
tunnelled in the hard rock, open to the heavens above, over-hung with 
trees, mantled with ivy and ferns, and carpeted with the broad-leaved 
ransom, fair enough to the sight but pungent and repulsive to the scent if 
we crush it beneath our feet. Mr. Wyrrall, whose MS. cn the iron works 
of the forest, a.d. 1780, has been printed in the second volume of our 
Transactions, pp. 216-22, says : " There are, deep in the earth, vast caverns 
scooped out by men's hands, and large as the aisles of churches ; and on 
its surface are extensive labyrinths worked among the rocks, and now long 
since overgrown with woods, which whosoever traces them must see with 
astonishment, and incline to think them to have been the work of armies- 
rather then of private labourers. They certainly were the toil of many 
centuries, and this perhaps before they thought of searching in the bowels 
of the earth for their ore, whither, however, they at length then naturally 
pursued the veins, as they found them to be exhausted near the surface." 
In vol. vi., pp. 107-22, Mrs. Bagnall-Oakeley has given us a list of 
Roman coins which from time to time has been found in the forest, in 
scowles, in cinder heaps, and elsewhere. These cover in date almost the 
whole period of the Roman occupation of Britain. 

An illustration is given in vol. xx., p. 156, of some old mining tools 
found in the Westbury Brook Mine, and supposed by some to be of Roman 
origin. We reproduce the plate, and the tools themselves were on view 
at Sling. They are exceedingly rough, utterly unlike anything the Romans 
would have been likely to use. Mr. T. F. Browne was probably right in 
attributing them to mine poachers of the Cromwellian period. 

The drive from Siing to Tintern was through splendid scenery, and 
the site of Castle Tump, and also the ruined chapel and hermitage of 
1 Iron Making in Olden Times, by the Rev. H. G. Nicholls, B.A., 1866. 



Tin tern. 



!3 



St. Briavels, were passed. A short stay was made at St. Margaret's 
Grove to inspect a fine stretch of the famous dyke which Off a constructed 
more than eleven hundred years ago to mark the western limits of his 
conquest. On our way to Tintern, as we began to descend into the valley 
of the Wye, we saw on our left, near a quarry, a British camp which 
Mr. G. B. Witts has described thus in his Archaological Handbook : " Three 
miles south of Coleford, in the parish of St. Briavels, there. is a very small 
camp, circular in form, known as Castle Tump. It stands on Bearse 
Common and is defended by a strong, high mound. The ditch outside 
the bank is slight. The defended area is only 35 yards in diameter." It 
has been sadly injured by quarrying on its west side. Mr. Wakeman's 
suggestion that a British prince had his stronghold here and became a 
hermit has been alluded to. The ruined building at the back of Stowe 
Grange, said to be the remains of a chapel, bears no traces of sacred use, 
and no more can be said of a round fireplace with calcined stones which 
tradition says was part of the anchorite's cell. St. Briavels Hermitage is 
mentioned in the Pipe Roll of 31 Henry I. (1131), and we are told that it 
was given to the abbey of Grace Dieu, near Monmouth, in 1227. This 
abbey had been founded in the previous year by John of Monmouth, who 
was Constable of St. Briavels Castle from 1216 to 1224. The monks had 
at first to say mass every day at the hermitage for the souls of the king and 
his ancestors, but permission was given them later on, on account of the 
depredations of wild beasts from the forest, to perform the service at 
the abbey instead. The name of the farm, Stowe Grange, shows that it 
belonged to a monastic house. There does not seem to be any evidence 
of a hermit residing here after the gift of the buildings and lands to the 
abbey of Grace Dieu. 

At Morke, which Sir John Maclean thought to be a corruption of 
March, a boundary, was a chapel, dedicated to St. Margaret, with a wood 
attached to it called St. Margaret's Grove. It is mentioned in the 
Parliamentary Survey of Lands of 1651 as belonging to Charles I., his 
Queen and the Prince of Wales. In 1884 it formed part of the Lindors 
estate. 

After tea the members visited Tintern Abbey, which is regarded by 
many as the most beautiful ruin in the country. The party had the 
pleasure of being received by Mr. Philip Bay lis (Deputy- Surveyor of the 
Forest of Dean) and Mr. F.W.Waller (the architect), who pointed out 
the chief features of the celebrated Cistercian abbey. They were able to 
tell the members the interesting fact that recent excavations had brought 
to light traces of a more ancient building, a circumstance which is of 
great archaeological importance. An able paper on the architectural 
history of Tintern Abbey, with ground plans of the conventual church 
and domestic buildings, and drawings of architectural details, by 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



Mr. Thomas Blashill, will be found in our Transactions of 1881-2, vol. vL, 
pp. 88-106. Tintern was founded in 1131, and therefore its earlier 
buildings must have been Norman in style. Mr. Blashill says that no 
traces of the conventual church of this period remains, but he suggests 
that it occupied about half the area of the present church, and that its 
chancel stood very nearly on the site of the north transept. (See plan, 
vol. vi , p. 106.) In the middle of the twelfth century Roger Bigod, Earl 
of Norfolk, who had inherited the lands of Walter de Clare, the founder, 
determined to rebuild the abbey, and he appears to have commenced with 
the domestic portions, as they are earlier in style than the church. The 
church was begun in 1269, and the high altar was first used in 1288; so 
the building went on during the period in which the Early English style of 
architecture was passing into Decorated or Edwardian. When perfect 
the church consisted of a nave with aisles, a choir which extended one 
bay into the nave, north and south transepts each with two eastern 
chapels, and presbytery with aisles. In the remaining southern arcade 
of the nave we see traces of the screen which ran from east to west, 
connecting the pillars and shutting out the chancel and nave from their 
aisles. This was a Cistercian arrangement. 

Mr. Dugdale has very kindly allowed us to reproduce four of his- 
beautiful photographs giving details of the conventual buildings, and it 
may be helpful to mention very briefly their names and uses. 

In the north-west angle of the north transept is a flight of stairs which 
led by a passage over the chapter house and slype to the monks' sleeping^ 
room. They used these stairs for the midnight and early morning 
services : in the daytime they entered and left the church by the door at 
the east end of the north aisle of the nave opening into the cloisters, 
where the monks spent much of their daily life in reading and copying 
manuscripts. In the east walk they had usually their cupboard for the 
books in common use and the materials for writing and illuminating, 
and the sacrist had a room for the sacred vessels and service books. At 
the north end of the north transept was a room divided into two by a 
strong cross- wall. The outer room was perhaps the library, and the inner 
the sacristy. The Early English doorway, which has been lately repaired, 
is of very chaste design. 

The next building was the chapter house, which derived its name 
from the little chapter, or portion of the rule of St. Benedict, which was 
read to the assembled monks after Terce. Here the business of the 
abbey was transacted and discipline was administered. 

Adjoining this was the parlour, where the monks were permitted to 
converse in the presence of the prior, or another officer. Silence was the 
usual rule, whether in church, during meals, or at work m cloister and 
elsewhere. 



TlNTERN. 



Next to the parlour was the slype, a passage leading to the infirmary,, 
where the aged or sick monks had their own dormitory, refectory, and 
kitchen. 

At Hayles Abbey the slype passes under the dormitory, but it is. 
doubtful whether it was so at Tintern, for the next room is only a lobby- 
leading to the undercroft of the monks' sleeping apartment, now generally 
called the dorter. It is a mistake to call this sub-dorter a day-room, 
There is no evidence whatever that the monks spent any of their time 
here. The south cloisrer walk was to all intents and purposes their 
ordinary living room. The sub-dorter was probably used for storage. It 
had no fireplace after it was rebuilt in the thirteenth century, 1 and the 
windows were unglazed. A doorway in the east side led to the latrines 
or rear-dorter. 

We will now briefly describe the buildings adjoining the north walk. 
In the first room, or passage, stairs led up to the dorter, on the right, 
and to what has been thought to be the prior's lodging on the left. 
Sometimes the muniment room of the abbey was here, and the heavily- 
barred window seems to suggest this use for the narrow room opening 
out of it. 

Below this room, on the ground floor, was the warming-house, some- 
times called the calefactory. There were two generally enormous fire- 
places in this room (there is only one at Tintern), where the monks might 
thaw their frozen fingers in the depth of our old-fashioned winters. 

Behind the warming-house was a courtyard with a store for wood and 
other fuel, and perhaps a gateway leading to the river. 

The dining-room or refectory of the monks comes next ; they called it 
the frater. In Cistercian houses it always stood north and south, with 
its end against the cloister, whereas in Benedictine, Cluniac, and 
Augustinian houses it stood east and west, as at Gloucester, with its 
side against the cloister. On the left is a recess, which contained the 
wall-pulpit and its stairs. Whilst the monks eat in silence one of their 
number read aloud the Imitation of Christ, by Thomas a Kempis, or some 
other devotional work. Mr. Dugdale's photograph shows the beautiful 
Early English windows on the east side overlooking the court of the 
warming-house. In the north wall of the cloister walk are the lavatory 
and towel recess In the S.E. corner of the frater is a vaulted chamber 
with a locker, which was perhaps a pantry. In the S W. corner is a 
buttery hatch,- showing that beyond it to the west were the kitchen and 
other domestic offices. 

The long range of buildings on the west side of the cloisters will have 
special interest for us, because they have lately been very carefully cleared 

i An earlier fireplace has been lately discovered in the east wall. This must have 
been walled up about 1260. 



16 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

from all modern accretions. This was the cellarium where the conversi or 
lay brothers dwelt, under the superintendence of the cellarer, and attended 
to the secular and external affairs of the monastery. They had a frater, 
dorter and infirmary of their own, and attended some of the daily services 
in the church, worshipping by themselves in the north aisle of the nave. 
After the fourteenth century the conversi seem to have died out, and we 
shall have to ask ourselves to what purpose these noble rooms were 
assigned in the later days of the abbey At Hayles the cellarium became 
the Abbot's Lodging. 

After leaving the abbey the archaeologists hurried to their vehicles, and 
-on arriving at Chepstow Station the two sections separated, the trains for 
Gloucester and Bristol enabling all of the party to reach their homes at an 
early hour. The day's engagements were altogether enjoyable, and to the 
■exertions of Canon Bazeley and Mr. John E. Pritchard a great deal of 
the success of the excursion is due. We were also greatly indebted to 
Mr. Murray for the loan of the blocks of the map and of the castle from 
Nicholls's Forest of Dean, and- to Mr. R. W. Dugdale for his beautiful 
photographs, which he had taken expressly for this meeting, and has 
allowed us to reproduce. 




'.indly lent by Mr. Murray. 

MAP SHOWING THE EXTENT OF THE FOREST OF DEAN 
AT VARIOUS TIMES. 




PAGE 7. 




if.. W. Dugdale, Phot. 

ANCIENT IRON MINES AT SLING. 



1 




R. W. Dugddle, Phot. . v 
THE CELLARIUM AND WEST FRONT OF NAV] 
TINTERN ABBEY. 



PAGE 35. 

CANDLESTICK, CLAPTON-IN-GORDANO. 



WOODEN DOMESTIC SCREEN, 
CLAPTON-IN-GORDANO. 




PAGE 36. 



PORCH GALLERY, WESTON-IN-GORDANO. 



CHOIR STALLS, WESTON-IN-GORDANO. 



MISERERE, WESTON -1N-GORDANO. 



PAGE 37. 




MISERERE, WESTON-IN-GORDANO. 



PAGE 37. 



Guy Chilton, Phot page 37. 

STONE PULPIT, WESTON-IN-GORDANO. 



> 




Guy Chilton, Phot. page 38. 



CLEVEDON COURT, NORTH SIDE. 



Guy Chilton, tnot. page 39. 

CLEVEDON COURT, SOUTH FRONT. 





Prof. Fawcett, Pnot. 

COURT PEW AND TOMBS, CHELVEY. 



Prof. Fawcett, Phot. 

EARLY BENCHES AND ALTAR, CHELVEY. 





Prof. Fawcett, Phot. page 42. 



PENDANT, CHELVEY COURT. 



i 
1 




1 

f 




^ r~ j 

1 




it 
■ 









Guy Chilton, Phot. page 44. 



JACOBEAN LEAD RAIN WATER H 
ASHTON COURT. 



EAD, 



Guy Chilton, Phot. page 
SHIELD OF ARMS, ASHTON COURT. 



Guy Chilton, Phot. 

MANOR HOUSE, COLD ASHTON. 



Guy Chilton, Phot. page 50. 

GATEWAY, COLD ASHTON MANOR HOUSE. 



PAGE 51. 

PULPIT, COLD ASHTON CHURCH. 




m, mot. 

CULVER HOUSE AND BARN, MARSHFIELD, 



Chilton, Phot. 

THE PORCH, HAMS WELL HOUSE. 




PAGE 58. 



KIP'S VIEW OF WYCK COURT, C. 1700. 

From a block lent by the Editor of Meehan's "More Famous Houses of Bath 
and District," 1906. 




Guy Chilton, Phot. page 59. 

WICK COURT, SOUTH FRONT. 



PROCEEDINGS 
At the Annual Summer Meeting 
At Bristol, 

Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday, July 17th, 18th and 19th, 

1906. 



The three days opened with a business meeting at the 
new Council Chamber, where the Lord Mayor and the 
High Sheriff welcomed the visitors. At that meeting the 
new president (the Rev. C. S. Taylor) was installed and 
gave his address. In the afternoon there was an itinerary 
•of the centre of the city, and in the evening a conversazione 
at the Royal Hotel. 

Bishop Mitchinson, the retiring president, took the chair 
at the business meeting, and there were also present the 
Lord Mayor, the High Sheriff, the Rev. C. S. Taylor, M.A., 
F.S.A., Vicar of Banwell (president-elect), Canon Bazeley 
hon. general secretary), Mr. John E. Pritchard (hon. secretary 
for Bristol), Mr. G. M. Currie (hon. treasurer), Mr. F. F. 
Fox (president of council), and a large number of members 
and friends, including many ladies. 

The Lord Mayor, in welcoming the party, said the 
Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society kept 
watch over the antiquities and historical buildings of the two 
counties, and used its influence to preserve them. It was 
founded at Bristol in 1876, and the first summer meeting in 
Bristol was held in 1878; the president, Mr. Christopher J. 
Thomas. The second Bristol meeting was in 1890; the 

3 

Vol. XXIX. 



i8 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



president, Dr. Beddoe. The president this year was the 
Rev. Charles S. Taylor, brother of Bristol's Town Clerk. 
The membership over the two counties was over 550, and 
included not only the Bishop of Bristol, the Bishop of 
Clifton, and the Bishop of Gloucester, but two ex-Cabinet 
Ministers— Viscount St. Aldwyn and the Right Hon. Walter 
Long. The Society had published twenty-nine volumes of 
Transactions, which were considered to be of much value. It 
gave him great pleasure to welcome the Society to Bristol, and 
to say that he hoped their visit would be a very interesting 
one, and that their meeting would be very successful. He 
had heard that in the past, some years ago, they used to call 
the Society the " Larkseological Society," and he could) 
understand that the study of antiquity brought a certain 
amount of pleasure and interest to those who took part in it,, 
and he could understand that those meetings were from time 
to time very enjoyable. He was told that not only had the 
interest of the Society been studied in the meetings, but 
sometimes one or two very happy unions had been brought 
about by the associations of the meetings. One he could 
recall which proved a very happy union. He hoped in their 
deliberations and discussions at that meeting they would 
have a very prosperous and happy time. He heartily 
welcomed them. 

The High Sheriff (Mr. H. L. Riseley) endorsed all that 
had been said by the Lord Mayor. He reminded them that 
Bristol was a most delightful centre, and he hoped they 
would have a pleasant time in the city. 

Bishop Mitchinson (the out-going President) then took 
the chair. He said on behalf of all of them who were present 
to enjoy antiquarian researches in and around Bristol, he had 
to thank the Lord Mayor first and foremost for the kind 
words he had said and the interest taken in their proceedings. 
He had also to ask his Lordship to convey, on such an occa- 
sion as he might think best, their thanks to the members of 
their Corporation for giving them the run of their interesting 
civic building. The Lord Mayor had wished them a happy 



Report of the Council, 



19 



and prosperous time there. Personally, he would have liked 
to remain, but he was tied by the leg elsewhere; he was 
sure from the programme the Lord Mayor's wish would be 
realised. He hoped the fine weather they were looking 
forward to experience would prevail during the next few 
days during their not altogether useless and exceedingly 
enjoyable researches. 

Canon Bazeley (the Hon. General Secretary) read the 
report of the Council as follows : — 

The Council of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society 
present the following report for the year ended July 17th, 1906 : — 

There are at present 556 members on the Society's list. The 
income of the Society for the year ended December 31st, 1905, including 
a balance of £155 us. 5d. (£55 us. 5d. in the treasurer's hands and 
^"100 on deposit at the Society's bankers) on January 1st, 1905, was 
^517 19s, 6d., and the expenditure ^451 2s. 3d., leaving a balance 
on December 31st, 1905, of £166 17s. 3d. {£66 17s. 3d. in the treasurer's 
hands and £100 on deposit). From this balance should be deducted the 
cost of the Society's Transactions for 1905, the first part of which is in 
the members' hands, and the second part is nearly ready for issue. 
Besides this balance, the Society has a funded capital of £832 3s. 8d. 
Consols, worth at the present price about ^720. 

The Transactions are only issued to members who have paid their 
subscriptions for the respective year. A new list of the members will 
be issued with the second part of volume xxviii., and the secretary will 
be obliged if any necessary corrections of addresses, Sec, are sent to 
him at once. 

The Society has held two General Meetings since the presentation 
of the last report— at Cheltenham, under the presidency of Bishop 
Mitchinson, on July nth, 12th, and 13th, 1905, and at Chepstow on May 
29th, 1906. The proceedings at Cheltenham are duly chronicled in 
volume xxviii., and an account of the excursion to St. Briavels and 
Tintern from Chepstow will appear in volume xxix. 

The Council would take this opportunity of expressing appreciation 
of the careful manner in which the work of preserving the ruins of 
Tintern Abbey is being carried out by Mr. Waller and Mr, Philip Baylis, 
both of them distinguished members of this Society. 

Very valuable additions have been made to the Society's library at the 
Literary Club, Bristol. The Council desires to thank the following 
ladies and gentlemen for their donations :— First and foremost, Mr. F. F. 
Tuckett, a Vice-President of this Society, for his generous gift of 160 



2o t Transactions for the Year 1906. 



volumes, including the Archceological Journal and the Proceedings of the 
Somerset and Wilts Archaeological Societies; then Sir Charles D. Cave, 
Bart., Mrs. Thompson, the Misses Alice Pavey and I. M. Roper, the Rev. 
C. S. Taylor Dr. A. Harvey, and Messrs. J. W. Arrowsmith, C. E. 
Boucher, H. Bolton, J. B. C. Burroughs, G. E. Blood, C. H. Cave, R. H. 
Carpenter, J. Fuller Eb^rle, H. L. Evans, F. F. Fox, Claude B. Fry, 
C. W. George, H. M. Herepath, J. H. Howell, E. T. Morgan, W. S. 
Moxley, A W. Page, John E. Pritchard, J. J. Simpson, E. J. Swann, J. 
Hudson Smith (deceased), R. C. Tombs, E. J. Watson, C Wells, F. Were, 
R. Hall Warren, H. M. Worsley, T. W. Williams, C. Wintle, and H. P. 
Thurston; and F. A. W. T. Armstrong for a drawing. 

The Council has great pleasure in announcing that the List of 
'Gloucestershire Church Plate, which has been edited for the Society by 
the Rev. J. T. Evans, Rector of Stow-on-the-Wold, is now in type, and 
consists of 260 pages of letterpress. There will be twenty-three illustra- 
tions, sixteen of which will be executed by Messrs. Kell and Sons, of 
Covent Garden. The List, when ready, will be sent free of charge, 
according to promise, to all present members who subscribed for the 
years 1894-5 and 1895-6. Other members may still subscribe for copies 
{15s. each). Those who have not received copies of the prospectus may 
obtain them from the General Secretary. 

The reports of Gloucestershire monumental effigies, which from time 
to time have appeared in the Society's Transactions, are drawing near 
completion, thanks not a little to the energetic labours of Miss I. M. 
Roper, who, having described all the Bristol examples, is now preparing a 
report on those which exist in the Dursley and Tewkesbury Deaneries. 
The Gloucester Cathedral effigies have been described by Canon and 
Miss Bazeley in vol. xxvii., and those found in the deaneries of Stonehouse 
and Stow-on-the-Wold by Miss Winifred Smith and Miss F. J. B. Witts 
respectively in vol. xxviii. It is hoped at some future time these reports 
will form the groundwork of a richly-illustrated work on the monumental 
effigies of Bristol and Gloucestershire. 

The Council report of 1905 called attention to the unsafe condition 
-of the Roman villa at Great Witcombe and the Uley long barrow, known 
as Hetty Peglar's Tump. Thanks to the care of the owner, W. Hicks- 
Beach, Esq., the beautiful Witcombe tessellated pavements have been 
rendered more secure from injury, and the Board of Works, under the 
direction of their courteous and painstaking secretary, Mr. Fitzgerald, 
have repaired the fences and entrance of the Uley barrow. But for the 
regretted illness and death of Mr. W. Phelps, of Chestal, Dursley, the 
roof of a burial chamber which has fallen in would have been replaced, 
and some researches would have been made at the west end of the 
tumulus. 



Report of the Council. 



21 



Very successful local meetings were held during the winter at Bristol 
and Gloucester, under the direction of Mr. John E. Pritchard and 
Mr. H. T. Bruton respectively. These meetings awaken a good deal 
of interest in the work of the Society, and produce some material for 

the Transactions. 

The Society now possess a collection of magic-lantern slides at the 
library, Eastgate, Gloucester, and the Council desires that frequent use 
may be made of them, not only in the principal centres of the Society's 
work, but also in the remoter villages and hamlets. 

The Council is considering how best the work of transcribing and 
printing the Worcester Episcopal Registers, as far as they relate to 
Gloucestershire, may be accelerated ; and gratefully acknowledging what 
has been done in this direction by the Worcestershire Historical Society, 
they desire to co-operate with them, and also with the Birmingham and 
Midland Institute. 

The Council regret the loss by death of Mr. Le Blanc, a vice-president 
of the Society. This gentleman, who lived to an advanced age and to 
the last retained much of his earlier physical and mental power, was on 
many occasions of great service to this Society. Moreover, his invariable 
courtesy also won for him a hearty welcome at the meetings. 

The Council have great pleasure in congratulating two of the members 
of this Society on the honours paid them most deservedly by the King. 
Sir Michael Hicks-Beach, Bart., of whom Bristol and Gloucestershire will 
always be proud as being one of the foremost statesmen and financiers 
of the present age, has been created Viscount St. Aldwyn, and Lord 
Hawkesbury, who is closely connected with one of our Gloucestershire 
families and parishes, has regained his grandfather's earldom of Liverpool, 
and His Majesty has conferred on him the post of Lord Steward, the 
highest in the royal household. 

The Council has held five meetings during the year, three at Gloucester 
and two at Bristol, and they desire to express their obligations to the 
Lord Mayor of Bristol for the use of the old Council Chamber. 

The Council desire to nominate for election as Local Secretary for 
Chepstow the Rev. R. C. Lynch-Blosse, Vicar of Tidenham, and Mr. 
Philip Bay lis as Local Secretary for Coleford and the Forest of Dean. 
They also desire to nominate for re-election the President of the Council, 
the Vice-Presidents of the Society, the General Treasurer, the General 
Secretary, the Secretary for Bristol, and the Local Secretaries. 

The following members of the Council retire by rotation, but are 
eligible for re-election: The Rev. W. E. Blathwayt, and Messrs. T. Dyer 
Edwardes, E. C. Gael, James Baker, C. Bathurst, E. S. Hartland,. 
J. J. Simpson, and A. J. Morton-Ball. 



2 2 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



Mr. J. McMurtrie moved that the report of the Council 
be received and adopted. Whether they looked at the 
report from the number of members, the state of finance 
during the current year, or the deposits to their credit, or 
the records of work done in the year — one of a long series 
of years during which the Society had done good work in 
both counties — the report was a good one. 

Mr. F. J. Cullis seconded the resolution, and it was 
adopted. 

After the President had proposed the members of 
Council, 

Canon Bazeley proposed a vote of thanks to the Lord 
Mayor, which he said he did all the more readily because he 
had received many proofs of kindness from the Lord Mayor 
and the Corporation and the Town Clerk. 

Mr. J. E. Pritchard seconded the resolution, which was 
heartily carried. 

The Lord Mayor, in responding, said it was a very happy 
thing in an old city like Bristol to study some of the buildings 
and associations, and it must be very agreeable work on their 
part to carry out their arrangements. 

Mr. F. F. Fox proposed a vote of thanks to Bishop 
Mitchinson. 

Dr. A. Harvey seconded the resolution, which was carried. 

The President, in vacating the chair, said he had to 
introduce to them as his successor a man who had some 
business in the chair. Most of them who had had the 
honour to preside were amateurs, dilettanti, and no doubt 
they enjoyed their association with the members, but so far 
from actually imparting to the members anything worth 
imparting, they painfully recognised they could do little. It 
was a great step to put a man in the chair who had definite 
views of what he knew something. 

The Rev. C. S. Taylor, the new President, was received 
with renewed applause. He felt that his election was a real 
and thorough reward for anything he had been able to do for 
the Society. He was perfectly well aware that there were 



Bristol Meeting. 



23 



mien with greater claims, but that made the honour all the 
greater, and his thanks all the more heartfelt. He proceeded 
with his address on the dissolution of the religious houses in 
Bristol, which is printed in this part of the Transactions. 

Mr. T. S. Bush proposed, and Mr. F. F. Tuckett 
seconded, a vote of thanks to the President for his address, 
saying that the Society had felt a growing debt of gratitude 
to Mr. Taylor for his able editorship of the Transactions. 

The President then announced that the Master of the 
Society of Merchant Venturers was entertaining the members 
of the Council to luncheon. The High Sheriff had most 
kindly offered one hundred invitations to his official garden 
party, which the Council had been obliged with regret to 
■decline on account of the business before the meeting. 

The vote was carried and acknowledged. 

Canon Bazeley announced that for some time they had 
hoped the excavations at Hayles Abbey would be continued, 
and now Mr. Andrews, of Toddington, the owner of the 
property, had invited the Society to continue the work, and 
he would pay the expenses. 

The members of Council then proceeded to the Merchants' Hall, where 
they were entertained at luncheon in accordance with the usual custom of 
that ancient, wealthy and hospitable Society. 

Mr. Were gives the following account of the Arms of the Society of 
Merchant Venturers :—" In the vestibule to the Hall the Society kindly 
exhibited their framed Grant of Arms, and as I hear the counterpart is not 
at the Heralds' College it is very valuable. It was granted by Robert 
Cooke alias Clarencieulx Roy D'armes in 1569. It is correctly printed in 
Mr. Latimer's book, pp. 51-2, and is accompanied with a gorgeous plate 
so nearly right that it seems a pity to have to say that it is not drawn 
according to the blazon of the Grant, which says that the lion is passant, 
not guardant ; the only place in which I can find it properly drawn is in 
Barrett, p. 182, but he has spoilt the rest of the coat by making the barry 
wavy anything but of eight pieces as in the Grant. I am really afraid that 
Edmondson, who printed so many false coats, must be blamed for it, as I 
cannot find any earlier blazon with the ' guardant ' added ; he also blazons 
the dragon passant, whereas Cooke says volant, and he adds, the mast has 
a pennon flying argent charged with a cross gules, about which Cooke 
says nothing, and if there is no other blazon variation Mr. Latimer's plate 



i 



24 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

differs from that. Again, Edmondson says of the crest : ' A man in armour- 
proper on his dexter arm a truncheon, his sinister hand supporting a carved 
shield of the second, i.e. argent,' whereas Cooke says, ' A man in maile in 
proper coollor, in his right hande a targe, and in the lefte hande a dart or.' 
Mr. Latimer's plate gives this right, but surely the warrior should have 
on his head a morion, not only a mass of bushy hair. Edmondson says 
six pikestaves, three on each side, and the rigging sable ; the plate gives 
four pikestaves and rigging or ; both of these may be implied in the term 
'armed,' used by Cooke, but do not come into the Grant; but the chief 
change since Cooke's time is the addition of the ducal or crest coronet, 
about which the Grant says plainly there is none : ' Upon the heaulme on 
a wreath golde and asur. the toppe of a ship.' All these items prove that 
dabblers have been at work, and I cannot help feeling that when this 
happened, such an achievement so contrary to the Grant, as that which 
now appears on the 'margent,' supplanted the original. I have good 
cause for thinking that the Society will soon be supplied with a shield 
properly painted according to the original Grant." 

After luncheon the members set out on a perambulation of the city, 
their visit including several interesting places which before long will 
cease to exist. 

The old Assembly Rooms, Prince Street, were first visited, and the 
President explained that from the time of George II. down to within 
living memory it was the city's place of amusement, just as the Victoria 
Rooms and the Colston Hall were at the present time. The Assembly 
Rooms belonged to the Corporation, but they had been let on lease to the 
Great Western Railway Company, who had obtained a new lease of the 
premises, and they would shortly come down. 

Dr. Alfred Harvey gave an interesting account of the rooms. He 
said : — At this third meeting of the Society in Bristol it has been thought 
wise to pass by the greater monuments of antiquity, which are well known 
to every member, and to devote our attention to some less important but 
less known works, and especially to those whose imminent removal or 
destruction makes it likely that this is the last opportunity the Society will 
have of viewing them. The room we are now in belongs to both these 
categories. The importance of the assembly in the social life of the 
eighteenth century can be scarcely overrated, as is manifested by the 
frequent allusions in the memoirs and letters of the period, and par- 
ticularly by such documents as the novels of Jane Austen and others. It 
provided opportunities for the frequent meeting of the citizens with a 
dignified formality which was wanting elsewhere, and formed a meeting- 
place for the younger members of their families, where acquaintances 
could be made and acquaintance ripen into friendship, whose place has 
been scarcely filled by the agencies of the present day, and to both old 



Bristol Meeting. 



25 



and young it gave an urbanity, a polish of manner, artificial no doubt, but 
none the less desirable. 

This room was opened in 1752, and assemblies had been previously 
held at the Merchant Taylors' Hall, and for a short time at the fine hall of 
the Coopers' Company, winch we shall pass presently. The subscription 
was two guineas, and assemblies were held fortnightly through the winter. 
Dancing began at 6.30 and ended at 11. Till 8 the stately minuet was 
danced and afterwards country dances, which then filled the place now 
occupied by the waltz. At the end of the season the surplus funds were 
devoted to a cotillion ball. For non-dancers there were cards in the 
drawing-room, and simple refreshments were to be obtained in the coffee- 
room. A similar subscription of two guineas provided a series of concerts, 
which were held in the alternate weeks with the assemblies. 

During the first half of the last century, when assemblies had gone out 
of fashion, the rooms were used for concerts, lectures and panoramas, 
until the Victoria Rooms took their place, when this building passed into 
the hands of the Great Western Railway Company. 

I should like to call your attention to the fine proportions of the room, 
to the meritorious character of the rich plaster-work decorations, and 
especially to the external front-a very charming example of the street 
architecture of the period-to the last bearing aloft its motto, '■ Curas. 
Cithara Tol'.it." 

The next place to be visited was the old mansion of the Langton family 
Welsh Back, Mrs. Franklyn, the owner, having kindly given permission. 
In passing through Old King Street short halts were made to take a look 
at the Seamen's Almshouses, the old City Library, and the Llandoger 
Tavern At the old mansion on the Welsh Back the party were received 
by Mr Ruding Davey, of the firm of Messrs. Franklyn, Morgan and 
Davey who formerly used the premises for their tobacco manufactory, 
but have now removed the business to a fine site at Ashton Gate. 

Mr J E Pritchard acted as guide, and gave an interesting 
address on the various objects of interest. He said the place they were 
assembled in had long been known as the "Langton" Mansion. It was 
evidently erected by one John Langton in the twentieth year of the reign 
of Tames L, and the date 1623 might still be seen in two places in the 
interior Very little was known of the family when that name first 
appeared in Bristol history, but the builder of the house was evidently 
a wealthy burgher-one who would be styled in our degenerate age as a 
» merchant prince." John Langton appeared to have been mayor in 1028, 
his son one of the sheriffs in 1634; and Thomas, grandson of the builder, 
was an apprentice to William Cann, another rich citizen, and eventually 
married his master's daughter, adding wealth to wealth. The said 
Thomas became Master of the Merchant Venturers in 1664, and was 



26 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



knighted by the king about the same time. As " Sir Thomas " he served 
the city as mayor in 1666, but died in 1673, being buried in the adjoining 
St. Nicholas 1 Church. His bequests included a legacy of twenty shillings 
per annum for a service to be preached on Good Friday for ever, which was 
still doubtless enjoyed by the member of that society who now held the 
hving. The mansion was probably occupied by the Langton family for 
many years, but in 1732 it was inhabited by another chief magistrate, by 
name Arthur Taylor, a distiller. In 1779 it was the residence of John 
Davies, tobacconist. About 1816, however, Messrs. Franklyn, Humphries, 
and Co. had become possessed of the property, and, as tobacco manu- 
facturers, they had carried on business there ever since, though a fire in 
1 817 might have burned the house down. As it was, the lead roof had to 
be taken away, being so badly damaged. The merchants of Bristol in the 
Elizabethan era appeared to have done two things well— they attended to 
their business, and when they had amassed wealth they built fine houses 
of many stories, never being ashamed to live over their warehouse or 
shop. They must have acquired, too, a considerable taste for architecture, 
judging by the charming interiors of their mansions ; and there were 
several of these existing at the present time, showing wonderful propor- 
tions and of exquisite designs, that being one. The state-room upstairs 
was certainly the handsomest room in Bristol, and showed the Renaissance 
style to perfection. To reach it they had to climb a wonderfully-carved 
staircase, an item of expense in building which many a present-day 
millionaire would shrink from. They would remember that staircase 
when they were at Chelvey the next day, where the example was much 
wider, but far less ornate. Though the house had been altered very 
considerably from its original condition, he hoped, with the aid of 
Mr. Moline's marvellous photographs, to give a short account of what 
remained in an early volume of the Transactions. ' The room at the back 
was then visited, and Mr. Pritchard explained that that room was an 
important apartment, judging by the remains of oak panelling, with its 
delightful interlacing scroll-pattern frieze, and the handsome oval in the 
ceiling, which evidently had four masked heads intersecting the heavy 
leaf-pattern border. The great staircase, which comprises forty-two steps 
and has five turns, was then mounted, and it was remarked that there 
were actually fifty-one heavy balusters carved on both sides with fruit- 
pattern ornamentation, and the three lower newals carry carved ornamental 
heads, but these may be later additions. The room over the state-room 
was inspected, and Mr. Pritchard pointed out the original oak panelling, 
which is dark with age, some of the frieze being of the same design as 
that in the basement, intersected with wheel-pattern ornaments, and the 
remainder is composed of long and short carved panels. There is a 
typical stone chimney-piece in this compartment of late Elizabethan 



Bristol Meeting. 



27 



•design, surmounted by an oak overmantel, dated 1623- The party 
descended to the apartment on the first floor, which has lately been used 
as an office. Here, again, another carved stone chimney-piece, surmounted 
by a magnificent oak overmantel, in three divisions, with column supports, 
was seen The left panel, it was noticed, bears the builder's initials, IX. , 
and the date 1623; the centre panel contains a ship in full sad, and the 
one to the right the merchant's mark, I.L., in cypher. The last place 
visited was the state-room, which is a wonderful combination, the superb 
chimney-piece being unequalled in the city. Mr. Pntchard pointed on 
that the panelling is of oak, surmounted by a beautiful frieze of 
Renaissance scroll work, with shields of arms and merchants marks 
intersecting alternately. The ceiling is of parget work, and ,s particularly 
rich in design. The door and doorway excited admiration, for they comprise 
the finest workmanship in Spanish mahogany and inlay. Mr. Pntchard, 
after describing the room, said he must come .0 the dark side of the 
story for it was just possible that some of the members present might 
not have heard that all the ancient work in that place was to be shortly 
removed from Bristol and re-erected in a modern Jacobean house m 
Hampshire, where the owner (Mrs. Franklyn) hoped all that was fine 
would find its full and worthy setting. He (the speaker) was inclined 
to think that if the city of Bristol had planned an architectural court 
in association with its Art Gallery for the reception of such remains as 
those, that decision might not have matured. He had on severa occasion 
spoken of the totally inadequate accommodation provided for Bristol 
exhibits at that institution, and he must again repeat the same opinion. 
Bristol had always been considered rich in relics of the past and she 
still possessed very many, but he was constantly hearing of historic 
objects which ought to be secured for the city collection at any cost being 
purchased and taken away. And whereas other corporations were doing 
their utmost to retain their historical associations, we unfortunately were 
content to let them slip. 

Mr F Were has very kindly given the following account of the 
Langton House heraldry On staircase frieze, nntinctured, • Quarterly 
sable and or a bend argent/ Lanoton, impaling, nntinctured, Gules 
-three chamber-pieces (i.e. guns, a canting coat), fessways m pale argent 
Gunning, as at Cold Ashton. I can find no pedigree to prove the 
marriage; but John Gunning, or Conning in Latimer's Merchant Venturers 
Is. Barrett (p. 68 9 ) says, Mayor of Bristol tcz 7 , and Johr 1 Langton t^ 
Over chimney-piece, first shield, nntinctured, Lanoton as before Second 
shield, nntinctured, really ■ Azure on waves of the sea W <^££ 
in this case more like barry wavy of ten argent and azure and w th the 
full blazon a dolphin's head in the water), a fnll-rigged shir > fto. 
masts or, sails argent (full blazon, with a cross gules on each, dexter .vays, 



28 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



m dexter chief the sun in splendour, and should be in sinister an estoile, 
but it was another sun, all of the third ; on a chief of the fourth (simply a 
party quarterly line) a cross gules charged with a lion of England ,' 
Company of Spanish Merchants. Crest: Two arms embowed, issuing 
out of clouds proper, holding m the hands a globe or. On third shield, 
Langton's mark. Over door in parlour : Quarterly, 1 and 4, Langton as 
before, untinctured. 2> 'Pretty, on a canton a cross moline." This is 
Mumby, and should be ' Or fretty azure on a canton gules a cross moline 
of the first.' Maddison's Lincolnshire Pedigrees, ii. 581 : 'John Langton, of 
Langton, married . . . daughter and coheir of . . . Mumby.' 3 , 'Four 
martlets.' 'Sable four martlets 2 and 2 argent,' Mewter. The same 
reference. 'John Langton, of Langton, married Katherine, daughter and 
coheir of John Mewter, of Saltflethaven ; he was great-great-great- 
grandson of the last pair. On esquire's helmet on wreath the crest, 
untinctured : Eagle or and wivern vert their necks entwined reguardant.' 
On inlaid door : Langton coat cut out leaving the crest in ivory above and 
a metal shield let in bearing ' Argent on a bend azure three dolphins 
haurient of the field,' and in chief on a wreath the crest: Dolphin 
embowed proper finned gules pierced through the sides with two spears in 
saltire or tied at the top. This is the Franklyn coat and crest, and the 
door bore the date 1628 and initials J. L. Over chimney-piece: The 
achievement of James I. It is worth while to see how heraldry is treated 
m St. Nicholas' crypt by the modern artist's seascape of the coat of the 
Spanish merchants." 

It was explained by Mr. Pritchard that Mrs. Franklyn, in referring to 
the old work having been badly treated, was alluding to the condition of 
the building before Messrs. Franklyn, Davey and Co. carried on their 
business. 

The President said there should be some place in the city where relics 
of antiquity, such as the door, fireplace and ceiling of the state-room in 
those premises, might be deposited for preservation. It need not require 
great cost. No state-room such as that had been erected in Bristol within 
living memory. He proposed a resolution : " That it is the opinion of this 
meeting, assembled in the guest-room of the Langton Mansion, which is 
shortly to be removed from Bristol, that urgent measures should be taken 
for the preservation of the remaining specimens of domestic achitecture in 
Bristol." 

Mr. F . F. Fox seconded the resolution. He thought such remains as 
they had there might be housed in the new Reference Library. The ceiling 
would be difficult to take down whole, but copies could have been made. 

The resolution was carried, and also a recommendation that it be sent 
to the Council and the Bristol Society of Architects. 

A vote of thanks was accorded to Mr. Ruding Davey who in 



i 



Page 

COURT ROOM, St. PETER'S HOSPITAL. 



Bristol Meeting. 



29 



responding, said that the firm had vacated the old place, but were now in 
better surroundings than they had been there. As respected the old 
building, for a great many years it was their pride and endeavour to keep 
everything as it had been formerly. The building was not mutilated by 
the hands of the firm. 

On their way to St. Peter's Hospital, the party looked in at the crypt 
of St. Nicholas' Church. 

Tea was provided in the large downstairs room at St. Peter's Hospital, 
and afterwards Mr. J. J. Simpson, Clerk to the Guardians, who is an 
efficient archaeologist, read a paper on the fine old structure. He said :— 
Examples of the houses of the wealthier middle-class citizens of the 
fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries are now few in our ancient 
cities, and this picturesque gabled mansion is generally admitted to be 
one of the most extensive, characteristic, and interesting examples 
remaining of these fast-vanishing relics. Near at hand in Mary-le-Port 
Street and elsewhere there existed until quite recently several specimens 
of the overhanging pentices, gables, and dormers of the street frontages 
of olden time, but none of so elaborate a kind as here seen, whilst 
within there is this handsome Jacobean apartment with its carved fire- 
place and richly-ornamented ceiling. 

The earliest ascertained owner of the house, or an earlier one on the 
same site, was John Corne, who in 1401 disposed of it to Thomas Norton, 
who had come into a great fortune through Elias Spelly, Mayor of Bristol 
in 1390-1. Thomas Norton was himself Mayor of Bristol in 1413. In 
1435 the mansion passed into the hands of Norton's two sDns, Thomas 
and Walter, who divided it into two dwellings, Thomas residing in the 
eastern and Walter in the western portion of the building. The whole 
came into the possession and occupancy of Walter Norton in 1458. 
Walter Norton had two sons, both named Thomas, and two daughters, 
married to wealthy Bristolians -Robert Strange (thrice mayor) and John 
Shipward, jun. (mayor 1477-8)- One of the sons was notorious in 1479 
for his hostility to the mayor, William Spencer, against whom he alleged 
high treason to the king (Edward IV.), a long and interesting account of 
which appears as a "Remembrance," compiled by John Twynho, then 
recorder, in the Great Red Book of the city. The late Mr. John Latimer 
contributed an interesting paper on these curious incidents to the Society's 
Transactions, vol. xxii., pp. 272-85. The mansion remained in the occu- 
pation of successive generations of the Norton family until 1580, when 
Sir George Norton, the then owner, and also owner of the mansion of 
Abbot's Leigh, sold it to Henry Newton, afterwards Sir Henry Newton, 
of Barr's Court. The next known owner was Robert Chambers (1602), 
who sold it in 1607 to Robert Aldworth, a wealthy merchant, whose 
initials are to be seen on the river front with the date 1612. At the 



3° 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



latter date this gentleman made considerable alterations and additions,, 
practically rebuilding the house in the style of the period, for in a later 
deed it is described as having been "by the said Robert Aldworth erected 
and new built." In September, 1612, the Corporation granted him, at a 
fee-farm rent of £3, the fee of another house in the same parish of 
St. Peter, and it is possible that this acquisition forms the earlier portion 
of the building, which the alderman left unaltered. At any rate, this 
eastern frontage in the churchyard is of much earlier date, and there is 
little doubt that it formed part of the original edifice of the Nortons. 

The open timbered Gothic roof over the Jacobean plastered ceiling in 
the court-room is also of this earlier date, and was probably the canopy 
of the great hall of the mansion before the reconstruction of 1612, and 
extended from the back to the front of the building. 

The street frontage, with its bold spurs and brackets which sustain 
the successive stories, the carved fillets between the stages, the grotesque 
woodwork, panels, bay-windows, and gables form part of the reconstruc- 
tion effected in 1612 by Aldworth. So is the court-room, the chief feature 
of interest remaining in the house, a beautiful Jacobean sitting-room 
of Aldworth's time, with its panelling of oak and its sumptuously- 
executed plaster-work ceiling, constructed in square, diamond, and 
quatrefcil compartments in bold relief, with floral ornaments, emblematical 
devices, and winged figures, fringed with a deep cornice. The window 
some time ago replaced a former one which had bold stone mullions. 
The adjoining apartment is similar in character, but less elaborate, and 
there are some quaint sculptured figures in the porch of the river front 
near the monogram and date (1612) before referred to. Practically all 
other portions of the building are of modern reconstruction. 

Briefly pursuing the history of the building from Aldworth's time 
(and, by the way, there is a fine tomb in the adjoining church to the 
memory of Aldworth, who died in 1634), we find it in possession of 
Aldworth's relative, Eldridge, and successively inhabited by various 
families until it became appropriated to trade purposes about the middle 
of the seventeenth century. It was first used as a sugar-house, and it is 
supposed that this was the place in Bristol visited by Evelyn, who in 1654 
wrote : " Here I first saw the method of refining sugar and casting it into 
loaves." Then in 1696, on the Government determining to supplement the 
coinage at the Tower by the establishment of branch mints in some 
leading provincial towns, the civic authorities pressed the claims of 
Bristol, and being informed that provision of a suitable house must first 
be made at the cost of the citizens, it is recorded that the City Corporation 
appointed a committee "to make a bargain with Sir Thomas Day for the 
Sugar House, and the House will find the way of paying the rent." 
The sugar house referred to was this building, and it was occupied as 



Bristol Meeting. 



3i 



a mint from 1696 to 169S. In the British Museum is a unique placard, 
issued by the mayor and aldermen in August, 1696, giving notice that the 
Government had sent down for the benefit of the city one thousandweight 
of silver, valued at upwards of £3,000, to be coined at the new mint, 
and requesting the inhabitants to farther the operations by furnishing 
old plate for which a reward of 6d. per ounce would be paid m addition 
to the standard value of 5 s. 2d. Holders of old hammered money were 
also promised a premium on the amount they sent in. How largely the 
invitation was responded to is attested by the fact that within sixteen 
months the Bristol Mint dealt with nearly 2,000,000 ounces of silver, 
which were converted into £473, 728 in coin. 

Finally in 1698 the old house passed into the hands of its present 
owners, then known as the Corporation of the Poor. This body was 
established under a special Act of Parliament in 1696, and was the first 
Board of Guardians formed in England. Time will not admit of any 
reference to the curious functions assumed or exercised by this seventeenth- 
century authority, though there is much to interest those who find pleasure 
in studying the town life of the period. Finding in 1697 their workhouse 
inadequate, the Corporation of the Poor appointed a committee to select 
some other building, and this committee reported in December that they 
found " none so fit or convenient for the purpose as the Mint." Negotia- 
tions were opened, and in 1698 it was purchased for £800, and thereupon 
converted into a workhouse for the poor. The beautiful Jacobean sitting- 
room erected by Aldworth was fitted up by the Guardians as a chamber 
or court-room for their meetings, and was used continuously from October, 
1698, to December, 1901, for this purpose. 

The entire premises are now occup.ed for administrative purposes only 
by the Guardians, who on quitting the court-room in 1901 for the new 
Board-room in the south-western portion of the building preserved the 
historic apartment intact. 

Mr F C Tyack thanked the members for paying them a visit, and 
the President expressed the pleasure their visit had given to the 
members. 

After quitting St. Peter's Hospital, the party traversed Mary-le-Port 
Street and inspected the old gabled houses. They also viewed All 
Saints' Church, now under repair, it being described by Mr. G. H. 
Oatley. This point terminated a most interesting street ramb le m 
which Mr. ]. E. Pritchard (the Honorary Secretary for Bristol) had 
acted as guide in the most efficient manner. 

In the evening the spacious room at the farther end of the central 
hall at the Royal Hotel, College Green, was metamorphosed, so that .t 
appeared as a most captivating local exhibition. It would not be saytng 
more than the fact warranted to state that no such comprehensive collec- 



32 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



tion of old Bristol plans, Bristol coins, and miscellaneous antiquities had 
been submitted to inspection upon any previous occasion. To Mr. J. E. 
Pritchard, who was instrumental in obtaining the loan of the different 
objects, must be awarded high praise for the efficient manner in which 
he carried out the work of making so comprehensive an assortment. Miss 
Roper, who assisted him, likewise deserves to have her efforts recognised. 
The old plans of Bristol were truly noteworthy, and included all, or nearly 
all, from Ricart's in 1479 to modern plans by Ashmead, Donne, Evans, and 
Mathews. Time-honoured maps of Gloucestershire were also displayed. 
The catalogue is printed at the end of the account of the meeting. 

Amongst those who accepted invitations to the conversazione were the 
following : — The Lord Mayor (Mr. A. J. Smith) and the Lady Mayoress, 
the High Sheriff and Miss Riseley, the Bishop of Bristol, the Bishop of 
Clifton, the Master of the Society of Merchant Venturers, Judge Austin 
and Mrs. Austin, the Archdeacon of North Wilts and Mrs. Robeson, 
Canon and Mrs. Barnett, Canon Tetley, Bishop Marsden, Canon Wallace, 
and a large number of members of the Society and their friends. 

The "Strad" Band, under the direction of Mr. Charles W. Webb, 
was in attendance, and played an interesting programme. 

It seemed a pity that such a particularly fine collection of exhibits 
should remain on view for such a short period ; but there was no possi- 
bility of arranging for a longer time, and the next morning they were 
packed up for return to their owners. 

The President, during the course of the evening, made a short state- 
ment. He drew attention to the Chatterton manuscript which was ex- 
hibited in one of the cases, and said that Mr. W. E. George, the owner, 
had very kindly undertaken to give it to be added to the Chatterton relics 
at the Art Gallery. He thought that was a proof, if proof were needed, of 
the value of small collections of that kind towards improving their city 
•exhibitions. The manuscript had been held in the possession of the 
George and Swann families ever since the time of Chatterton. It came 
through the hands of the poet's sister, who was governess in the family of 
Mr. Philip George, and he was sure the city authorities would be very 
■grateful to Mr. W. E. George for the gift, and the members would feel 
glad that that Society had been the means of enriching the city collection. 
By the side of the manuscript was a little Prayer Book, which was given 
by the poet's sister, Sarah Chatterton, to her daughter, Mary Newton. 
That belonged now to Mr. J. E. Pritchard, who wished also to give it to 
the Chatterton Collection at the Art Gallery. These two very interesting 
gifts of really considerable value were given to the city through their 
Society, so that they might claim that their meeting there had done some 
good. 

Punctually at nine o'clock on Wednesday morning the party, about 



Bristol Meeting. 



33 



-ninety in number, left the Royal Hotel in College Green for an excursion 
in North Somerset. The district was a very suitable one for a visit, 
because it was in early days very closely connected with Bristol, for 
almost every parish through which we passed belonged at the date of 
Domesday to Geoffrey, Bishop of Coutances, Constable of Bristol Castle. 
It probably came to him in 1067, for in that year Harold's sons came 
from Ireland, and, landing by the mouth of the Avon, plundered the 
neighbourhood and attacked Bristol. Being defeated in this attempt, 
they went up into Somerset, but were defeated by Eadnoth the Staller, 
who lost his life in the battle, in which we are told many good men fell 
on each side. The Bishop's lands in this district probably represent the 
forfeited estates of thanes who joined the invaders 

After the rebellion of the Bishop's nephew, Robert of Mowbray, in 
1095, the property reverted to the Crown. Much of it was granted to 
Robert Fitzhamon, and descended to the Earls of Gloucester, and a 
good deal afterwards passed to Robert Fitzhardinge and his descendants, 
but there was no large resident landowner in the district till the rise of 
the Ashton Court Estate. 

Leigh was given by Robert Fitzhardinge to St. Augustine's Abbey at 
Bristol ; after the Dissolution it became part of the endowment of the 
Bishopric of Bristol, but was alienated from the See in the reign of 
Edward VI. The rectories of Clevedon and Tickenham were also 
appropriated to St. Augustine's Abbey. 

After crossing the Suspension Bridge we passed along the north side 
of Ashton Park, and then by Failand, with peeps over the vale of Wraxall 
towards Mendip, till, after enjoying the view over the Channel by 
Avonmouth, we descended sharply into the Sea-Marsh by Clapton. This 
place, together with Easton, Weston, and Walton, is still marked by the 
title of in Gordano. The late Bishop Hobhouse considered the meaning 
of this title with the help of transcripts of ancient documents collected 
by Sir Walter Morgan, of Naish House, in 1884.1 The earliest occurrence 
of the term was in the form Weston in Govdenlond in 1271, while in 1327 
Eastone in Gordano is found, giving the exact form which is in use now. 
The title is affixed not only to the four parishes mentioned above, but 
also to Portbury and Portishead. 

It is clear that the term is territorial, implying that the places lie in 
a certain district, that district being, in fact, the marsh which lies between 
the two ridges of mountain limestone which meet at Clevedon. All the 
parishes which lie in this marsh possessed the suffix, which was appended 
to none which lie outside. The Bishop suggested that the name was 
derived from the two old English words gara, a triangular piece (of land), 
and denu, a valley ; and no combination could more fitly describe the 
1 Somerset Archceological Proceedings, xxxix. 61. 

4 

Vol. XXIX. 



34 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



shape of this piece of marsh. We may notice that the settlement in the 
farthest corner is Walton, Weal ton, the place of the Welshmen who were 
driven by the Saxons to this remotest spot. 

Our first halt was at Clapton, which was one of the estates of the 
Honour of Gloucester, and which was held by members of the family of 
Arthur from the time of Stephen till early in the seventeenth century, 
when it passed by marriage to the Winters of Dyrham. 

On leaving Clapton we crossed the marsh to Weston, which, though 
it had belonged to the Bishop of Coutances, passed neither to the Honour 
of Gloucester nor to Robert Fitzhardinge, but probably through the 
Bishop's tenant Ascelin to the Percevals, by whom it was held till early 
in the eighteenth century. 

The two parishes of Walton and Clevedon, through which we passed 
on the way to Clevedon Court, did not belong to the Bishop of Coutances, 
no doubt because they were held by two Danes, Gunni and John, who 
refused to join the sons of Harold in 1067. The Manor of Clevedon 
was held of the Earl of Gloucester in 1166 by William de Clivedon, and 
was owned by his descendants till it was purchased by Sir Abraham 
Elton early in the eighteenth century. 

Soon after leaving Clevedon the road skirted the northern boundary 
of the parish of Kenn, the area of which is small, though its interests are 
various. Its manor house was the home for some centuries of the family 
from which Thomas Ken, Bishop of Bath and Wells, and the author of 
the well-known Morning and Evening Hymns, was descended, and three 
men were hung on Kenn Moor for rick-burning as recently as September 
13th, 1830. 

After leaving Chelvey, we reached the main road from Bristol to 
Weston-super-Mare, with Backwell Church on the hill to the right, and 
Wraxall Church under the woods to the left, and soon after passing the 
little church of Flax Bourton, which contains some good Norman work, 
we entered the parish of Long, or Lyons, Ashton. Nicholas de Lyons is 
named by good authorities as holding the office of Propositus of Bristol in 
1252, 1 and members of his family held the estate till Thomas de Lyons, 
after obtaining a license to enclose a Park in 1392, died without issue, and 
the estate was sold in 1454 by his cousin and heiress to Richard Choke, 
afterwards Lord Chief justice. After passing through several hands, the 
Long Ashton Estate was purchased in 1545 by John Smith, Esq., Sheriff 
of Bristol in 1532, and Mayor in 1547 and 1554, b y whose descendants it 
has been held to the present day. 

It is worthy of note that the wealthiest estates in Gloucestershire and 
Somerset, those of Berkeley and Long Ashton, were both founded by chief 
magistrates of Bristol. 

1 Transactions, xxvi. 116. 



Bristol Meeting. 



35 



The first halt was at Clapton Church. This little thirteenth-century 
building, dedicated to St. Michael and All Angels, is not the landmark 
that one usually associates with this saint, for, although situated on an 
eminence, it is almost entirely shut out from view by a mass of foliage. 
After our delightful drive we mounted the hill and approached the church 
by the south porch, noticing the doorway and steps in the east wall, which 
originally led to a gallery. Proceeding inside, at the west end is the tower, 
and this is undoubtedly the earliest portion of the building. Through the 
Early English arch a two-light thirteenth-century window is seen, which 
externally has a hood moulding of dog-tooth ornament. The windows of 
the nave and chancel are Perpendicular. The church underwent many 
alterations in the fifteenth century. jLo«Jt>0 

On the north side, and approached through a thirteenth-century 
archway, is the Manorial Chapel, at present the property of Sir Edward 
Wills. This is also thirteenth-century work. In the west wall is a single- 
light lancet, the east window is Early Decorated, and, on the north side, 
now blocked by the Renaissance monument to one of the Wynter family, 
is a two-light Decorated window ; this is visible from the exterior. The 
small chantry adjoining has, in the east wall, a delightful example of a 
two-light Early English traceried window. The head contains a quatre- 
foiled circle, the cusping being visible only from the interior. Externally 
the hood moulding is stopped on one side with a rose, and on the other 
with a cluster of oak leaves. The chancel has an Early English piscina, 
and the candlesticks, which are probably pre-Reformation, are of latten, 
and very light in weight. There are a few benches of elm of fourteenth- 
century work. 

The rector, the Rev. W. Home, who would have been pleased to 
welcome the party, was unavoidably absent. Mr. C. F. W. Dening had, 
however, most kindly undertaken to describe the interior. In the course 
of his remarks Mr. Dening said the church was restored in 1882, and 
unfortunately the masonry was then covered with plaster. Most of the 
windows were fifteenth-century work He directed attention to the curious 
caps of the chancel arch, which are the outcome of the problem to connect 
a thirteenth-century archway with the fifteenth-century period, when a 
restoration of the church took place. The small south window near the 
chancel was adverted to by Mr. Dening, who said it would have afforded 
light to the rood as well as the staircase. The corresponding window on 
the north side he could say nothing about, it had been said that it was put 
in to match the other. The double-arched doorway, separating the nave 
from the tower was originally in the court house. Mr. Parker observed 
of it that it was "probably the most rtmarkable piece of early wooden 
domestic screen work in existence." 

Although a visit was paid to Clapton Court it was very brief, for with 



36 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



the exception of the entrance porch very little of the original building 
remains. The tower which is embattled is of three stones, and all the 
existing windows are of fifteenth-century date. The original plan of the 
house seems to have been a parallelogram with the axis east and west and 
with a tower on the north. On the tower are the arms of the Arthur 
family impaling Berkeley, and this fixes the date of this part of the 
building as that of Richard Arthur, who married Alice, daughter of James, 
Lord Berkeley, circa 1465. The entrance leads direct to the screens, and 
here between the hall and the buttery was the screen which we had already 
inspected at the church. 

Mr. Were thus describes the heraldry which still remains at Clapton : — 
"Over manor house porch. Shield of Arthur : ' (Gules) a chevron (argent) 
between three clarions (or),' impaling Berkeley: '(Gules) a chevron 
between ten crosses pattee (argent)." The Arthur coat is evidently a 
variation of Robert Consul's, which is accounted for by the fact 
that Wido de Clapton, in the time of Henry I., held an estate here of 
Robert, Earl of Gloucester. 1 The impaled coat implies the marriage of 
Alice, third daughter of James the Just, Lord of Berkeley, with Richard, 
son of John Arthur, temp. Henry VI., and who Collinson thinks founded 
the manor house. In the church is a large monument, blocking up a nice 
window, to Edmund Winter, 1672, with the arms of Winter impaling 
Southcote, and a crest, possibly a unicorn's head, now a well-bearded 
horse's, which does not seem to be properly identified. Also William 
Winter's shield impaling Arthur, as he married Mary, daughter and heir 
■of Edward Arthur. Round the capitals of the pillars are the clarions, &c, 
parts of the Arthur coat of arms." 

A drive across the valley brought the party to the pretty village church 
of Weston-in-Gordano. At the church the party were received by the 
rector (the Rev. T. G. Bird), and Mr. Dening gave some instructive 
information with regard to the building. He said it was one of the most 
interesting churches in Somerset. In the south porch we here see the 
•choir gallery over the doorway ; this is believed to be the only in England 
in situ. There is little doubt as to its former use, for in the Sarum Missal 
(which was the one used in most of the province of Canterbury) it was 
ordered that during the procession on Palm Sunday seven boys should 
sing on the south side ol the church eminente loco, the verses of the hymn, 
"All glory, laud, and honour." It is probable also that the gallery was 
used for the adornment of the figure, most likely of Our Lady, which 
stood in the niche over the door. Rooms over the porches of Somerset 
churches are generally to be suspected as later additions, and it is probable 
that most of them, including the south porch at St. Mary Redcliff, were 
at first open to the roof as this one at Weston is now. 

l Collinson, iii. 177. 



Bristol Meeting. 



37 



The interior of the church is intensely interesting, inasmuch as it 
retains most of its ancient fittings, the bench ends with few exceptions 
being original. The square-headed ones at the west end are of the usual 
Somersetshire type, the remainder, displaying the poppy heads, are later 
in date and somewhat rare in this county, though a whole nave full of 
them may be found at Banwell. An unusual feature in a village church 
is to be found in the choir stalls with misereres : they are of oak and 
fourteenth-century design, but the carving is of a rough character. 

The screen is chiefly of fifteenth-century work, and the approach to 
the rood-loft and the corbel for carrying the same are still to be seen. 
There is a Jacobean wood pulpit on the north side. 

Apart from the Norman font, which is in situ, the thirteenth-century 
archway with stone pulpit on the south side, and the tower of Early 
English work, are the oldest portions of the building existing, at any 
rate above ground. Doubtless there was originally a Norman church 
here, and probably the single-light window (now Perpendicular) on the 
south side between the porch and the stone pulpit is the type of Early 
English window that lighted the thirteenth-century building. 

The chapel of St. Mary Magdalen at the south-east angle was added 
in the sixteenth century. The fifteenth-century window and doorway of 
this chapel were removed from the south side of the chancel to form the 
archway and rebuilt in their present position. 

Like the church at Clapton, this building also underwent great 
alterations in the fifteenth century, when it is thought that the walls 
were raised some two or three feet in order to permit of tracery being 
introduced in the Perpendicular windows. 

The Rector said he thought that the slab at the high altar was also 
Norman work. One of the interesting things was the Norman-French 
inscription upon the tomb of Richard Percival, which is on the north side 
of the nave in its original position. It is a low altar-tomb without effigy. 
Round the top edge is an inscription in Norman-French, which shows the 
tomb commemorates Richard Percival, died 1483 This reads :— 

Gk . Qystc . le . corps . . IRgcbar&e . percgvale . 

le . quel . morut . 3- an . &e . bomet . 3esus . m'ccccljjjltf . 

SHeu . a^ pitie ♦ De . son , ame, 

In the churchyard is another altar-tomb, with two floriated crosses on 
the slab, and a new modern inscription ascribes it to another Richard 
Percival, who fought in the Crusades with Richard I. about 1190. Both 
tombs bear shields charged with the Percival arms, and members of the 
same family were living in the parish until recent times. The Rector said 
when the Puritans came to Weston-in-Gordano they made havoc, and 



3§ 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



ransacked the Court, formerly occupied by the Percival family, who lived 
there about six centuries. There was now no trace of that house. 

Mr. Were gave the following account of the heraldry at Weston. 
There are three shields on the Perceval tomb. 1 : " Argent on a chevron 
sable three escallops of the first," impaling " Sable a chevron ermine 
between three escallops argent," Chedder. 2: "Argent on a chief 
indented gules three crosses pattee of the first," Perceval, impaling 
"Gules a bend argent between six fleurs-de-lis or," Hampton. 3: 
Perceval, impaling "Argent in chief three bucks' heads caboshed 
(Collinson sable), now query proper." As regards the first, Collinson says 
Ballowe. If it is so, how does the connection come in? and why, as the 
other two are Perceval impalings, is not this the same? I believe it to be a 
redaub for Perceval (as Collinson gives the name), though on the tomb it 
is Percyvale. Seeing the impaling is Chedder, this would be the marriage 
of his younger brother, who succeeded him, Sir John, and who most likely 
trected the tomb, with Joan, daughter of Thomas Chedder ; but Anderson, 
in the House of Yvery, draws and names it Sir John Newton, " Arg. on a 
chev. az. 3 garbs or." Second shield is Pichard himself, who married 
Catherine, daughter and coheiress of Richard Hampton ; the last's coat 
seems to have had variations, as it is found with the field azure and the 
bend or. The third shield has an impaling which is unidentified ; but as 
it is an impaled shield, it must represent a marriage. I believe it to be a 
redaub for de Bosco or Boyce, as Sir Ralph Perceval married Joan, 
daughter and heiress of Richard B., of Tickenham, and so Anderson seems 
to think. 

The next place visited was Clevedon Court, where the members were 
received in the great hall by the owner, Sir Edmund H. Elton, Bart. 
When Sir Arthur Elton, at a meeting of the Somerset Society, exactly a 
quarter of a century ago, read a paper descriptive of the building, he said 
the Court, like many other old mansions, had, as it were, overgrown of 
itself. It had been enlarged, and it had been illused, and considerably 
knocked about. And yet in the long run it had taken all quietly and 
pleasantly. It gathered up all reasonable additions, and cold and grim as 
they might first appear, time did wonders, and what threatened to hurt 
ended in bringing a new development of beauty. In specifying some of 
the features of the mansion, Sir Arthur said the drawing-room possessed a 
very good Elizabethan window looking south, which, together with the 
window of the room over it, was entirely blocked when he came to reside 
there. There was a legend that many years ago the room was so little 
appreciated that a pony was allowed to use it as a stable. He safely 
dismissed that story as a libel on his predecessors and the pony. One of 
the rooms, known as the oak room, had the reputation of being haunted, 
and the ghost was said to be a cobbler — not at all an interesting visitant. 



Bristol Meeting. 



50 



On the present occasion the archaeologists were cordially received by 
Sir Edmund H. Elton and Lady Elton, and allowed to wander about the 
highly interesting mansion. The main features of the mansion were 
described by Mr. G. H. Oatley, who pointed out that in the great hall they 
had an instance where they could see clearly the original plan of the house. 

The most interesting portion of the present building 1 dates from the 
early part of the fourteenth century, and consists of the great hall with 
its entrances and the usual arrangement of the kitchen and offices at one 
end and at the other the solar and chapel, with other apartments beneath 
them. The north and south porches, each having a groove for a port- 
cullis, are still intact. The passage across the east end of the hall, com- 
municating directly from one of these entrances to the other, and formerly 
known as "the entry," is divided from the hall by a screen (not the 
■original one, however), and above it is the Minstrels' Gallery. At the 
western end of the hall would have been the dais. 

The hall windows are of the Elizabethan period, but have been altered 
later. The original fourteenth-century windows in both the end gables 
have been blocked up, but are visible from the roofs. The high-pitched 
open timber roof of the hall has gone, and there is an eighteenth-century 
ceiling at the plate level. A fireplace was built into the north wall in the 
sixteenth century, the original fire no doubt having been in the Centre of 
the hall, the two interesting chimneys in the gable ends being the original 
means of carrying off the wood smoke. 

A fine early seventeenth-century doorway in stone (now painted dark) 
leads from the hall to the rooms of the western front. On the right-hand 
side of the entrance passage, as approached from the south porch, are 
three original fourteenth-century doorways, the central one of which 
formerly communicated with the kitchen (the way to the Minstrels' Gallery 
and the room over porch having been aporoached by means of the stair 
turret in the porch), the one on the right to the buttery, and the third to 
other offices. 

A good deal of the original work is traceable in the kitchen wing, 
although the kitchen has been sub-divided and rooms added to form an 
upper floor. 

The gem of the remains of the original building is the room on the 
first floor above the apartment at the south-west angle of the hall. This 
was formerly thought to be the ladies' bower, but after the fire of 1882 
was discovered to have been the chapel. It has a beautiful window » of 
reticulated tracery on the south, visible to the left of the entrance in the 
external view, and a window of the same date in the east wall behind the 
altar. The piscina has been restored. 

1 See Pi'oc. Som. Arch. Soc, 18S1 and 1899. 
2 See Parker's Domestic Architecture, ii. 303. 



4 o 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



The house was considerably altered and enlarged in the Elizabethan 
period. Considerable additions were made to the western end of it at that 
time, and the fine stone doorway of this period led from the hall to these 
important additions. This part of the house suffered the most seriously 
from the disastrous fire already referred to, and is now largely modern. 

Luncheon was taken at the Walton Park Hotel, Clevedon, and after the 
meal the members were able to enjoy for half-an-hour a rest, and to breathe 
the sea air from the terraces of the hotel. Then the carriages arrived, and 
the journey was resumed to Chelvey, where the party were met by the 
rector (the Rev. C. Ramsden) and Lieut. -Colonel Bramble. The latter, 
who is a recognised authority on the history of the Somerset churches, 
gave an account of Chelvey, which was very much appreciated. He said 
the church contained little bits of detail which made it one of the most 
interesting in Somerset. There they had a nave with chancel, and on the 
south side was a private chapel belonging to the Tynte family. The 
chancel was divided from the nave by the stone foundations of the rood- 
loft. He pointed out that the eastern jamb of a doorway near the pulpit 
was composed of an old gravestone, and said in those days they were not 
particular what material they used. They would notice the iron let into 
the wall near that formerly held the hour-glass by which the clergy timed 
their sermons. If the incumbents of that day did not give a full hour 
there was a row. A wicked joke was told of one of the old preachers who 
saw that the sand was getting run out, and he had not half done, so he 
quickly turned it over, saying, "We'll have another glass." There was 
under the altar the oldest sepulchre slab in that part of England. It was 
that of a knight of the thirteenth century, and its date was about 1280. 
The figure was in full mail armour, and the mail was covered by a long 
surcoat. The recesses in the chapel were similar to those over the 
Berkeley tombs in Bristol Cathedral. At the end of the chapel there was 
an Elizabethan or Jacobean pew, where the manorial family used to sit. 
There were still remains of ancient glass in some of the windows, 
including a shield and the emblems of the Apostles as they found them in 
the Book of the Revelation. There used to be also some particularly 
good specimens of ironwork on one of the pews, and its date was 162 1. 

As the church of St. Bridget was "restored" as late as 1887, an 
extract from the architect's report upon the structure before that work 
was commenced will be of particular interest : — ■ 

"The church consists of nave, with western tower, chancel, south 
porch, and south aisle adjoining the porch, extending eastward nearly 
as far as the east wall of the chancel. 

' ' The entrance doorway in the south wall of the nave belongs to the- 
Norman period, and probably the north wall of the nave ; the windows, 
which are later insertions, are of the same date. 



Bristol Meeting. 



4 r 



"The chancel may have been erected in the thirteenth century, as the 
two north windows are of that date, the east window being a later in- 
sertion If the chancel wall is as early as the Norman nave, then the 
north windows must be insertions. 

"There is no arch between the nave and the chancel, but a d.vtston 
is formed by a dwarf wall, which at one time doubtless supported a 

lllTe remaining parts of the church are of much later date, and 
seem to belong to the Perpendtcular period, either of the latter part of 
the fifteenth of the early part of the sixteenth century, when the church 
was much altered by pulling down the south walls of the nave and 
chancel, and the erection of the south aisle by the then representees 

of the Tynte family. 

-Anew roof, now concealed by a flat ceiling, was placed upon he 
nave walls, and the north windows, as well as the east window of the 
chancel then inserted; the south porch either built or — and he 
western tower added. The little Norman window in the west wall of he 
porch may have belonged to the original porch or to some other part of 

1116 "Since' the sixteenth century there do not appear to have been many 
structural alterations made, but early in the seventeenth century the 
church seems to have been partially refitted; for then the handsome 
carved pew at the west end of the aisle was erected, and some of the 
ancient benches (of which many, however, still remain, were dnsphaced by 
pews of the style of that period. Possibly the windows ovei _ the ^ three 
canopied tombs were inserted at this time, as they appear to be of Ut 
date than the other Perpendicular windows in the church There are 
many memorial slabs in the floors, bearing the name, of Tynte and Cottle 
with others. The tower contains but one bell, and the inscription upon it 
as given by Ellacombe, in his Chunk Bells of Somerset, is as follows ; The 
Rew Mr. Olive vicar. Mr. John Morgins ch ; wardens; Mr. WUliam 
Cottle overseer 1738 Thos : Bilbie.' " 

At the west end of the south or Tynte aisle is the very fine court pew 
of enriched panelling, of the English Renaissance character : this was 
cleaned of its paint in 1887, and now appears a soft white. The church s 
fortunate in srill possessing ten old benches of the thirteenth « : early 
fourteenth century; these are quite roughly hewn, but such seats are 

toXes, Miss Roper reports : In the south aisle on the floor 
beneath the altar of the chapel there is a very worn incised slab represent- 
ing the figure of a military knight. To judge from the dress the date 
JLld be about I25 o to „„. The figure is cut life-size showing armo 
of chain mail with the hood thrown back on the shoulders. The mail is 



42 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



covered by a long surcoat and confined by a drooping belt supporting the 
sword. The chief interest is the long lance held in the right hand, which 
is rarely shown on tombs or brasses." 

With regard to heraldry, Mr. Were reports: "In north window: 
' Gules three bars within bordure all round argent,' impaling ' Argent on 
a fess sable between three bulls' heads cabossed gules armed or, a crescent 
of the last.' Owing to the bordure of the Baron going all round, I think 
this was a separate shield, and therefore does not prove a marriage. It 
might be Choke. The impaling was suggested by Mr. Spencer Percival 
to be the third quartering of Harvy, Som. Vis., p. 47, given as above, only 
without the crescent for difference and the armed or. As Brockley is close 
by, and the Harvys had the manor, it is very possible that it was marshalled 
with theirs. In the Visitation it is named Bodimant, but I think it is an 
old coat of Scovile, the second quartering. Collinson says there are some 
small remains of painted glass in the windows, by which I suppose he 
means these two coats, and in the heads of the tracery are three or four 
emblems of the Evangelists." 

A short visit was then paid to the Court House, but this fine old 
mansion of the Tynte family now means but a fragment of its former 
greatness. It was probably built at the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, and Collinson says "it had a park adjoining thereto, a warren 
and a swannery." Now quite half of the facade is gone, and no original 
gable is left. What remains of the porch, though much dilapidated, is 
most elegant. It was originally flanked by very handsome pillars — 
frequently described as the " So'omon's Temple" pattern, as seen in 
one of Raphael's cartoons— but only one remains. The porch is sur- 
mounted by a beautitul openwork parapet, and much delicate carving. 
The arms over the entrance are noteworthy. The bouse is approached by 
a bridge, and may have been "moated" originally. The chief interior 
attractions are the wonderful staircase and an exquisite pendant. 

There now exist only one or two panelled apartments ; the secret 
chamber, behind one of the fireplaces, has long been demolished, and 
everything is in a very decayed conaition. Great care must therefore 
be taken in examining the house. The sixteenth - century tithe -barn 
close by is massively built, of great length, finely proportioned, and of 
grand simplicity. 

At Ashton Court the visitors were received by Lady Smyth, and a 
delightful surprise was in store for the party, as in the great hall her 
ladyship had had laid out for the inspection of the archaeologists a 
number of most interesting deeds, with their quaint seals attached, in 
connection with the estate, and coins and other curios. These were 
explained to the visitors by Lady Smyth and her nephew, Mr. Lewis 
Way. One of the earliest documents was a deed, dated 1322, from John 



Bristol Meeting. 43 

Vnf claries 1 from the ■■ cittie of Bristoll," was viewed w.th interest 
year of Charles 1., trom ^ k£en , 

and ,ts felicitous rfi£££J£ jTln Jthe report of the 
interested tn *™« ™f™%^ had sent . thick volume of Crom- 
conversazmne that Mr T. D. T y ^ ^ q£ 

Esauire " was a Deputy-Lieutenaut for Somerset. Mr. Way had for the 

" " J. - »■>« " »" a - " ,o "- d , " r;r , 



ot the ODiecLb w , , i ~f +Vao 



anded it rouuu mo^- 

apartments in the mansion, including the wonderful drawn; 
apartments visitors enjoyed to the 



remaining 



narts of the mansion, 
west a win b 01 lug r TII The last-named 



44 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



of the original plan seems almost impossible. The shell of the long 
building on the south remains : the front of it has been altered and 
cased, and a new wing added, flanking on the east the turrets seen in 
the plate; but at the west end of the old front are remains of an 
original turret. 

In the Elizabethan wing the west front has been refaced, but some of 
its rooms retain their original features-notably interesting chimney- 
pieces and wall-panelling, also windows looking into internal courtyards, 
one being originally called "Castle Court" from its having" been 
embattled. 

A number of the fifteenth-century windows and some chambers of the 
wing of that date remain. 

A Jacobean lead rain-water head still exists. It bears a cherub's bead 
above a lion's head, with the date 1634. The initials "T.F.S." were 
probably intended for Thomas and Florence Smyth, who were married 
in 1627, the latter being a daughter of John, Lord Poulett. 

Before the visitors left the President thanked Lady Smyth for the 
enjoyable visit the members had had. 

Her Ladyship, in reply, said : "I am very glad to have seen you, and 
thank you for having brought such beautiful weather." 

The drive through the park on the way home was by no means the 
least pleasant part of an altogether delightful day. 

The Annual Dinner was held in the evening at the Royal Hotel, and 
it was agreed that if the pavement at Woodchester is uncovered next year 
the Annual Meeting shall be held at Stroud. 

On Thursday the route taken was through Pucklechurch to Marshfield 
returning over Toghill. The district through which we passed was in 
early days forest-the Forest of Kingswood, dependent on Bristol, to the 
south, and the Forest of Horwood, which has left its name in Horfield, 
Horton, and Horwood Gate Farm, near Sodbury, to the north. The' 
hunting-seat of the latter forest was in the time of William Rufus at 
Alveston. The whole area was disafforested in 1227. On leaving the 
valley of the Frome we passed up by one of the several Ridgeways in 
our district to Fishponds, the birthplace of Hannah More ; and soon after 
crossing the Midland Railway, on entering Pucklechurch, we left the 
ancient manor of Barton by Bristol. King Edmund was murdered by 
Liofa, a robber, at Pucklechurch on May 26th, 946. He was buried at 
Glastonbury, to which church the estate of Pucklechurch was given by 
King Edwy four years later. In 1218 it was surrendered by the monks 
to Bishop Jocelin as part of the price of the separation of the abbey from 
the See of Wells, and the church still belongs to the Chapter of Wells. 
The name is probably derived from pucel, a goblin, the "Puck" of 
Shakespeare. The murder may have taken place at a spot still known 



Bristol Meeting. 



45 



as "The Palace," a short distance north of. the church; but Roger of 
Wendover, a late authority, puts it at « Micheleberi," and Michelwood 
Chase lies a short distance south of Berkeley. 

At Pucklechurch, which was visited by the Society in 1878 and 1900,1 
the party were met by the vicar, the Rev. S. T. Gillum. The church of 
St. Thomas the Martyr, probably late fourteenth century, is a large 
building ; it has a nave with north aisle and very plain south porch. 

The tower at the west end is of three stages with low pinnacles. There 
are traces of a late Norman doorway on the north side, and an interesting 
Flamboyant window in the north wall. The fabric is interesting for its 
effigies, which unfortunately have no inscriptions. Miss Roper describes 

them as follows : — ..... 

- At the east end of the nave on the floor is the effigy of a civilian m 
the costume worn about 1350. Over the tunic is the long cotehardie and a 
tippet and hood, the girdle and hanging purse being shown. At the east 
end of the north aisle is an effigy of a lady of the same period. Her 
costume is interesting, because it shows the introduction of an early form 
of the 'sideless' cotehardie, although the wimple and coverchief are still 
retained. Rudder says, ' They are supposed to represent some of the 
family of the Dennis's, who have been of long standing, and of whom 
there have been more high sheriffs in this county than of any other 

name.' " . 
There are other monuments here to the same family, though much 

later. ,, 

Leaving Pucklechurch, the party drove to Dyrham Camp, where they 
were met by the Rev. W. E. Blathwayt, and when they had assembled 
on the spot where more than thirteen hundred years ago one of the 
decisive battles in English history had been fought, the Bishop of Bristol 
delivered an address. It was the first time the Society had been to the 
camp, and it was fortunate that the address on the battle which took place 
there was given by such a well-known authority on Saxon times as the 
Lord Bishop of the Diocese. The camp is three miles beyond Puckle- 
church, at the top of Hinton Hill. It consists of a single mound and 
ditch, terminating at each end on the steep escarpment of the lower 
Oolite, and enclosing about eighteen acres. To the south of the road, 
which is a modern one, the bank is perfect, but on the northern side it 
has been ploughed down, though the ditch can still be traced. Under 
the year 577 the Saxon Chronicle relates that Cuthwine and Ceawhn fought 
with the Brettas (Bryttas, Brittas) at the place called Deorham, and killed 
three kings-Commail (Conmaegl, Commagil, Coinmagil) and Condidan 
(Candidan) and Farinmail (Farinmaegl, Farinmagil) -and took three cities 
(ceastra)-Gleawanceaster (Gleawceaster, Gleawcestre, Glawiciestre) and 
1 See Transactions, xxiii. 69. 



4 6 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



Cirencester (Cyrenceaster, Cirenciestre) and Bathanceaster (Bathenceaster). 
The first name in each case is that given in the earliest MS. of the Chronicle, 
written in 891 ; the names in parentheses show the variations in the next 
five MSS. in order of date. The name of the place of the battle is spelled 
Deorham in all six MSS. 

The Lord Bishop of Bristol gave an address on the battle at the 
camp. He had not been to the camp previously, and therefore he could 
not profess to tell them all about it, but it seemed to him that it was very 
important that they should understand from what part the West Saxons 
were coming. The date of the battle, of course, was the year 577. In 
568 Silchester was taken by the West Saxons, who were then able to push 
on towards the north, and they at once did so. Ethelbert, the King of 
Kent, a very young man, had determined to push his territories up the 
waters of the Thames, and as the West Saxons advanced they met 
Ethelbert, and the two forces fought at Wimbledon. Ethelbert was 
driven back into the Kingdom of Kent, and the West Saxons were able 
to push up against the Brettas in the direction of the Midlands. They 
went, and in 571, three years after the fall of Silchester, they fought a 
great battle at Bedford against the Brettas, and then there came the 
event which Mr. Green described as the conquest of the confederation 
of the four towns. He himself was a bit suspicious of this confederation 
of the four towns, now known as Eynsham, Bensington, Aylesbury, and 
Lenborough. There was no doubt the West Saxons desired to extend 
their sovereignty into the head waters of the Thames, and thus enter 
upon the possession of the Severn Valley and also the Severn. The 
question was how they came to be at Deorham. His own belief was 
that the account in the Chronicle was very decidedly telescoped, and they 
were misled by the fact that three kings were killed on that site, and that 
three cities were taken, as though the two events were absolutely 
connected with the other. His impression was that that described the 
whole campaign. The West Saxons had pushed on to the head waters 
of the Thames, between Cirencester and Malmesbury. They could not 
get down by Malmesbury, because Selwood as a whole was in the occupa- 
tion of the Britons, and remained so for a long time afterwards, so they 
kept to the north of Cricklade, and took Cirencester on their way to their 
great objective— the city of Bath. He supposed when they found them- 
selves at Deorham they had in their rear the Gloucester forces, and in 
their front the Bath forces. It was quite conceivable to his mind that, 
being a large force, they did not march rapidly. They had time to hastily 
excavate the ditch, and they threw up that segment of a circle to complete 
the defences. He believed that could be accomplished during the time 
the forces of the Britons were gathering for attack, and that was, he 
thought, the whole history. The question was, What happened after 



Bristol Meeting. 



47 



lhat > He was quite sure that they proceeded to Bath and took ,t. 
Whether they doubled back and took Gloucester he did not know, bu he 
thought it was probable. A great deal of history turned upon them future 

^Having dealt with the defeat of the other West Saxons, who pushed on 
as far as Nantwich, his lordship pointed out that the Hwiccas became a 
separate kingdom until they were vanquished in 6*8 at Cmencester by 
that tremendous pagan, King Penda, and became part of Merma. They 
remained Mercians until much later, when the Bath d.stnct once more 
went to the West Saxons. 

He believed that that very Battle of Deorham was the md.rect cause of 
the great fame of Malmesbury. He found that there was a Brmsh kmg 
named Constantino who fled from his British kingdom and went o be a 
monk in Ireland, and eventually became, in 588, eleven years after the 
battle vice-abbot in the monastery of Rahan, in Meath. Fifty years after 
that/between 03a and 63, Carthach was driven from Rahan m o 
Munster, and there founded the great monastery of Lrsmore. Ma Idubh 
in 637, came to Malmesbury. He (the bishop, had not the 
hat Constantino was one of the kings who was not kilted, 
the battle to Ireland, and made himself a monk under Carthach, and that 
Constants was always talking about the great defeat of hts people and 
Sring that the Britons stil, held their greatest fortress at Malmesbury 
to the Selwood Forest, and they were at peace with the people who 
defeated them. Maildnbh fled from Ireland and went to Malmesbury, 
,t he founded the great school which produced Aldhelm. Hts lordsh.p 
tinted out the interesting fact that Malmesbury and ; ts defences 
p cisely similar to Bristol and its defences. One of the great water 
e fences 7 was the Avon, and that was the same both at Malmesbury and 
Bristol, and both were pear-shaped, the Newnton water flowmg round the 
other side of Malmesbury and joining the Avon just as the Frome d.d at 
Bristol He had set up a number of Aunt Sallies for cocksh.es, and , if 
L could judge from the smile on the president's face, Mr. Taylor would 
hi the first to take a shy at the cocoannt. If Mr. Taylor faded to hit, he 
^the bishop) claimed the cocoanut. 

The President sa,d he had no remarks at all to make, except absolute 
acquiescence Mr. F. F. Fox had told them that he knew the time when 
SLl people did not agree on a single point from the time they 
tarted tfll the time they got home again, and he was not going to s o 
them the way in which the Batt.e of Dyrham had been ^»t-^n^. 
Wherever the Saxons came from, when they were there ^J™ ° S ^ 
road from Gloucester to Bath, and only four miles over he h 1 wa^ h 
Fosse from Bath to Cirencester, so they had made a defimte split : be we n 
Bath and the other two towns. That was one of the decswe battles m 



.48 



Transaction's for the Year igc6. 



history, for it cut the Britons into halves, and by that battle the Saxons 
forced their way to the western sea. In conclusion, he thanked the Bishop 
for joining them that day and giving them such an interesting address. 

Professor Oman (Oxford) said he understood that the camp was one 
established by the Britons, and that it was the Saxons who had 
captured it. 

His Lordship said, as they would see by the notes, that that was a 
view he had held a week ago, when he had never seen the place; he had 
been converted on the spot. The rampart seemed to him to be a merely 
ad hoc affair, not well built, and so late as to have been neglected at once. 
The bank appeared to be only loosely thrown together, with the result 
that the ditch was much more completely filled up than it would have 
been in the case of the carefully-constructed earthworks of an earlier age. 

The Bishop's theory that Cirencester was the first of the Chesters to 
be captured is probably not the one that has commonly been held 
locally, where it has usually been thought that the first attack was made 
on Bath. But there is a good deal to be said in favour of the new- 
theory. Assuming that Egonesham, captured by the Saxons in 571, is 
Eynsham, they had penetrated to the north of Cirencester six years 
before the Battle of Dyrham, and the Akeman Street running south-west 
towards Cirencester passes to the south of Stonesfield within about four 
miles of Eynsham. A march on Cirencester along the Akeman Street 
would be a very natural line of attack. Assuming that Cirencester was 
captured and that the next attack was to be made on Bath, rapid 
marching was essential, because it was necessary that, if possible, Bath 
should be captured before aid could arrive from Gloucester, Bath is 
about thirty miles distant from Cirencester along the Fosse, and about 
thirty-five miles from Gloucester along the Ridgeway, while a messenger 
from Cirencester to Gloucester would have to traverse seventeen miles of 
the Ermine Street. If the Saxons could not take Bath before help arrived 
they would have to fight in the open country, and it seems that they 
were compelled to do this. Their position was chosen with great skill; 
they retreated to the edge of the Oolite escarpment, and threw up an 
entrenchment enclosing such an area as suited them. Their rear was 
safe, for below them was the forest of Horwood (filthy wood, O.E horn, 
filth) on the swampy lias clay ; they could only be attacked in front over 
their entrenchments, and no reinforcements could pass along the Ridgeway 
to Bath without the risk of an attack in flank, because that road was less 
than half a mile from them. The position would be much the same if 
Cirencester had not been taken, for the Fosse, which runs from Bath to 
Cirencester, is only about four and a half miles from the camp— within 
easy striking distance. There is this much, however, to be said in favour 
of the view that Cirencester was first attacked and captured, that it was 



Bristol Meeting. 



49 



evidently much more completely desolated than either of the other two 
towns, though there is reason for thinking that both Bath and Gloucester 
lay desolate for some time after their capture. When they were reoccupied 
the buildings were set out on the lines of the ancient ways, as they are 
now But at Cirencester the streets are for the most part not at all on 
the lines of the Roman ways. The place evidently lay desolate for so 
long, that when it was reoccupied nothing was to be gained by following 
the lines of the old streets, even if they could be traced. This is only 
given for what it may be worth, for Penda fought what seems to have 
been a victorious fight at Cirencester in 628, and a desolation at his hand 
would have been more than a sufficiently sweeping one. It does not of 
course follow, however, that the site of Cirencester had been reoccupied 
by 628, because a battle was fought there in that year. Bath and 
Gloucester appear as the sites of churches in 676 and 680 ; but nothing is 
heard of Cirencester as an abode of living men till the reign of Egbert, 
when a minster was founded there. It would be quite likely that the hrst 
town to be attacked, where very probably the resistance would be more 
determined, would be more severely dealt with than those which were 
attacked later in the campaign. Nothing is known about the actual 
circumstances of the Battle of Dyrham, except that it may be taken as 
certain that the camp was occupied by Saxons. There could be no 
reason why the Britons should leave their chesters and fight in the open 
•country. 

Leaving the camp, the party passed along the Ridgeway to Cold Ashton. 
According to Rudder, " Sir Robert Atkyns's derivation of the name from 
the ash trees growing here is not founded on fact. The place is not 
remarkable for that kind of tree, nor indeed is Ashton the proper name of 
it The true and significant name is Easton or Aston. In Domesday Book 
it is written Escetone. It was so called from its situation in the Hundred 
of Pucklechurch, being the most easterly village in that hundred. The 
prenomen Cold was given it on account of its exposed situation and to 
distinguish it from Easton near Bristol, and another Easton in the neigh- 
bourhood of Bath. This manor," he says, " with the manor of Tatwick, 
and several woods in Hameswell, Tatwick, and Cold Ashton, and the 
advowson of the church, were granted, after the dissolution of the Abbey 
of Bath, to Sir Walter Dennis" : and William Pepwall, Alderman and 
twice Mayor of Bristol, by his will, February 1st, 1571, left "to son 
Michael and his heirs the manors, lands, tenements, etc., at Coldashton, 
Hamestwell, and Tatwicke, purchased of Sir Walter Dennis, Knt., 
deceased, and Richard Dennis, Esq." 

These manors passed to his son, John Pepwell, who eventually sold 
them to John Gunning, who also was an Alderman and Mayor (1627) of 
Bristol. 



5 

Vol. XXIX. 



5o 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



By marriage, in 1658, the property passed to the Langton family, the 
present representative, Earl Temple, still owning the Manor House. 

Cold Ashton, together with Priston to the south of Bath, was given by 
King Athelstan to the church of Bath in 931 under somewhat strange 
circumstances. After the death of his father Edward, a certain Alfred 
strove to blind him at Winchester, with the obvious intention of making 
him incapable of succeeding to the crown. Alfred, who may have been 
in Holy Orders, was sent to Rome to purge himself by oath before Pope 
John X., and on taking an oath before the altar in the Basilica of St. Peter, 
he fell to the ground. His friends carried him to the English school 
immediately to the east of St. Peter's, where on the third night he died. 
With the consent of the king he was buried in consecrated ground, and 
Athelstan felt that nothing could be more right than that he should give 
these estates to God and St. Peter, who had laid his enemy low and had 
kept him safe. 1 An identical charter (except for the names of the places 
granted) bestows land at Somerford, Norton, and Ewelme on the church 
of St. Peter at Malmesbury. 2 There seems to be no reason for doubting 
the truth of the narrative, which is interesting in several ways, constitu- 
tionally and otherwise. 

Though not by any means one of the largest of Cotswold houses, 
Cold Ashton Manor House is a typical Cotswold residence, and is 
most interesting. It was probably erected by John Gunning, and is a 
delightful specimen of the Jacobean period, with much Renaissance 
feeling. 

The house is approached by semi-circular steps through a massive 
gateway, still seen in its original state. Note the arms of the Gunning 
family over the arch and the vases of fruit at the sides. Notice, too, the 
rising steps as you approach the house, which was built upon the E plan. 
It is finely gabled, and possesses some characteristic chimney groups. The 
entrance is most striking, and the balustrading over is singularly effective 
The windows are excellent, and very unusual is the fancy lead edging to 
the wooden water shutes, which are carried nearly round the dwelling. 
The original carved oak doorway, with its old ironwork, and the panelled 
hall are worthy of inspection. In the south-west room is a finely-moulded 
ceiling, with cherub, mask head and scroll ornamentation ; also a typical 
stone chimney-piece. The corresponding room on the east side retains its 
original oak panelling and carved overmantel, with portions of the original 
ceiling, decorated with pomegranates and a narrow fruit border. The 
house contains many other features of minor interest, and the small castel- 
lated porch on the north side is very quaint. 

The rector (the Rev. E. H. C. Sayres) very kindly met the party at 
the parish church. The original building, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, 
1 K., C. £>., cccliv. ; C. S., 670 * K. C. D., ccclv. : C. 5. 671 



Bristol Meeting. 



5* 



was probably thirteenth century, but it consists now principally of 
Perpendicular work. There is a low tower at the west end in three stages, 
with battlements and pinnacles, and an aisle on the south side. The 
chancel, which has no east window, has a high roof in contrast with a low 
nave. The greater part of the present structure was built by Thomas 
Keys, rector, about 1500: his rebus, a XL and a key, may be found in 
many places upon the building. It will be noticed on the south porch and 
south side on entering; and upon the north wall of the chancel maybe 
seen a plain brass testifying to the rector's munificence, with his monogram 
in stone above. The opening in the north wall shows the rood-loft stairs, 
and it also is the approach to the stone niche for pulpit, 1 which has a 
carved oak extension of " Late Perpendicular " style, bearing some traces 
of colour; but the base and canopy are of stone. 

The illustration given is taken from Markland's Remarks on English 

Churches, published in 1843. » wiU be noticed that the crocketed cano Py 

has since been added, covering a monumental inscription. This was 

done in 1853 by a former rector. 

A plain squint may be seen in the south wall of the chancel, pointing 

to the north side of the altar. There were formerly four bells, but two 

were sold early in the last century ! 

Members were shown the plate, which includes a pre-Reformation 

paten. 

The rectory is historic from the fact that in this house-in the present 
dining-room-the brave Sir Bevil Grenville died from mortal injuries 
received at the Battle of Lansdown. 

The house was built about the same time as the church by Thomas 
Keys The date 1509 formerly existed upon a stone corbel now on the 
north side (formerly on the south). Very little of interest remains, as the 
house was " much modernised" in 1852. 

The ride to Marshfield was regarded with special gratification, as the 
morning's engagements had caused the keen demands of appetite to exert 
their influence, and at the old Assembly Room, Marshfield, luncheon was 
laid When the Society planned to include Marshfield in the excursion 
it was pointed out that no place in the town was capable of accommodating 
such a large party at a meal. What had been of yore the Assembly Room 
was in a dilapidated state, but in order that the Society should have 
luncheon in the town, it was resolved to effect a restoration of the spacious 
apartment, which has been so satisfactorily carried out that there is now 
in the place a capital room for holding meetings and having entertainments. 

Marshfield Church, a fine structure, comprising capacious nave and 
side aisles, unfortunately came within the wave of "beneficent restoration" 
in i860, and afforded an excellent piece of work for the destroyer, being 
1 The example at Weston-in-Gordano is somewhat similar. 



5 2 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



completely flayed internally. The fabric was originally of the Decorated 
period, probably of the latter part of the thirteenth century. There is a 
lofty tower at the west end with open battlements and crocketed pinnacles. 

In consequence of the "wholesale restoration" referred to, it may be 
interesting to give Sir Stephen Glynne's crisp notes on the fabric made 
prior to that time : — 

"The nave is separated from each aisle by three handsome Pointed 
arches ; the piers have four shafts with hollows between them. The nave 
has clerestory windows of three lights, which are not continued in the 
chancel. The chancel is about equal in length to the nave, and extends 
considerably to the east of its aisles, to each of which it opens by two 
arches resembling those of the nave. On the north side of the entrance 
to the chancel is a turret with steps which once led to the rood-loft The 
windows are chiefly of three lights, and some have embattled transoms. 
In the south aisle is one very large one of rive lights, set in a kind of bay 
or projection. The north aisle is much wider than the south, and has its 
east window of three lights ; there are other windows in the north aisle 
with square heads. There is a window north and south of the end of the 
chancel, which, as well as the eastern, is of three lights. 

"On the south side are equal sedilia, with ogee arches crocketed, 
rising from shafts crowned by crocketed pinnacles, also an ogee niche 
surmounted by a label containing a stone shelf and an octagonal basin 
or piscina rising on a shaft. 

"At the east end of the south aisle is an ogee niche with label over it 
and a shaft ; also a small plain arch with piscina." 

Two chantries formerly existed here, the Jesus and St. Clement's, but 
no traces remain, It is just possible that the three exquisitely-carved 
marble figures now built into the wall of one of the rooms at the 
"Angel Inn" (which were inspected by kind permission of Mr. Strange) 
■were connected with one of these. 

It is an interesting fact that not only were several Bristol merchants 
and their wives buried at this church, but that they each left benefactions 
to the parish. Amongst these donors may be mentioned the names of 
Bearpacker, Viner, and Gibbes. 

After lunch the party assembled at the church, where they were 
welcomed by Canon E. Fiennes Trotman, the rector. On going round 
the interior the visitors saw a mace belonging to the high bailiff and 
feoffees in the time of Charles I., a pair of old scales formerly used in 
weighing loaves for the bread doles, a number of silver vessels of con- 
siderable value, and an Elizabethan chalice of great beauty. 

Canon Trotman read the following very interesting paper on the 
history of the church : — 

In complying with the request of your secretary that I would give some 



Bristol Meeting. 



53 



account of this church, I have undertaken a difficult task— first, because I 
am no expert either in history or archaeology; and, secondly, because 
here, as in the case of so many country churches, no records have been 
handed down of the various changes which in the past have overtaken the 
building. We are driven to draw questionable inferences from the parish 
registers, perhaps, or from an old churchwardens' book ; or it may be that 
the walls tell their own tale to the archaeologist. Marshfield, let me say, 
is a very ancient place, and its name has undergone an unfortunate and 
not very suitable change. Situated as it is, marshes are conspicuous by 
their absence. From Mr. Earle, Professor of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford, late 
of Swainswick, I gathered that the original name was " March-feldt," and 
that it was so called probably from its situation on this ridge, which was a 
boundary-line between the Saxon kingdoms of Wessex and Mercia. It 
was early dominated by ecclesiastical corporations. The manor, classed 
in Domesday Book under the Crown Lands, was given by William I. to 
the Bishopric of Wells. In 1106 it passed to Bath Abbey, and afterwards 
—in 1 170— became the property of Keynsham Abbey, and belonged to 
them till the dissolution of the monasteries, and then passed into private 
hands. Meanwhile, the church, with tithe and pastoral care of the parish, 
belonged to Tewkesbury Abbey. Indeed, in the Bristol Museum may be 
seen an ancient deed, whereby Simon, Bishop of Worcester, about the 
year 1125, confirmed to the Abbey of Tewkesbury various grants of 
churches, tithes, and ecclesiastical benefices, given by Robert FitzHamon 
to that monastery, and amongst the churches herein mentioned is Marsh- 
field Church. In those days Marshfield did not enjoy the privilege of 
being overlooked by a Bishop of Bristol, but the eye of the Bishop of 
Worcester had to traverse the whole length of the county of Gloucester to 
this remote corner, to keep the clergy in order. This apparently he did 
with some effect, for it is recorded in the Tewkesbury Annals that, in 1228, 
"hearing of the death of the parson of Marshfield, we, the Abbot of 
Tewkesbury (acting by the authority of the rights given us by the Church), 
set out for that place ; and, without opposition at the time, took possession 
on March 21st, the second Sunday in Lent. Afterwards, however, we 
endured much trouble at the hands of the Bishop of Worcester, William 
of Blois, because he desired to call in question the aforesaid right." In 
the same Annals is recorded that in 1229 "the Bishop of Worcester, on the 
8th of May, held a Synod at Worcester, and there withdrew the interdict 
pronounced against the church at Marshfield, at the request of Berard, 
vicar of that church, by means of his Proctor the Abbot." From the same 
Annals we learn that, in 1242, on June 1st, Walter de Cantelupe, Bishop of 
Worcester, dedicated the church at Marshfield. The question is, what 
church? Was it this church, or a part of this church, afterwards 
enlarged ? At that date probably the greater part of the inhabitants dwelt 



54 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



at West-town, now represented only by an old farmhouse, with cottage 
attached. There, it would appear, was a church of St. Pancras, still 
marked by a field called " St. Pancras's Close,'' and in it a well known as 
" St. Pancras's Well." All traces of the church have disappeared 

After the dissolution of monasteries, the advowson of this benefice, 
with rectorial tithe, was conferred by Queen Mary on the Warden and 
Fellows of New College, Oxford, in lieu of property of which they had 
been robbed by Henry VIII. The first incumbent appointed to their 
newly-acquired living was John Oglander (a member of the ancient family 
of Nunwell, in the Isle of Wight). He came into residence, in 1642, and 
retired in 1645, unable to continue his ministrations under the Common- 
wealth. I wish I knew, or could at all surmise, what was the condition 
and appearance of this church when he was instituted. One thing is 
certain, that there were then two Chantries of Jesus and St. Clement, the 
last two incumbents of which, Henry Nealye and Robert Savage,' were 
pensioned off with the magnificent income of £1 10s. a year. A piscina 
at the east end of the north aisle is all that remains of St. Clement's 
Chantry ; and behind the screen, with which my predecessor made for 
himself a small robing-room at the east end of the south aisle, may be seen 
all that remains of Jesus Chantry, together with the evidence of a priest's 
door in the south wall of that aisle. The gallery over the robing-room 
was inserted also by my predecessor for the accommodation of the choir. 
We have found it the most convenient place for the organ. I need scarcely 
say how much I wish that the chantry had not been interfered with— that 
it had been left as a side chapel in the present day. That the church has 
grown to its present dimensions by degrees there can be no doubt. I have 
sometimes wondered whether the wide north aisle, with its square-headed 
windows and its large east window, was the original church, to which the 
nave and south aisle were subsequently added. The marks of a roof on 
the west wall, much lower than the present roof, bespeak the insertion of 
clerestory windows, with a necessary raising of the tower. At the east 
end, again, you will observe how-, at some date, the chancel was carried 
out to its present dimensions. You will notice, too, the large stones on 
either side of the east window of the chancel, with a rough filling up of 
stonework immediately under them. These stones evidently formed the 
canopies of two figures that stood there. When were they removed ? 
When were those marble figures carried away and hidden which were 
recently discovered in the wall of the Angel Inn ? Where are the missing 
two which made up the group ? Whsn was the rood-loft destroyed, the 
entrance to which you plainly see on the walls ? When was the pretty 
little niche in the porch robbed of the figure of the Virgin, to whom the 
church is dedicated? Was it after the Battle of Lansdown — when the 
Parliamentary troops harassed the rear of the Royalists, who after the 



Bristol Meeting. 



55 



battle had retired to their quarters at Marshfield, and thence retreated to 
Devizes? However that may have been, even they could scarcely have 
done more havoc with the church than the hand of the so-called restorer 
in i860, who, whilst substituting the pitch-pine seats throughout the 
•church for the old carefully-locked pews and capacious gallery, effaced at 
the same time much that would have been most interesting to us to-day- 
much that would have carried us back to days of perhaps greater reverence 
for holy things than those in which we live. 

If time permitted, I could tell much that is interesting of the Goslett 
family, to which the manor passed from the Abbey of Keynsham. One 
of that family presented the mace (which I have put for your inspection) 
to the local Corporation of a high bailiff and feoffees. The mace is of the 
time of Charles I., and had the Goslett Arms at the base, which are now 
worn away. Another of the family, to whose memory there is a tablet 
beside the east window of the north aisle, distinguished himself as a 
magistrate by marrying ninety-two couples from all the neighbouring 
parishes during the Commonwealth, in some cases "toe banns having 
been called three successive maiket daies in the Market Place at 
Marshfield." Those registers are on view. His niece, Dionysia Long, to 
whom also there is a tablet near her uncle's, was a great benefactor to 
the poor of this parish, largely increased the value of the benefice, and 
presented some silver vessels of considerable value, but scarcely suitable 
to our present mode of administering the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper. 
These, too, you will have an opportunity of inspecting, together with an 
old Elizabethan chalice of great beauty. 

The feoffees still survive, though the high bailiff has been extin- 
guished ; and they continue to administer the property of the almshouses, 
winch you passed on entering the long street, and which were built and 
endowed by a family of the name of Crisp, who were a numerous clan in 
days gone by. 

I wish we had more to show you of interest to your Society. Of one 
thing you are assured, and that is, that even if you have not gathered 
much information of an archaeological character, at least you have derived 
nothing but health from the salubrious air of " Marchfeldt." 

In my time the tower has been renovated outside and within— a new 
roof supplied, two of the pinnacles renewed, two of the six bells recast, 
and the peal rehung by Messrs. Llewellyn, of Bristol, in a cage for eight. 
The porch, which was in a dilapidated condition, has been restored, and 
a new piece added to the churchyard, which had been indecently buried 
in over and over again. The chancel has been cleared of rectorial and 
vicarial seats by the insertion of oak choir-stalls, and an attempt has been 
made to impart a more stately appearance to the church. The reredos 
was the gift at the same time of Mrs. Firth, of Ashwicke Hall. 



56 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



On entering the town the picturesque almshouses were passed. They 
were founded by Elias Crispe, alderman of London, and consisted of 
a chapel with a spire in the middle and eight dwellings built in 1619. 
These are under the control of an old Corporation consisting of a high 
bailiff and nine feoffees. 

Rudder says: "The town has a bailiff for its chief officer, chosen 
annually at the court-baron. He is attended occasionally by a serjeant- 
at-mace and other officers to examine the weights and measures." The 
Corporation still possess the mace — temp. Charles I. — and this as well 
as the church plate and the old registers were shown at our visit. 

The group of buildings known as the " Home Farm " (to the north of 
the church), including an interesting culver house and a fine old barn, 
with quaint heads set in the east wall, was found to be well worth a visit. 

Mr. F. Were took the following heraldic notes at Marshfield : — " This 
church contains a good deal of heraldry, but I think a catalogue will 
suffice. Bigland says: 1. ' . . . abend ..." over monument to Eliza- 
beth Codrington, d. of the Rev. Thomas, of Dodington, 171 1. I think 
this means the augmentation coat, which is generally quartered with the 
true Codrington : « Vert on a bend arg. 3 roses gu. in sinister chief a 
dexter hand couped of the second.' 2. Viner, 1748 : ' Sa. (Rudder, az.) 
a bend or on a chief arg. 2 Cornish choughs ppr.' 3. Michell, 1779, 
impaling Lee or Ley, 1786. 4. In lozenge shield, Long, impaling 
Harrington, 1744. Dionysia, d. of John H., of Kelston, Som , and relict 
of Calthorp L. 5. Gibbes, impaling Harrington, 1723. Elizabeth, 
eldest d. of John H., and relict of Henry G., of Bristol. 6. Gostlett,. 
1692. 7. Quarterly of Webb : ' Or on a bend engr. gu. 3 crosses croslet 
fitchee arg.,' 1724, with 2 and 3, Richmond, alias Webb: 'Arg. a cross 
patonce az. betw. 4 mullets gu.,' and the same Webb impaling Richmond. 
Nicholas W. married Anne W. , of Wotton Underedge. 8. Three shields 
over Bearpacker, 1715. 1 : Really, ' Az. a lion pass. betw. 3 crosses 
pattee fitchee arg., and a crest,' ? bear or ram; 2: ? Reynolds ; 3: 
? Dobyns. 9. 'Arg. a chev. or,' 1733. This is false. Query, ' Sa. 
a chev. arg.,' for Feek. 10. On atchievement, Willis, 1789. n. 
Meredeth, 1641. 

The drive was continued in the afternoon to Hamswell House, where 
the members were received by Major Augustus T. Baker, the occupier. 
Hamswell stands close to the field of the Battle of Lansdown, fought on 
July 5th, 1643. The Royalist army, under Sir Ralph Hopton, was drawn 
up on Togg Hill facing their opponents, who occupied the ridge of Lans- 
down to the south. The fight began with an attack by the Parliamentary 
Horse on the Royalists in Cold Ashton, which was easily repulsed. Then 
along the line of the road by which we passed from the London Road to 
Hamswell, the Cornishmen, under Sir Bevil Grenville, charged down the 



Bristol Meeting. 



57 



northern slope and up to Lansdown, repulsing no fewer than five charges 
made downhill by the Parliamentary cavalry against them, and winning 
the breastwork on the summit of the hill, only to find that the guns, which 
were the object of the attack, had been removed and were again in 
position behind a stone wall. Not more than 600 out of 2,000 Royalist 
cavalry survived. Sir Bevil Grenville was wounded, and died m the 
Rectory House at Cold Ashton. That night Sir William Waller withdrew 
his troops to Bath. The next day the Royalists began a retreat-which 
was little better than a rout— to Devizes, 

"Hameswell is a hamlet in the parish of Cold Ashton, formerly 
belonging to the prior of Bath .... It was afterwards the property of 
the Pipwells, and is now the seat of Mr. Whittington, who has a good 
house there." So wrote Rudder a century and a quarter ago. It was 
apparently never a large house ; much of its seventeenth-century character 
has been removed, but enough remains to show how delightful in style it 
was originally. 

The weathered entrance porch facing north-east is now its chief 
attraction, noteworthy for the effective columns, the interrupted pediment, 
and the excellent setting of the shield of arms. 

Worthy of notice, too, are the quaint shell-pattern niches at the angles, 
and the stone-mullioned windows over. On the south-east side there is 
an interesting door head with lion brackets. 

The interior claims little of note : a carved chimney-piece with column 
supports in the hall, bearing the date !66 4 ; a late Jacobean staircase, as 
well as a " secret " chamber or two. 

Mr Were gives the following description of the Hamswell House 
heraldry —" After inspection of the Hamswell House porch shield 
I send these few notes for the Transactions. From a study of the masonry 
surrounding the shield, I should say that it was let into the wall after the 
porch was built, and though no doubt the whole was erected by a 
Whittington, this could not have been done till somewhere about 1608, 
as according to Rudder, the Pipwells were then lords of it. The form 
of' the shield proves that it also was about that date. It consists of an 
oval shield with scroll mantling, and is not an achievement with helmet, 
wreath, and crest. It bears a plain field (which tends to show that it was 
intended to be painted, when it would be gules) with the chequy fess of 
the Whittingtons, impaling a plain field and plain chevron. This proves 
a Whittington marriage, but there is none known of that date with a family 
bearing a plain chevron. This suggests that it was intended for interna 
decoration, and may indeed have occupied when painted another site all 
which paint was removed or has perished when and since it occupied its 
present position. In Glos. Vis., 1623, P- ^ Robert is stated to be o Cold 
Ashton being grandson of Robert Whittington, of St. Briavels, so it looks 



58 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



as if they were in the parish before being resident at Hamswell. His son 
John is of Hamswell, and he married Anne Chamber, of Marshfield, 
who if she had any arms might have borne, ' Argent a chevron between 
three cinquefoils gules,' in which case the cinquefoils would have to be 
added, and the chevron, both painted gules ; but I think the last pair's 
son William is the most likely to be the marriage intended, as he married 
Joyce, daughter of William Blanchard, of Batheston, who bore for their 
coat, ' Gules a chevron or between in chief two bezants and in base a 
griffin's head erased of the second ; " here there would be the bezants and 
the griffin's head as well as the chevron to be gilded. It was suggested 
that it might be the Milborne coat, which is ' Gules a chevron ermine 
between three escallops argent,' but this marriage was earlier than the 
shield would say, and that Whittington was of the Pauntley stock. I could 
find no place in the house where it could originally have been placed, and 
can but conclude that it was intended for a panel of a sarcophagus tomb, 
or for a mural monument in the church which was never erected, and so 
placed here instead." 

Of exquisite charm is the position of the old house. The Lansdown 
ridge as well as the Westbury White Horse can be seen from the upper 
of the two long raised terraces, from whence you descend by an old stone 
stairway to a long canal or fishpond. 

This property is still in the possession of a collateral branch of the 
Whittingtonsi of Pauntley (near Newent), one of whose ancestors was the 
famous Sir Richard Whittington, three times Lord Mayor of London, and 
it is now occupied by a descendant of that family. 

The last place visited was Wick Court, where the members were enter- 
tained at afternoon tea by Mr. and Mrs. F. C. Constable. A ramble 
around this delightful Elizabethan house was much enjoyed, Mr. and Mrs. 
Constable making charming hosts, and showing the visitors the treasures 
of the house, prominent among which are the splendid examples of oak 
panelling and a unique carved-oak staircase. Before leaving Mr. F. F. 
Tuckett, on behalf of the members, thanked Mr. J. E. Pritchard, the 
hon. secretary for Bristol, for the admirable way in which he had carried 
through the arrangements of the meeting; and Mr. F. F. Fox thanked 
Mr. and Mrs. Constable for their hospitality. 

Rudder tells us that at the, time of Domesday the manor of Puckle- 
church, Abson and Wick was held by the Abbey of Glastonbury. " But 
when King Richard the First was prisoner at Vienna, the Emperor Leopold 
obliged him to annex that abbey to the See of Bath and Wells, and to give 
that bishoprick to Savaricus, the emperor's kinsman. And in the year 1205 
the monks of Glastonbury quitted their right in the manors of Puckle- 
chucrh, Ashton and Westerleigh, and in the patronage of several church* 
1 Lysons (Samuel), Model Merchant, i860. See p. 12 and pedigree. 



les, 



Bristol Meeting. 



59 



to that bishopries upon condition that Joceline, the bishop, would restore 
to them the election of their own abbot." 

It was held by that See for over two hundred and fifty years, ana 
eventually passed to the Wintour family. Sir Edward Wintour was lord 
of this manor in the year ,608. Sir John Wintour, son of Sir Eaward 
granted it away 1632-3, and by divers mesne conveyances it was assigned 
to Mr. Thomas Haynes in the year 1665." 

In Atkyn's History of the County a capital bird's-eye view of Wick Con 
is given The date of the house is not known, but it was probably bu.lt 
,ate in the Elizabethan period. It is still very much in its original state , 
but the boundary walls have been slightly altered since then, and the 
re SI dence has been roofed with tiles instead of stone. See two patches o 
the original stone roof in the front. The south or front etevat.cn is most 
ffective. though exceeding s.mple in style, with its excellent stnne-capp d 
gables and deep stone-mullioned windows; the stone balls capp.ng the , 
pinnacles are recent additions. The north side is equally >^™, 

As to the interior, the carved-oak staircase is a typ.cal example of the 
Elizabethan period, but the lower part has been altered. There are 
several paneUed-oak rooms and carved-oak doorways of great uteres 
and in the » withdrawing "-room may be seen a veritable " priest s hole, 
which had communication with the room below. The kitchen possesses 
an original " spit-wheel " in a niche at the side of the fireplace. 

During the Roman occupation of England the direct route between 
Bath and the Severn probably passed through this parish. At al events, 
considerable Roman remains have been found here rom tune o time 
but no careful record was ever made. In an arable field called the 
Chissels " not far from the Court, two out of four upnght stones stdl 
remain. They are illustrated in Seyer's History of Bristol, vol. 1., p. rot, 
but as to their origin nothing is known. 

Soon after passing Warmley Station we entered the district ; of K ngs- 
wood. Until i 75 z there was no parish church between St Ph.hp . 
Church in Bristol, and Bitton Church, six miles away After 
disafforestationof I2 2 7 the land had been gradually portioned out among 
n e ghbouring landowners, and a pcpulation of several thousands had grown 
up a large proportion being very ignorant and lawless. Bishop Butler 
had r commended the erection of a church before his translation to 
Durham in 1750, and in ! 75 z the church of St. George was consecrated 
Z tin bufld ng was erected after a fire in .878. Whitefield preached 
h firs field sermon at Rose Green, half a mile north of the church, on 
February r 7 th, i 7 39, and John Wesley followed his example m the same 
district on April 2nd following. 

The drive home in the cool of the evening was pleasant, and die 
.observance of the same punctuality which had marked the whole of 



6o 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



the programme enabled the visitors to arrive in Bristol in time to catch 
their trains to various parts of the country. Thus ended one of the 
most successful meetings in the history of the Society. 

Our thanks are due to the Lord Bishop of Bristol, the Rev. C. S.Taylor, 
Miss I. M. Roper, Mr. C. F.W. Dening, Mr. G. H. Oatley, and Mr. F.Were 
for valuable notes in the programme ; to Professor Fawcett for his beautiful 
photographs of Chelvey; to Mr. W. Moline for others of Clapton and 
Weston-in-Gordano, showing, as usual, great architectural detail ; and not 
least to Mr. Guy Chilton for specially travelling over a good part of the 
Somerset and Gloucestershire routes, and preparing the excellent series 
of views recorded in his name. But most of all were the thanks of 
the members due to Mr. J. E. Pritchard, Honorary Secretary for Bristol, 
who had not only made all arrangements for the meeting and had drawn 
up the programme, but who also carried through the proceedings of the 
meeting with a smoothness and efficiency which contributed very much 
indeed to the enjoyment of the members. 



Bristol & Gloucestershire Archaeological 

Society. 



Bristol Meeting, 1906. 




EXHIBITION 

OF 

OLD BRISTOL PLANS, 

BRISTOL COINAGE, 
ANTIQUITIES, 

&c, 



At the CONVERSAZIONE on July 17th. 



This is the first occasion on which such a complete collection of Plans h; 
chronicled and brought together, amongst which are several of great rarit 
Compiled by John E. Pritchard, F.S.A., Hon. Sec. for Bristol. 



®l& Bristol plane- 



rAijQ Rtcart [Robert]. Bristollia. Coloured facsimile plan of the city, 
I47Q - £om the 1 original in the Mayor's Kalendar at the Council House, 
compiled by Robert Ricart, Town Clerk, 18 Edward IV. [j. E. p.] 

T rfi8 SMITH rW], Bristow. Coloured facsimile from original plan in the 
5 ?S™ie" collection, British Museum. The earliest measured plan of 
the city. LJ ' 

tt T ^ rronprBl Rrie-htstowe. From Braun's Civitates Orbis 

I581 - ^r^dvoTrSlofn"^: The earliest published plan o£ 
the city. L 



Ditto. Contemporary colouring 



[H 



TANSSEN riANl A similar plan, from Theatvum Orbis Tcrrarum,. 
ImsTerdam U C 1656. Evidently copied from Hoefnagle. [h. g. k ] 

Ditto. Contemporary colouring. t H - G - K ^ 

■xt ^™ rK, ? °, Rrip-htstowe. "The most nourishing mart of 

c i59 °- sssa.- [t A 1 -™ u s r a£2d - ytr 

engraver, was born at Bologna, 1560. V- '-J 



r ,fino Hondius m Bristolia-Bristow. A small unsigned plan, probably 
C. ,600. HoNmus. U-l Hondms whQ was born t Ghe n t ^ bat 

came to England c. 1583. He was the engraver of several of Speede s 

maps. 

1610 Spfede rToHN]. Bristow. A Plan of the city from Speede's Map 
16 oi P&uShik engraved by I. Hondius or A. Goos. [j. E. p.] 

TfioR CT Briehtstowe in Engelland. A small signed plan. "C. L ," 
3 an unknown eng aver of the seventeenth century, signed the engravings 
£ Md£S?s Sciagraphica Cosmica, published at Nuremberg m 1638, 
which included this plan. LJ ' 



;rou, wiui aims ui ^cv»^~. — - , . " 

topographical work, published at Frankfort in 1642. 



1644. Sketch of the Outworks of Bristol in 1644. By Edm" Turnor, 
F.A.S. Del* 1801. u ' • J 

r T fiA* Plan de Bristol. In the British Museum is a MS. plan of the city 
C I6 «- bv a French draughtsman, 

originality. L 



6 4 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



1653. Stainred, [Philip] . " About the close of this year the Corporation of 
Bristol directed one Philip Stainred, supposed to have been a land 
surveyor, to make a new plan of the city, and perhaps, amongst the 
numerous civic documents that have perished in the course of centuries, 
the loss of this work is the most to be regretted." Latimer's A finals of 
Bristol, Seventeenth Century, p. 248. 
Tyson recorded the existence of this plan in 1823. 

C. 1660. Saxton, [C.]. Brestoll. Plan at top left-hand corner of Map of 
Glocester-Shire. [j. e. p .j 

1671. Millerd, [Iacobus]. An exact delineation of the famous Cittie 
of Bristoll and suburbs thereof. Composed by a Scale and 
Ichnographically described by I. M., 1671. The first measured and 
published plan of the city. In contemporary colouring. [j. e. p. J 

1673. Millerd, [Iacobus]. An exact delineation of the famous Citty 
of Bristoll and Suburbs. By la. Millerd. Twenty views in the 
margins. Printed in four sections. See Latimer's Annals, Seventeenth 
Century, p. 361. [ w> E . Jt j 

C. 1673. Millerd, [Iacobus]. The Citty of Bristoll: a bird's-eve view 
from the south. By Iacobus Millerd de Bristoll (delin et sculpsit). 
" Sould by Iohn Overton in London, and by Tho. Wall, bookseller, 
in Bristoll." [l. m. g.] 

1717. Kip, [T.]. The City of Bristol. A quaint view from the south. 
After H. Blundel. r s . T _] 

,q. 1720. Nicholls.. [Sutton]. A small bird's-eye view of Bristol. 

[c. h. c] 

1734. Buck, [S. and N.]. The North-West Prospect of the City of 
Bristol. From Pile Hill. rj 0 j 

1734. Ditto. The South-East Prospect. From Brandon Hill. [j. o.] 

1742. Rocque, [John]. A Plan of the City of Bristol, survey d and 
drawn by John Rocque : engrav'd by John Pine. Elevations of 
the Exchange in lower corners. Printed in four sections. 

[J. f. E.] 

1746. Wilstar, [I. I. D.]. A Survey of the Manor of Clifton. A MS. 

plan. See Trans. B. &> G. Arch. Soc, Vol. XXIII., p. 312. 

1750. Rocque, [John]. A Survey of the City and Suburbs of Bristol, 
survey 'd by John Rocque, Land Surveyor, at Charing Cross, 17^0. 
Ten views in side margins. This edition has the title also "in 
French, [g. h. h.J 

1751. Roque, [J.J. A Plan of the City and Suburbs of Bristol, by 

J. Roque, for B. Hickey, Bookseller in Bristol, 1751. Ten views in 
side margins. [Included here for reference] 

^ 1751. Rocque, [John]. A Geometrical Plan of the City and Suburbs 
of Bristol, survey'd by John Rocque, Land Surveyor. Published 
by B. Hickey, Bookseller, in Nicolas Street. Ten views in side 
margins. [ w . E . G .j 



755. 



Old Bristol Plans. 65 

Cheevers rt.1 A small Plan of the City and Suburbs of Bristol. 

u [Included here for reference.] 

tm. RopuE, [J.]. A new Plan of the City and Suburbs of Bristol, 
by J. Roque. Sold by J. Palmer, Bookseller in Bristol, 1759- Ten 
views in side margins. [ J - E - P -J 

1760. La Cruz, [Juan de]. Veue de Bristol. A miniature bird's-eye 
view. L 

1769. Donn, [B.]. A Map of the Country 11 miles round the City 
of Bristol. With view of St. Vincent's Rocks, and Plan of 
Druidical Stones at Stanton Drew. A second edition was published 
in 1804. Engraved by R. Coffin. 



177, Donn, [Benjamin]. A Plan of the City of Bristol, delineated 
from actual survey. Second edition, 1778 \ third edition, 1782 ; 
fourth edition, 1784; fifth edition, 1791. U- E - P J 

177s. Donne, PH.]. A Map of the Country eleven miles round the 
City of Bristol. Abridged from the large map by H. Donne. 
Coloured. Engraved for, and published by, B. Donn. [j. f. e.J 
Other editions, 1778, 1780, 1787. 

1780. Benning, TRichard] . A Plan of Bristol. Without inscription. 
Eng-aved for Barrett's History, but copied from Rocque [J. f. e.J 
The original copper plate is now in the Museum Collection. 

1794. Mathews's New and Correct Plan of the City and Suburbs of 
7 Bristol. M - G ] 

Other editions, 1797, 1815, 1819, 1825. 

1 799 . Edwards, [R.] . Plan of the City and Suburbs of Bristol. 
Another edition 1801. L L - M - G -l 

1800. Donne, [B.]. New and correct Plan of Bristol, Clifton, and the 
Hotwells. June 1st, 1800. L-L F - E -J 
Other editions, 1806, 1815, 1823, 1833. 

1801. Donne, [B.]. Map of the Country twenty-one miles round the 
City of Bristol. LL E ' ,J 

Other editions, 1815, 1817, 1834. 

1822. Evans, [Rev. J.]. A new Plan of Bristol, Clifton, and the 
Hot Wells, with the recent additions and improvements. Drawn by 
] F Stansbury and engraved by Sidy Hall under the direction of 
the Rev. John Evans. Dedicated to the Mayor, James George, Esq. 

[J. E. P J 

Another edition was issued when Mr. George was again Mayor, 1836-7. 

[W. E. G.J 

1826. Donne, [B.]. A Plan of Bristol, Clifton the Hotwells, &c From 
an actual survey by B. Donne. "A view of Clifton and the Hotwells 
at the top right-hand corner. Published Jan** 23rd, 1826^ ^ ^ ^ 

Another edition was issued in 1831. f J - E - 

6 

Vol. XXIX. 



66 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



i82g. Ashmead, [G. C] Plan of Bristol and its Suburbs. With 
arms of the City, the See, and the Society of Merchant Venturers. 
Scale, 200 ft. = 1 in. Size, 6 ft. 3 in. wide by 5 ft. 7 in. deep. 

[J. e. p.] 

1833. Ashmead, [G. C.]. Plan of Bristol and its Suburbs, reduced from 
the original survey of the late J. Plumley, with additions by Geo. C. 
Ashmead. With tinted view of "Clifton and the Hot Wells," and 
the arms of the city. [j p E ] 

Another edition was issued in 1882. 



©lb flDape of tbe (Eoutttp. 

1577. Saxton, [Christopher]. Glocestriae. Christofervs Saxton, Descripsit ; 
Avgvstinvs Ryther, Anglvs Scvlpsit, An° Dni 1577. In contemporary 
colouring. The earliest map of the County. [j. f. e ] 

Note. — To Christopher Saxton we are indebted for the earliest maps 
of the counties of England and Wales. He lived at Tingley, 
Yorkshire, and was servant to Thomas Sekeford, Esq., 
Master of Requests, and Master of the Court of Wards, 
at whose expense he published a complete set of the 
counties, many of which he engraved himself [1573-9]. 
They were dedicated to Queen Elizabeth, and adorned 
with the Royal Arms, and those of " Master Sekeford," and 
were published in 1579. 

1610. Speede, [John]. Glocestershire. With plans of the Cities of Bristow 
and Glocester. Engraved by Hondius or Goos. [l. m. g.] 

C. 1648. Blaeu, [A.]. Glocestria Dvcatvs ; Vulgo Glocestershire. 

With Royal Arms of England, and Arms of the Earls and Dukes of 
Gloucester. Coloured. Published in Amsterdam. [j. e. p.] 

C. 1650. Janssen, [Jan]. Glocestria Dvcatvs, cum Monvmethensi Comi- 
tatu. With arms of the Earls and Dukes of Gloucester. Coloured. 
Published in Amsterdam. [j. f. e.] 

C. 1660. Saxton, [Christopher]. Glocester-Shire. Described by C S. 

Corrected and Amended with many Additions by P. Lea. With plan 
of Brestoll at top left-hand corner and Glocester "at bottom right-hand 
corner : also Eleven Shields of Arms of Earls and Dukes of Gloucester. 

[J. e. p.] 

C. 1760. Bowen, [Eman.]. The County of Gloucester, divided into Hundreds. 

Coloured. With view of Cathedral Church of Gloucester, [j. e. p.] 

1777. Taylor, [Isaac]. Map of the County of Gloucester, comprising 
views of Berkeley Castle, St. Briavel's Castle, Beverstone Castle, 
Sudeley Castle, Thornbury Church and Castle. With arms of the Sees 
of Gloucester and Bristol. Published at Ross. [e. o. t.] 

C. 1693. The Severn or Channell of Bristoll. (From actual survey by 
Capt. Greenvile Collins.) Dedicated to the Right Honourable S r Rob* 
Southwell, K*, who attended his Majty K. William the 3rd in his 
Expedition for Ireland in Quality of Principall Secretary of State for 
that Kingdom. It bears the Southwell arms. [s. t.] 

q 1693. The River Avon from the Severn to the Citty of Bristoll. 

(From actual survey by Capt Greenvile Collins.) Dedicated to the 
Right Worshipfull Robert Yate, Esq., Mayor of Bristoll, and Master 
of the Merchants' Hall in that city. [s .t.] 



Antiquities. 



67 



XVIII Century The Road from London to the City of Bristol By 

Thos Gardner. Containing 115 miles 2 furlongs. Dedicated to 
Iir Richard How, Bart., and William Helyar, Esq. [w. E. G,] 



antiquities- 

PRE-HISTORIC PERIODS. 

STONE AGE. 

Paleolithic celt, found at Downham. U- B J 

Two Paleolithic celts, found at Savernake. [J- e. p.] 
A small selection of Neolithic weapons and implements found by 

exhibitor in the West of England. U- P -J 

BRONZE AGE. 

Flat celt— neighbourhood of Aberdeen. U- B J 

Five palstaves-found at Westbury-on-Trym (Glos.). 1885, ^ Bath, 

Honiton, Raglan, and in Argyleshire. U- P -J 

Two socketed celts— Brigg. [ J - E " P ^ 

Socketed celt-Ireland. ^' E " P ^ 

Spear-head— Raglan. t Jl E ' P ^ 

Tanged dagger-Blackenbury Camp, between Nibley andWotton, 

1903. 



IRON AGE 



A collection of Objects, including bone needles, spindle whorls 
whetstones, and horns showing signs of sawing, from Bristol 
excavations. .' ' * 

These form the earliest traces of man's occupation of the site of the 
old city. 

See Trans., vols, xxiii., xxvi., and xxvii. 

BRITISH AND ROMANO-BRITISH PERIOD. 
A Collection of Ancient British and Romano-British remains from 
Tyning and Kilmersdon Road Quarries at Radstock, Somerset. 

Quern, upper stone, with handle modelled after a Silchester 

specimen. 
Rubbing stone with rubber. 

Whetstone of lias. . r . MrM 1 

Nodules of iron ore and bits of charcoal. [J- mcm.J 

Small collection of bronze implements, including fibulae . tweezers, 

ear scoop, and armlet. ' 
Samian and Pseudo-Samian pottery, including two complete v«sel» 

and parts of others. L ' 

Groups of other Romano-British pottery, including examples c 

Upchurch and Salopian. lj- 

[j. MCM.] 

Spindle whorls. 

, • 1 \J- MCM ] 

Specimens of ancient glass. 

Collection of iron nails and other articles. D- MCM J 

[J. MCM.] 



Worked flints. 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



Bones of various domestic and other animals, some split others 
calcined, found in refuse pits with the foregoing remains ■'— 
Horn cores, probably of the ox. 
Deer horn. 

Teeth of the horse, cow, sheep, pig, dog, hedgeho^ etc 
Tusks of the boar. '[j. mcm.] 

Snail shells, plentiful throughout the deposit. [j. mcm.] 

Photographs of Fosse Road taken during the excavations at 
Radstock - [j. MCM.] 

ROMANO-BRITISH PERIOD. 

Three bronze fibulas, found in the district round Bristol, [j. e. p.] 

Small sculptured head, probably an ornament of military dress, found 
at Sea Mills. ^ £ p -j 

Three bronze keys. Two from Sea Mills and one from Cirencester. 

[J. e. p.] 

MEDIEVAL PERIOD AND LATER. 
Green glazed stoneware jug, probably thirteenth century, found in 
pulling down an old house in Bristol in 1876. 
The "stiff leaf" decoration, characteristic of this period, was 
considered by the late Sir Augustus Franks to be unique. 

[r. h. w.] 

Stone corbel, found in making road in Lower College Green, four- 
teenth or fifteenth century. [ R H w j 

Red pottery water pitcher, fourteenth century, found in an old Bristol 
well, 1900. " [; £ p] 

Mediaeval Paving Tiles from the Abbey of St. Augustine, now 
Bristol Cathedral : — 

Shield of Thomas, Lord Berkeley, 1281-1321 

Abbot John Newland, 1481-1515. " ffiat misericordia, tua 

domme super nos." 
Shield of Abbot Robert Elyot, 1515-1526. 
Initials of Abbot Elyot interlaced. 
Tudor Rose (same period). 
Shield of Berkeley Arms (same period). 

Flemish tile in relief, sixteenth century. [r. h. w.] 

Ivory draughtsman, twelfth century. Bristol excavation, 1897. 

[j. E. p.] 

Ivory essence box or vinaigrette, with five glass phials, late 
sixteenth century. Bristol excavation, 1897. [j. e. p.] 

Carved bone head-dress pin, probably fourteenth century. Bristol 
excavation, 1901. ^ £ p -j 

Wood head-dress comb, probably twelfth century. Bristol excava- 
tl0n ' I9 °5- [j. E. P.] 

Small unconsecrated pewter paten, twelfth to fourteenth century. 
Bristol excavation, 1905. rj E P -1 

It was customary in early mediaeval times to place a chalice and 
paten with the body of a priest for burial. These vessels were 
ot base metal and unconsecrated. They are rarely found. 

Alphabet tablet of bone (or horn book "). Bristol excavation, 1903. 

[J. E. P.] 

Three seventeenth-century pewter spoons. Bristol excavation, 1905. 

[J. E. P.] 



A Collection of Coins of the Bristol Mint. 69 



A fifteenth-century brass spoon, found in Bristol, igoo. [j. e. p.] 
A seventeenth-century three-prong fork, found in Bristol, 1902. 

[J. E. P.] 

Two seventeenth-century brass gaiter spurs, found in Bristol, 1903 
and 1904. [J. e. p.] 

A collection of various objects found at Quay Head and Host Street, 
1902. [J. f. E.] 

Mediaeval silver finger ring, bearing a •" merchant's mark," found 
on site of Bristol gaol. [e. j. s.] 

Ecclesiastical silver finger ring. Bristol excavation, 1903. [j. e. p.] 



H Collection of Coins of tbe Bristol flDint 

[J. R. B.] 

ALL VERY RARE. 

HAROLD I., 1035-1040. (Silver.) 
Penny. Obv. Bust of King to left holding Sceptre >$< HAROLD 
REX. Rev. PVLPIINE (NE joined) ON (joined) BRIC. 
Cross voided. A flower in each angle issuing from a central 
compartment. 

WILLIAM I., 1066-1087 (or William IT.). 
Penny. Obv. Bust of King, full-faced, holding sceptre ^ PILLEM 
REX. Rev. COLBLIC ON BRIP. Cross pattee with the 
word PAXS in the angles, each letter enclosed in a circle. 

Penny. Same. A second specimen as last. 
Penny. Same. Rev. BRITPORD ON BRI. 

EDWARD I., 1272-1307. 
Penny. Obv. Bust of King, full-face crowned EDW. R. ANG. 
DNS HYB. Rev. VILLA BRISTOLLIE. (Three specimens.) 

Penny. Same variety. 

Penny. Same, but Rev. reads " VILL," &c. 
Halfpenny. Same type as Pennies, "VILLA." 

Farthing. Same as Pennies. Obv. ^ E. R. ANGLIE. Rev. VILLA 
BRISTOLLIE. 

EDWARD IV, 1461-1483. (Gold.) 

Rose Noble. Obv. King full-faced, crowned, in right hand sword, on 
left arm a shield of arms France and England quarterly. He 
stands in ship, rose on side, flag bearing large E. (B for Bristol 
on waves.) EDWARD REX ANGL * FRANC DNS I B 
(for HIB). (Trefoils between words including letters I B). Rev. 
In the centre of a cusped circle a rose upon a large sun, 
- surrounded by 4 lions with crowns over them, alternately with 
4 fleurs-de-lis over the ends of a cross fleury (connected with the 
sun's ravs . Mm. a crown. IHC AVT TKANSIENS PER 
MEDIVM ILLORVM I BAT. Single trefoils after the 1st 
and 2nd words and between the I and BAT ; double trefoils after 
ILLORVM ; dot after A in TRANSIENS. Weight 120 grains. 

Another. Mm. a crown. Weight 120 grains. 

Another. Mm. a cinquefoil. 



> Transactions for the Year jgo6. 

EDWARD IV. (Silver.) [j. r. b ] 

(i) Groats (light.) Obv. King crowned. Mm. Sun. EDWARD DI 
GRA REX ANGL N FRANC ; quatrefoil each side of neck. 
B on the King's breast. Rev. VILLA x BRISTOLL. 
Weight 52 grains. 

{2) As last, but with x after " Franc." 

(3) Reading "BRESTOLL." 

(4) Omitting B on breast, instead of which the arch is fleured. 

Unpublished. . Very rare. 
{5) As the last (without B on breast, but reading BRISTOVV. Very 
rare). 

(6) Reading BRISTOVV. 

(7) Mm. a crown. Obv. Quatrefoil each side of neck. B on breast. 

Rev. BRISTOLL. 2 Saltires in inner legend. 

(8) As last, but 1 Saltire only in inner legend of Rev. 

(9) As last, but without any Saltires in inner legend. 

(io) Obv as before, but with double Saltires after FRANC. B on 

breast. Rev. VILLA BRISTOVV. 
{11) Obv. as before, without the Saltires after FRANC. 

(12) Obv. as before, " FRAN " ; trefoil after VIL and before B on Rev. 

(13) Obv. as before, an annulet after FRAN. 

(14) Obv as before ; FRANC ; Rev. trefoils in inner legends as before. 
{15) Obv. as before ; FRANCE ; words divided by Saltires. Rev. 

VILLA x BRESTOLL 
(16) Obv. (only) Mm. Rose and Sun. united. 4 foil each side of breast. 

B on breast. Rev. VILLA x BRESTOLL. Inscr. on Obv. 

divided by Saltires. 
{17) Mm Ob. Rose. Rev. Sun. 4 foil each side of breast. B on breast. 

Insc. on Ob. divided by Saltires. Rev. VILLA * BRESTOLL. 

(18- 21) Four others, slightly differing in detail. 

Crown Obv. A Tudor Rose crowned (single arch), between H.R., 
both crowned. HENRIC VIII : ROSA x SINE x SPINE. 
Rev. WS (joined, Monogram of Sir W m Sharington), DG 
ANGL' x FRANCZ x HIB' REX x In centre a shield, 
France & England quarterly, between a crowned H & R, with 
crown over shield (all as obverse). 

Crown. Same as before. 



HENRY VIII. (Silver. 
Groats. Obv. King's head to left, crowned. Mm. a cinquefoil. 
HENRIC &c. On Rev. Mm. a cinquefoil and lilies. Inscr: 
BRISTOLIE CIVITAS and Sharington' s monogram. Fleurs- 
de-lis in forks of cross. (Fourth coinage.) 

Obv. King's head to left, crowned. Similar to above. (Fifth 
coinage.) 

Half Groats. Obv. As above, but without the Mm. Monogram 
unusually distinct. Nothing in forks of cross. 

Obv. As above. Two dissimilar quatrefoils between " Civitas " 
and " Bristolie " ; and quatrefoils in forks of cross. Sharington's 
Monogram. 



Illuminated Mss., Old Deeds, etc. 



7i 



CHARLES I". (Silver.) [j. R. B.] 

Half-Crown. Obv. King in armour on horseback to right. Mm. 
(obv. only), plume. Plume behind King. Rev. "Declaration" 
in two lines. Three plumes above, and 1644 and monog. BR 
(combined) below. Rev. extremely fine, but horse badly struck. 
Shilling Obv. King's head crowned to right. XII. behind. Mm. 
obv a plume. Rev. BR (combined) in monog. "Declaration" 
in three lines, with three very large plumes above, and 1644 
below. 

Sixpence Mm. " B " {obverse). CAROLUS D.G. &c. Rev. 1646. 

"Declaration" in three lines. Scroll work above. 
Twopenny Piece. Obv. As last. II behind King. Rev. has monog. 

BR (combined) under "Declaration." 
Penny. Obv. As last. I. behind King. Rev. Shield. 

WILLIAM III. (Silver.) 
Half-crowns. Obv. GVLIEMVS III DEI GRA. King's profile to 

left laureated. Roman mantle. BR (combined) monogram, 

under Bust. Rev. MAG BR FRA ET HIB REX 1697. 

Four shields of Arms crowned ; Eng. Ireland, Scot France. 

In the centre, Arms of Nassau. On the edge, DECVS EI 

TVTAMEN ANNO REGNI NONO, and four crosses potent. 

(Two Specimens.) 
Shillings. As above, but without the inscription on edge, which is 

diagonally milled. 
Sixpences. As last. (Five specimens.) 



3liummatet> fll>£5, t ©l& Beefcs, &c. 

Durandus's Rationale, in folio, Augsburg, 1470. [bp. of c] 

Iporttfortum Samburiense, London, 1556. [bp. of c] 

/HMssale ©rfctais Cisterdeiisis, Paris, 1526. [bf. of c] 

Ludolph of Saxony's UMta 3". CbCiStl, Florence, ^MGiunta) 

MS. small /IlMSSale (English work), with arms and badge of 

Henry VII. on binding. [ BP - OF C J 

Extracts from Bristol Wills (fifteenth century). [bp. of c] 



B 2)ee0 Gift of the Abbey of Cirencester from Queen Elizabeth 
to her favourite physician, Dr. Richard Master, with seal. 

[G. C.-M.J 

B S>eefc, dated 1514, with seal. [ G - C -~ M ^ 

This is the Exemplification of a Recovery. -" A recovery was a fictitious 
suit invented by mediaeval practitioners, generally for the purpose 
of breaking entails or getting rid of outstanding remainders or 
possible claims to an estate. 
The great interest of this writ lies in the seal, which must have been 
engraved in the fourteenth century, when the arms of France 
were seme of fleurs-de-lis. It must have served the Court for the 
whole reigns of Henry IV., V., VI. and VII., and had been m 
use in 1514 for over a century."— (John Latimer.) 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



B 2>eeD dated 2nd September, 10 Hen. V. (i.e. 1422), really two 
days after the death of that King ; it is a grant by John Malory, 
of Winwick, to John de Seyton, of an annual rent of 55 marks 
secured on land in the parish of Kirby Monachorum. There is a 
good seal attached. 

This John Malory was the father of Sir Thomas Malory, who was in 
probability the author of the Morte D' Arthur. 

(See Archcrologia, vol. lvi. : "The identity of the author of the Morte 
D' Arthur, and Harvard Studies in Philology, vol. v. (1896)." Who 
was Sir Thomas Malory ?) [ T . w . \\\] 

Casts of two seals used by the Lord Abbot of the Monastery of St. 
Mary, Tewkesbury, on a lease dated 20th April, 1485. 

[w. a. s.] 

Cast of the great seal of Queen Elizabeth. [w. a. s ] 



JEnvly flMmtefc Boofcs. 



Froissart's Chronicles. Trans, by Lord Berners. Vol. i. printed 
by W. Middleton (n.d ); vol. ii. by R. Pynson, 1523. Bound in 
one volume. 

This copy was formerly in the possession of Mr. E. V. Utterson, and 
contains the following note by him in (pencil) : — 

' ' It was from this copy that the reprint of the invaluable old Cronycles 
was published by Messrs. Longman and Co., and edited by me" 
(in 1812). [t. w. w ] 

Gueuara's Dial of Princes. Trans, by T. North, London, 1582. 

This copy has book-plates of Duke of Sussex and Edward Hailstone 
and binder's ticket, said by Dr. Garnett to be very rare, if not 
unique. [t. vv. w.] 

Leland's New Year's Gift. Lond., 1549. Very rare. With auto- 
graph of Peter Le Neve, Norroy. [t. w. w.] 

Matthew de Cracovia, Ars Moriendi. (Cologne c. 1475.) 

Extremely rare. See interesting letter from Mr. Pollard, inserted. 

[t. w. w.] 

Interpretationes Hebraicorum Nominum. From the press of- 
Peter Schoeffer at Mentz. The capitals illuminated c. 1464. 
The type is that of the Bible of 1462. [a. h ] 

Dallaway's Antiquities of Bristol. 1834. The arms heraldically 
coloured. [ c s T j 



A thick volume of Cromwellian Newspapers, size 8£in. by 6 in. 

n [T. D. T . ] 

Comprising : — 

The Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer, September 27th, 1649. 

The Publick Intelligencer, February nth, 1656. 

Mercurius Politicus, from January 14th, 1657, to May 21st, 1663. 

Several of The Loyell Scout, 1660. 

And others of The Newes, 1663. 

Note.— The Mercurius Politicus of August 9th, 1660, "No. 32," 
contains an interesting item; for amongst the names of Deputy- 
Lieutenants appointed for the County of Somerset, that of 
Hugh Smyth, of Long Ashton, Esq., is recorded. 



Civil War Tracts. 



73 



Civil War {Tracts. 

[All small 4to.] 

His Majesty's Declaration to all His Loving Subjects, from Oxford, 

His Majesty's Declaration to all His Loving Subjects after his 
victories over Lord Fairfax in the North and Sir William 
Waller in the West, and the taking of Bristol, 1643. [f. f. f.J 

Copy of a Letter sent from Bristol giving Sir William Waller's victory 
over the Welch forces under Lord Herbert, also the names of 
the Conspirators in Bristol. L F - F - F J 

Speech of the Honble. Nathaniel Fienne's concerning^ bishops, 

SeconTspeech of the Hon. Nathaniel Fienne's touching the 
Subjects Liberty against the late Canons and the new oath. ^ 

Declaration of all particulars of Colonel Fienne's march to Bristol, - 
1643. 

Copy of the Articles agreed upon at the surrender of Bristol by 
Colonel Fiennes to Prince Rupert, July 26th, 1643. C F - F -J 

A relation made in the House of Commons by Colonel Fiennes 
concerning the surrender of Bristol, August 5 th, l6 43- p p ] 

An answer to Colonel Fiennes' relation "printed in the yeai : 1643'' 

L F - F - *•! 

Another but somewhat different copy printed for Thomas Underbill, 

!643- , • 

A Check to the Checker-The Honour and integrity of Colonel Fiennes 

revived, re-estated, and cleared, 1644. L F - F - *-J 

Colonel Fiennes' trial before a Council of War at St. Albans touching 

his cowardly and traytorly surrender of Bristol, 1644. 

[F. F. . J 

A Relation of the most Hellish, Cruell, and Bloody Plot against 
Bristol, hatched and contrived by the Malignants, Prince Rupert, 
etc., 1642. [F> F - F J 

The Examinations and Confessions of the Treacherous ; Conspirators, 
against the City of Bristol, and the sentence of death upon 

Two^tate Martyrs, or the Murder of Robert Yeomans and George 
Boucher, 1643. L F - • -J 

Fairfax's storming and capture of Bristol, and of Prince Rupert's 
surrender of the Castle, 1645. L F - F " FJ 

Cromwell's letter to the House of Commons giving particulars of the 
taking of the City of Bristol, 1645. L F - 

General Skippen's appointment to be Governor of Bristol, 1645- ^ 

PROCLAMATIONS, DECLARATIONS, AND PETITIONS 
&c 1621-1687 (in folio), from Lord Chatham's library at 
Burton Pynsent. L F - F - J 



74 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



Cbatterton fll>£, 

*Chatterton, [Thomas]. Boy Poet. B. 1752, d. 1770. 

The well-known Satire on Horace Walpole, entirely in his own 

autograph, with signature. Size 8^ by 5|. 
This has been published in some editions of the Boy Poet's works though the 

missive was never sent to Walpole, as indicated in the footnote. The 

complete MS. is now printed, as mistakes have been made in the text 

heretofore. 

The poet's sister (afterwards Mary Newton) was governess in the family 01 Philip 
George, of Bristol (Sheriff 180S, 1S13 and 1815), about the year 1783 ; and this 
MS. which was given to him at that time, has been in the possession of 
the George and Svvann families ever since. 
Walpole! I thought not I should ever see 
So mean a Heart as thine has proved to be; 
Thou, who in Luxury nurs'd beholds'dt with Scorn 
The Boy, who Friendless, Penniless, Forlorn, 
Asks thy high Favour,— thou mayst call me Cheat- 
Say, didst thou neer indulge in such Deceit? 
Who wrote Otranto ? But I will not chide, 
Scorn I will repay with Scorn, & Pride with Pride. 
Still, Walpole, still, thy Prosy Chapter's write, 
And twaddling Letters to some Fair indite, 
Laud all above thee— Fawn & Cringe to those 
Who, for thy Fame, were better FYiends than Foes 
Still spurn the incautious Fool, who dares- 
Had I the Gifts of Wealth & Lux'ry shar'd 
Not poor & Mean— Walpole ! thou hadst not dared 
Thus to insult, But I shall live & Stand 
By Rowley's side- When Thou art dead & damned. 
x 7 6 9- Thomas Chatterton. 

Intended to have sent the above to Mr. Walpole, but my 
Sister persuaded me out of it. — T.C. 

Note. — Never before publicly exhibited. w. e. g.] 

^Book-plate of Horace Walpole and small portrait [j. e. p.] 

*Prayer book containing this inscription : — 

THE GIFT OF 
SARAH CHATTERTON 
TO HER DAUGHTER 
MARY NEWTON, 

I787- [J. E. P.] 



Engraving. The south prospect of St. Mary Redcliffe Church. 
Toms, after Stewart, 1745. [j. e. p.] 



Bristol Banknotes, 

Old Bank. 1820. £1. Elton, Baillies, Tyndall, Palmer and Edwards. 

[c. h. c.J 

Miles Bank. 1807. £5, Miles, Vaughan, Miles and Baugh. 

[c. h. c] 

Ames, Cave and Co. 1820. £1. Ames, Bright, Cave, Daniel, Ames 
and Bright Signed by Benj. Hey wood Bright in 1820. Presented 
for payment 1890. [ c _ Hi c j 

* These Chatterton items have since been given to the Bristol Museum 
collection. See Bristol Times and Mirror and Western Daily Press, July iSth, 1906. 



■3 



,h't<? //r~c£n<t*ir- ***** 



2* /™ty>£%t*v ^ I**?""** 



for my 



> J r'J- 




FACSIMILE CHATTERTON MS. 



Portraits of Local Historians. 75 

SaveryTowgoodandCo. Unissued aote for / 5 . [c. «. cj 

Bristol City Bank. ^--J*^, Lean , ^art and 
Sta t^r g SboW 8 "ewi £ quay where the bank «. 
situated in 1812. 



Bristly Bank Sanruei WorraU and Andrew Pope. £, _*a 

Bristol ToUey ^Bank ^^^Bro™, Cavenagh, irow^and 
Bristol Bullion Bank. £i. 10 o - c H c ] 

Bayley ', „ u /T i8 ii Ricketts, Thome, George, Wait, 
Bristol Castle Bank. £1. i»n- fc H c 

Dymock and Courtney. 

Book-plates of the following local families 
Blathwayt, of Dyrham, 1702. 
Elton, Clevedon Court. 
Sir Francis Fust, Hill Court, 1662. 
Edward Harford, jun., I74 1 - 

\Tn pTce IS ChyUbSin ,8x5-1855. « shows interior 
] ° hn of old eft, library' and the carved ch.mney-p.ece _ 
Edward Southwell, Kingsweston, 



portraits of Xocal Ibistorlans. 

Willi a m Barrett, F.S.A., S-f^-gj V\SMS 
Ant quities of Bristol, 1789- Engranng. [j. e. p.] 

Rymsdick. >s o/ BrfaWi 

The r: 3 SA proo 1 SM^^.^r. 

Geo :or Prvcl F.S.A author ^r~£^^"fc 
Sitting in the old City Eibrary. ^ y p . 

S. G. Tovey. Gloucestershire Archaeo- 

portraits of Btsfoops of Bristol. 

John Robinson, ^o-tw Vertue, after Dabl . rBP. or b.] 

George Smallr.doe, .7.4-17x9- Vertue, after Kneller^ ^ ^ 

Thomas Gooch, r 737 -r 73 8. McArdeli, after Hudson [bp. or b, 
Thomas Newton, .76.-1782. Watson, after Reynolds. ^ ^ ^ 

[BP. OF B-] 

Christopher Wilson, 1783-1792- qf b ] 

William Lort Mansell, 1808-1820 _ 1 • 

Robert Gray, 1827-.834. Jenkins, after Wright. l bp. b.] 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



Xocal portraits. 

MeZ ^S lla f Can y n % e , J Ichner . *7§7 Builder of St. Mary's, 
Redchffe, five times Mayor of Bristol. [ w . E G j ' 

Edward Colston, Esq. Vertue, after Richardson, 1722. 

Mezzo-Edward Colston. W. Pether, 1817, after J. Richardson. 

[l. m. g.] 

**V^£&£"* Born on Bristol Bridge. Afterward. 

Evan Baillie. M.P. for Bristol, 1802-1822. Colonel of the Bristol 

Volunteer Regiment of Infantry, 1797-1814. [c . h c J 

Photographs— Coleridge and Southey. [L M G j 

J ' i_W. E. G.J 

Coloured print-Lieut.-Col. Gore, of the Royal Bristol Volunteers 

C. Turner, after S. F. Downman, 1804. [w . e.g.] 

William Gore. Lieut. -Col. Bristol Volunteer Infantry, 1797. 

Sil ' Riot r s leS i8Yr ethSre11 ^ WaX) ' ReC ° rder at the time of theBristol 

Rt K e „Pil Edwa m F ° Wle 4 L ° rd Bish °P of GI o"cester. Smith,' after 
Kneller [Born at Westerleigh, Glos. 1632.J [ H g k J 

MeZ de^ved rUS p C pT We11 - By Wh ° Se ° rder Brist01 Castle ~ 
destroyed. P. Pelham, 1720. Tw e g i 



©riQinal Drawings representing 
Sit* of ©u> Bristol. 

Bv W. J. MULLER. 

Man ^\ti e nM in r Cen o tral Librar >'' Deaner y Roa d, formerly 

m the Old Library, King Street, removed 1905. [j. w . a.] 

Old Staircase in Baldwin Street r T „, . ■> 

[J. W. A.J 

Temple Church, and old house in Temple Street. [j w a ] 

Bull Paunch Lane, Old Market Street, long since demolished. ' 

[j. W. A.J 

Old houses on the river . Frome, demolished. [j. w A j 

Staircase in the ''Langton " Mansion, Welsh Back. John Langton 
was Mayor of the City 1628. J ^ w a J 

The deS^s P h a e S d SeS '' , Uni ° n StreCt StepS> l6ading t0 the Pithay.now 

[j. W. A.J 

St. Bartholomew's Hospital, Christmas Street. [j. w . A j 

St. Peter's Hospital, used as a Mint in 1696-8. [j w A j 

Canynges' Chapel, Redcliffe Street, showing fifteenth-century roof. 

|j. W. A.l 



Original Drawings. 



77 



By GEORGE DE LA MOTTE. 
Temp. 1825-1830. 

The Pithay, demolished. f c - s T -l 

The Guard House, Wine Street, demolished. [c. s. t.] 

Wine Street. [ c s - T ^ 

Steep Street, demolished. [ c s T l 

In one frame :— , 

On the Frome, leading from Union Street to the Fitnay. 

Castle Pill, behind the Mint, now known as St. Peter's Hospital. 

Lewin's Mead Almshouses. 

Doorway at Hanham Mills. 

Old Passage, Baldwin Street. 

Castle Pill, behind the Mint. [Q- s. T.J 

All now demolished. 



By HUGH O'NEILL. 
St John's Church, from Broad Street, showing conduit, 1820. (A 
note says— to be taken down within two years.) [a. h.] 

Steep Street, 1821. I> H ^ 

The Shot Tower, Redcliff Hill, with old houses now destroyed, 1822. 



The Old Cheese Market, from Wine Street ; and the half timber 
house in Mary-le-port Street (destroyed 1904) m distance. 
J. Foster, 1849. L F " w ] 

The Court Yard of the " White Lion " Inn, Thomas Street, destroyed 
1872, and old house in Pyle Street, destroyed 1870. Joseph 
Wood, c. 1873. f F - W -J 

The North Porch, St. Mary's, Redcliffe. J. Wood, 1847. [f. w.] 



The Vestry, Bristol Cathedral. J. Wood, 1848. L F - W -J 

Porch Doorway, Stoke House, 1669 J. Wood, 1873. [f. W.] 

Fireplace in Hall, Stoke House, 1669. J. Wood, 1873. [f. w.] 

The Old Drawbridge, built 1714- N. Pocock. [w. e. g.] 

Redcliffe Church and Wharf. Hearn. [h. k. c] 

Eight views of Henbury cottages, 1823. [w. a. s.] 

Clifton before the Suspension Bridge. S. Jackson. [h. m.] 



The Old Ferry at Aust. Pocock. !" H - M l 

Crosscombe, near Wells, showing the church, the Stocks, the village 
Cross and other ancient buildings. [J.- mcm.J 



paintings 

Bristol Harbour, showing Ackerman's new warehouse oh one sic 
and the old shipbuilding yards on Canon's Marsh side, now tl 
site of the deep water berths, by J. Walters, 1836. [h. k. c] 
The River Avon, with Cook's Folly. F. Danby. [H. m.] 

King's Weston Park. F. Danby. [h. m.] 



78 Transactions for the Year i 



local IDiews, &c. 

" Old Bush Tavern," Corn Street. After Maggs. [c. s. t } 

A View of the Hot Wells, Bristol. T. Morris, 1802. [h. m ] 

A View of St. Vincent's Rock and Clifton. T. Morris, 1802. 

[H. M.] 

The Old Hotwell House, Bristol. After S. Jackson. [h. g. k ] 

A View of the Cathedral and the College Green. J. Storer, after 
G. Holmes. [w. e. g ] 

North-east view of the Cathedral Church of Bristol. G. Lewis, after 
J. Buckler, 1813. [h. g. k.] 

A View of Stoke House, Stoke Bishop. J. Storer, 1826. [w. e. g.] 
A Perspective View of the Drawbridge, Quay, and Clare Street in the 
eighteenth century. By C. West, after Philip Vandyke. 

[J. f. E.J 

Old House in Baldwyn Street, Bristol, taken down 1S23. Supposed 
to be the house in which Henry II. was educated. [l. e. c] 

Riots, 1831 — The City of Bristol on the night of October 30, 1831. 
After C. H. Walters. [j. E p.] 

Riots, 1831 — Charge of 3rd Dragoon Guards. Coloured lithograph. 

L. Haghe, after T. L Rowbotham and W. Miiller. [j. f. e.] 
Photograph— St. Werburgh's Church, Corn Street, removed 1878. 

[l. m. g ] 

Three Photographs of the north porch of Bristol Cathedral, showing 
figures of Latin Fathers, removed in the middle of the night by 
order of the late Dean. [l. m. g.] 

Four Photographs of interior work at the old " Coach and Horses," 
Redclifte Street, 1872. [f. w.] 

Photograph— The Old Horse Fair. [f. w.] 

A Group of Views— Parish of St. James. [l. m. g.] 

A Group of Views — Bristol Bridge. [l. m. g.] 

Two Photographs— Old Steep Street. [l. m. g.] 

"The Cat and Wheel," Castle Green, in 1824, showing the old 

" Catherine Wheel," demolished 1900. [j. e. p.] 

Oath of a Burgess, 1709, bearing punch marks of voting, [j. e. p.] 
Five Plans in one Frame, showing the development of the City. 

[l. m. g.] 

Pen and ink — St. Werburgh's Church, Corn Street. [j. j. s.] 

Pen and Ink — St. Stephen's Church. [j. j. s .] 

Etching — St. Peter's Hospital. C. Bird. [j. j. s ] 

Etching — Maryleport Street. C. Bird. [j. j. s.] 

Photograph— Old house in Lewin's Mead, now demolished, site'Eof 
Bristol United Breweries. [j. j. s ] 

Lithograph — Interior of old Court Room, St. Peter's Hospital 

[J. J. s.j 



Local Historic Objects. 



79 



Xocal Ibietorxc Objects* 

A staff of office of special constable used on the occasion of the visit 
to Bristol of the Duke of Wellington, 27th July, 1816. Engraved 
J. Stratten, constable, 1816. L E - J- S J 

Special constable's staff, All Saints' Ward, 183 1. [c. s. t.] 

Oak staff of special constable, used during 1831 Riots. C. B. 70. 

[e. j. s J 

Silver Circular Badge, 3 in diam., bearing the Bristol Arms in 
centre, and around " On the foundation of Edward Colston. 

[E. J. S.J 

Silver shield badge, bearing Arms of Bristol. [e J. s.] 

Pair of handcuffs, eighteenth century, dug up at Westbury-on-Trym. 

[A. H.J 

embroideries, &c. 

Mediseval embroidery on a chasuble. [bp. of c] 

Part of a set of bed furniture, early eighteenth century. [G. c.-M.] 

Part of bedspread, eighteenth century. O- c.-m.] 

Buddhist lady's girdle, ornamented with turquoise. [f. f. t.] 



IDarious Ibietoric ©bjects- 

Carved ivory triptych, French, end of thirteenth century. [a. h.] 

Ditto. ^ H ] 

Model of the Alfred Jewel. L F - F - T J 

Box of Dassier's medals of the Sovereigns of England, dated 173^ 

Napoleon's famous but too previous medal, " Descente en Angleterre," 

frappe a Londres. L F - F - 

Miniature in enamel of Lord Byron, by Henry Bone, R.A. (1755- 

1834) S ' 1 

Silver box with 15 medals of English crowned heads. [g. c.-m.] 
Locket with hair of King Edward IV taken from the body m 1789 

on repairing the collegiate church at Windsor. [g. c.-m.] 

Two rings given to Mrs. Master by the Empress Josephine on her 

deathbed. . ^ C " M - J 

Crucifix belonging to Queen Mary of England, 1554, given by Queen 

Charlotte to her maid of honour the Hon. Anana Egerton. ^ ^ 

Ivory tobacco stopper, with concealed portrait of Louis^XVL, 

French Revolution. L • • J 

Head of Japanese pilgrim's staff. [ F - F - T 'J 

M artel de fer, with Saracenic work. P v ; F - B ;J 

Paleolithic silver-mounted flint used as a charm against lightning, 

Perugia. ' 
New Zealand greenstone celt. _ L F - F - T J 

Curious bayonet-like stone implement, Ontario. [F. f. T.J 

General officer's dress sword , temp. Charles I. Discovered on battle- 
field of Edge-hill. HJ 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



NAMES OF EXHIBITORS. 



BP. OF B. 


Bishop of Bristol, I he Palace, Bristol. 


BP. OF C. 


Bishop of Clifton, St. Ambrose, Leigh Woods. 


J. W. A. 


J. W. Arrowsmith, Clifton. 


B. A. B. 


"R A Rolr<^»- TP ^A 1 0 r, A 

±5. a. £>aKer, iveaiana. 


J. B. 


xji . xjcLiuuc, jji d.ui(jrQ-on-/woij. 


W . E . B . 


ivev. vv . xl. xjiatnwayt, uyrnam ir^arli. 


J. R. B. 


E,t.-(^ol. J. K. Bramble, Weston-super-Mare. 




^naries ri. v^ave, ivoaway riiii House. 


L. E. C. 


L.. tL. Crawtord, Chiton. 


H. K. C. 


ti. Kater Cripps, Clifton Down. 


J. F. E. 


J. ruiler Eberle, Clifton. 


F. F. F. 


Francis F. Fox, Yate. 




W. E. George, Stoke Bishop. 


L. M. G. 


J-,. M. (jritliths, Chiton. 


G. H. H. 


G. H. Hammersley, Sneyd Park. 


A. H. 


Dr. Alfred Harvey, Westbury-on-Trym. 


H. G. K. 


H. G. Kerslake, Westbury-on-Trym. 


H. M. 


Heber Mardon, Clifton Down. 


G. C.-M. 


Mrs. Chester-Master, Knole Park, Almondsbury 


J. MCM. 


James Mc Murtrie, Durdham Down. 


J. O. 


Jere Osborne, Clifton. 


J. E. P. 


John E. Pritchard, Bristol. 


B. V. P. 


Rev. B. Vaughan Pryce, Clifton. 


W. A. S. 


Walter A Sampson, Weston-super-Mare. 


J. J. s. 


J. J. Simpson, Bristol. 


E. J. S. 


E. J. Swann, Leigh Woods. 


C. S. T. 


Rev. C. S. Taylor, Banwell. 


T. D. T. 


T. D. Taylor, Redland Green. 


S. T. 


Stephen Tryon, Hallen. 


F. F. T. 


F. F. Tuckett, Frenchay. 


E. O. T. 


Miss Tyndall, The Fort, Bristol. 


R. H. W. 


R. Hall Warren, Clifton. 


T. W. W. 


T. W. Williams, Bristol. 


F. W. 


J. Foster Wood, Bristol. 



THE RELIGIOUS HOUSES OF BRISTOL AND 
THEIR DISSOLUTION. 



By the Rev. C. S. TAYLOR, M.A., F.S.A., Vicar of Banwell, 
President of the Society. 

The earliest mention of churches in Bristol occurs in 
Domesday Book, where it is said that the churches of 
Bristol hold three hides, and have one team there. 1 From 
the hidage the extent of property would seem to be a large 
one, for the whole estate of Barton by Bristol, including 
some 5,500 acres of modern ascertainment, was only rated 
at ten hides, and of these three hides were noted as church 
land. This church land was, however, but poorly culti- 
vated ; only one team, representing about 120 acres of 
arable land, was found upon it. Strange to say, it seems 
impossible to trace the subsequent history of this church 
estate. The parish churches held little or no land in 
later days; the religious houses (excepting St. James's 
Priory) had little land near the borough, and there is nothing 
to connect the property of St. James with this ancient 
endowment, unless it passed with the grant of St. Peter's 
Church to the priory. 2 

However this may be, the earliest of the religious houses 
of Bristol came into existence within about half a century 
from the compilation of Domesday Book on the sunny slope 
beyond the broad meadow by the banks of the Frome to the 
north of the borough, and the extent of its burying-ground 

1 D.B.,f. 163: "DeeadtrateneccladeBristouiiihid&icarhabetibi." 
The mark of contraction over habet shows that is a plural form, and that 
there were more churches than one. 

2 I have not been able to find any definite traces of the Benedictine 
Priories mentioned by William Wyrcestre (Dallaway, p. 137) as existing 
near the parish churches of St. Stephen and SS. Philip and Jacob. 

7 

Vol. XXIX. 



82 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



shows that the population had not as yet extended far 
beyond the river. The date of the foundation of St. James' 
Priory cannot be exactly fixed. There is in the City Library 
a charter of confirmation of the possessions of Tewkesbury 
Abbey granted by Simon, Bishop of Worcester 1125-1149, 
which was witnessed by Robert, Abbot of Winchcombe, and 
Thomas, Abbot of Pershore, who entered on their offices in 
1 138, in which the bishop states that on the day when the 
burying-ground of the church of St. James which is to be 
built at Bristol was dedicated he decreed that no burgess 
of Bristol should be buried anywhere else without his license,, 
except at Tewkesbury or Worcester. 1 We learn from this 
that at some time between 1138 and 1149, though the 
burying-ground of St. James had been consecrated, the 
church had not yet been built. 

It was no doubt natural that Robert, Earl of Gloucester, 
should make his new foundation a cell of the great abbey 
of Tewkesbury, which his father-in-law, Robert FitzHamon, 
had founded some forty years before, and in the then state of 
development of Bristol the connection may not have seemed 
to be a strange one. But as the borough increased in 
population, wealth and influence, it must have become 
more and more clear that, though the priory of St. James 
was the oldest of the religious houses of Bristol, a slenderly- 
endowed cell, containing a few monks shut up by the rule of 
their order within its walls, and dependent on a mother 
house fifty miles away, could never exercise a strong and 
healthy influence within the borough. It was perhaps for 
this reason that Earl William, son of Earl Robert, though 
he added somewhat to the endowments of his father's priory, 
founded for himself a house of Augustinian Canons at 
Keynsham. The ecclesiastical influence of the priory must, 
however, have been considerable, on account of the amount 
of church patronage which it possessed in Bristol. Besides 
St. Peter s Church, bestowed by the founder, which was 
recognised by common consent to be the earliest and chief 
1 British Archaological Journal, xxxi. 290. 



The Religious Houses of Bristol. 



*3 



of the churches of Bristol, Henry, Bishop of Worcester 
1193-1195, confirmed to it also the churches of St. John, the 
Holy Trinity, St. James de Fraia, St. Ewen, St. Michael, and 
the church of St. Brendan without the town. It is added 
that Mauger, Bishop of Worcester 1200-1212, also confirmed 
these gifts. 1 The church of St. James de Fraia was no 
doubt St. James de Feria, that is, St. James of the Market, 
St. Philip and Jacob by the Old Market; the church of St. 
Brendan was the chapel on Brandon Hill. Thus the priory 
controlled the patronage of nearly all the churches on the 
north and east of the borough, and instances are found in 
the Annates de Theokesberia of its dealings with the churches 
of St. Peter, the Holy Trinity, St. John the Baptist, St. 
Michael, and SS. Philip and Jacob before the middle of 
the thirteenth century. 

Bearing in mind the spirit of monasticism, it goes without 
saying that the interests of the monastery rather than those 
of the parishioners were in the first place regarded. For 
more than two centuries after the formation of the priory, 
indeed until 1374, the inhabitants of the huge parish of 
St. James, which extended from Lewin's Mead to Ashley 
Hill, had no right of access to any parish church, for the 
priory church was purely conventual; but in that year, by 
agreement with the Abbot of Tewkesbury, they were admitted 
to hear mass and to celebrate all other divine offices for the 
living and the dead, as in other diocesan churches, and the 
nave of the conventual church became parochial, as it is 
now. But the monks had steadily resisted any attempt to 
provide for the spiritual needs of the people. In 1230, by 
which time a considerable population must have begun to 
creep up the northern slope, the Bishop of Worcester came 
to dedicate the altar and burying-ground of the house which 
the Dominican Friars had built in Meichant Street, m the 
parish of St. James. Then the monks of the priory 
approached him and besought him that the place might not 
be dedicated, and that the friars might not receive gilLs, 
1 Dugdale, Mon., ii. 75- 



8 4 



Transactions for the Year igo6. 



burial fees, or other offerings to the prejudice of the charters, 
privileges, and confirmation deeds of the bishops. But 
neither did the bishop desist from the dedication nor the 
friars from their building or from receiving offerings, to the 
damage and loss of the church of St. James. The friars 
came with commission from the Pope, and in this instance, 
at any rate, papal authority was on the right side. 1 Again, in 
September, 1242, Walter de Cantilupe, Bishop of Worcester, 
tried to appoint vicars in the abbey church of Tewkesbury 
and the priory church of St. James contrary to the 
privileges granted by the Roman pontiffs and other docu- 
ments belonging to the church.' 2 The attempt was 
unsuccessful, and the church was served before the 
Dissolution by the monks or their chaplains, and after it 
by curates, and it was not till the nineteenth century that a 
regular vicarage was established. There was a good deal 
of discord between Peter, Abbot of Tewkesbury 1216-1232, 
and William, Bishop of Worcester 1218-1236. In 1226 
the abbot went to Rome, taking with him a letter from the 
convent denying the charges brought against him, 3 and on 
M arch 13th he was duly absolved by Pope Honorius III., 
who also on June 26th in that year issued a monition to the 
Bishop of Worcester to cease from burdening the monastery 
of Tewkesbury by celebrating ordinations or holding synods 
or chapters, and on the same day he issued an indult to the 
convent that they should not be compelled to receive the 
visitation of the bishop or archdeacon in their churches. 4 
On July 5th, 1242, the abbot gave notice to John of 
Northampton, Archdeacon of Middlesex, that he should take 
possession of the church of St. James de Fer in satisfaction 
of a debt of two and a half marks — £1 13s. 4d. — owed to 
him by the convent, which he did on the same day in a house 
of his own near St. Paul's Cathedral. A church in the 
abbey patronage was treated as a mere counter for the 
satisfaction of a trumpery debt. 5 Again, on March 28th, 
1 Annates Monastici, Rolls Series, i. 78. 2 A. M., i. 126. 
3 Dugdale, Mon., ii. 79. 4 Papal Letters, i. 112. « A. M., i. 123. 



The Religious Houses of Bristol. 



85 



1384, the rectory of this church of SS. Philip and Jacob was 
appropriated to the abbey of Tewkesbury; and because by a 
statute of 1 380-1 in all cases of appropriations it was ordered 
that a convenient sum of silver should be distributed among 
the poor out of the profits of the church, Richard Clifford, 
Bishop of Worcester, ordered in 1403 that only 6s. 8d. should 
be so distributed at Christmas on account of the smallness 
of the church and its revenues. All through the dealings of 
the abbey of Tewkesbury with Bristol exemplify the meaner 
and more selfish side of monastic administration, and it can 
have been little or no loss to the borough when the priory 
of St. James ceased to exist. 

But most likely even before that church was consecrated 
the foundations of one which would supersede it, and would 
rank for many centuries as the chief of the Bristol churches, 
had already been laid. Robert Fitzhardinge, Provost of 
Bristol, had bought from Earl Robert the manor of Billes- 
wick, lying to the west of the Frome, and there on the rising 
ground looking down upon the Avon marsh he raised his 
minster, which was hallowed on Easter Day, April nth, 
1 148, by the four Bishops of Worcester, Exeter, Llandaff, 
and St. Asaph. It was not simply that St. Augustine's was 
a larger church than St. James, but it was also independent, 
and was fairly, and some seven years later, when the founder 
became Lord of Berkeley, even amply endowed. Robert 
Fitzhardinge was the first civil governor of Bristol whose 
name we know, and as he founded the church which from his 
time until now has been recognised as the chief of Bristol 
churches, he stands before us as first both in matters of 
Church and State ; and certainly it was well that in a borough 
which owed little to barons and nothing to prelates, but 
which has risen to eminence through its commerce alone, the 
founder of the chief of our churches should have been one 
whom we can fairly claim as 'one of ourselves. Until the 
very eve of the Dissolution, the relations of the abbey with 
the borough seem to have been uniformly peaceful; there 
were no foreign interests to serve to the injury of the town. 



86 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



When a population sprang up around the minster, the parish 
church of St. Augustme-the-Less was founded for their 
service ; and when the men of the twin boroughs of Bristol 
and Redcliff, about 1240, made a new, deep trench for the 
course of the Frome, the)- found a willing helper in the 
Abbot of St. Augustine's. 

Fitzhardinge placed his foundation under the charge of 
six Canons Regular of the Order of St. Victor, whom he 
brought from Wigmore in Herefordshire, which house had 
been colonised by a prior and two canons from the house 
of Augustinian Canons of St. Victor, near Paris, early in the 
reign of Henry I. These were Secular Canons living under 
a conventual rule who had been constituted an Order by 
Pope Alexander II. in 1061. To the more earnest minds of 
the time the secular clergy were without discipline, while the 
Benedictines seemed to be tainted with luxury and looseness 
in their rule, and the reformed orders who had sprung from 
the Benedictines had not yet been sufficiently tested by time. 
It was hoped that the obligation of Holy Orders, coupled with 
the discipline of conventual life subject to the visitation of 
the bishop, would develop a more effective organisation than 
had been devised hitherto. As Henry I. had placed his 
see for North- Western England in the Austin Canons' church 
of Carlisle in 1132, and Girald du Barri writing at the end of 
the century awarded the palm among monastic systems to 
the Regular Canons of St. Augustine, it may be taken that 
Fitzhardinge chose his Order wisely and well. 

He was the head of a noble family of founders of religious 
houses. His wife Eva founded a house of Benedictine nuns 
on St. Michael's Hill, of which she became prioress. One 
grandson, Robert de Berkeley, founded St. Katharine's 
Hospital in Bedminster ; another, Thomas de Berkeley, 
founded the lepers' hospital of St. Mary Magdalen at Bright- 
bow ; yet another grandson, Maurice de Gaunt, founded the 
Dominican Friary, and had a large share in the foundation 
of St. Mark's Hospital, of which his brother, Henry de 
Gaunt, was first master, and to which Robert de Gournay, 



The Religious Houses of Bristol. 87 



bis nephew and a great-grandson of Fitzhardinge, was a 
munificent benefactor. 

Of these foundations the house of Benedictine nuns 
of St. Mary Magdalene on St. Michael's Hill was but 
slenderly endowed, and it did not make much mark on the 
church history of the borough. Though indeed its work 
may have been none the less good and efficient on that 
account, for the dedication may point to a plague spot which 
had already settled on " the sides of the north," and which 
the founder and first prioress may have hoped to cure not 
only by her gifts but by the service of her life. 

The hospital of St. Mary and St. Mark was next to 
St. Augustine's Abbey the wealthiest foundation in the 
borough, and in its complete form it consisted of a master 
and three chaplains charged with the relief of one hundred 
poor people every day. 

A hospital of St. Mary Magdalene at Brightbow, Bed- 
minster, was founded for the reception of leprous women 
by Thomas de Berkeley, brother and heir of Robert de 
Berkeley, who d,ed in 1220, and Gilbert de Lacy, Prebendary 
of Sarum, who died in 1227, granted to it the privilege of 
having a chapel and chaplain in the house ;> it still existed as 
a lepers' hospital in the time of William Wyrcestre. Robert 
de Berkeley had founded the hospital of St. Katherine at 
Brightbow for a master and warden and seven poor 

brethren. , 
King John, when Earl of Moreton, had given a close ot 
land without Lawford's Gate for a house of lepers, which 
-gift he confirmed when king on March 12th, 1208 ; this was 
the hospital of St. Laurence, which, no doubt because it 
was no longer needed for its special purpose, was given by 
King Edward IV. to the college of Westbury-upon-Trym. 
The hospital of St. Bartholomew, at the foot of Christmas 
Steos, was originally a house of Austin Canons, but by the 
time of William Wyrcestre it had become a nospital ot 
poor persons. 

i Sarum Charters and Documents, Rolls Series, p. 172- 



88 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



Bristol at the beginning of the thirteenth century was 
very rapidly growing in wealth and population. To the 
south of the river the borough of Redcliff and the jurisdiction 
of Temple Fee contained a population little if at all inferior 
in wealth to their northern neighbours, and their three parish 
churches, then as now superior to any north of the river, 
amply met the spiritual needs of the people. But to the 
north of the Frome, where Bristol was growing most rapidly, 
the people were as sheep without a shepherd, with no parish 
church and no parish priest to care for their souls. But 
those who would care for them were at hand. The Dominican 
Friars appeared in England in 1221, and the Franciscans 
followed in 1224, and as we have seen the church and burying- 
ground of the Dominican house in Bristol were consecrated 
in 1230, in spite of the resistance of the Benedictine cell of 
St. James. A grievous spiritual need existed, and the national 
church did nothing to supply it. History has a way of 
repeating itself. The way from the site of the Dominican 
house in Merchant Street to the Franciscan house in 
Lewin's Mead lies along Broadmead, and on the north side 
of that thoroughfare is the oldest Methodist preaching house 
in the world, the foundation stone of which was laid on May 
12th, 1739. On November 22nd in that year Dr. Creswick, 
minister of St. James since 1720, and Dean of Bristol since 
1730, became Dean of Wells, holding St. James with that 
deanery till 1753. The minister of St. James was a mere 
stipendiary, dependent both with regard to the tenure of his 
office and the amount of his income on the will of the 
Corporation, and something might well be said in favour of 
holding the dignity of the deanery with such a post as that ; 
but if Wesley had been charged with intrusion on a parish 
whose vicar lived at Wells, he might with reason have asked, 
as the friars might have asked five centuries before, " Is 
there not a cause ? " Since the days of the Commonwealth 
the parish of St. James has been the chief home of Non- 
conformity in Bristol, Nonconformists supplying, as the 
friars did in earlier days,, spiritual help which the national 



The Religious Houses of Bristol. 



8 9 



church, owing to local limitations, was for a long while 
unable to afford. The unfortunate conditions of Earl Robert's 
endowment have much to answer for. 

The Dominican Friary in Merchant Street was founded 
characteristically by a member of the family of Fitzhardinge, 
Sir Maurice de Gaunt, so Leland says, but Tanner mentions 
a tradition that it was founded by Matthew Gurney, another 
scion of the same stock. 1 It possessed a noble church with 
a choir 78 feet long and 24 feet wide, and a nave 93 feet long 
and 63 feet wide. The Franciscan Friary in Lewin's Mead 
seems to have owed its existence to no single founder, but 
rather to the alms of the unknown faithful ; it was, however, 
certainly in being in 1234, for a grant of firewood was made 
to it in that year. 2 Its church was even larger than that of 
the Dominicans, as the choir was 84 feet long and 27 feet 
wide, and the nave was 84 feet long and 81 feet wide, with 
four arches on either side, dividing the central passage from 
the aisles. No parish church in the borough, except St. 
Mary Redcliff, approached these friars' churches in size, 
and their great preaching naves surpassed that of St. Mary 
Redcliff, which contains an area of 5,336 square feet, while 
the Dominican nave measured 5,859 square feet, and the 
nave of the Franciscans even as much as 6,804. The 
buildings of the other two houses of friars were smaller. 
The Carmelite Friary, which stood where Colston Hall now 
is, was said to have been founded in 1267 by Prince Edward, 3 
and the house of Augustinian Friars in Temple Backs was 
hallowed on July 14th, 1320, 4 having been founded by Sir 
Simon and Sir William Montacute. 5 It is clear from the 
Pleas of the Crown in Bristol in 1287 that shortly before that 
time there was a house of Friars of the Sack in Bristol, but 
its site is not known. 6 Though it is no doubt true that the 
friars fell away to a considerable extent from the unselfish 
energy of their earlier years, the long series of bequests to 
1 Dugdale, Mon., vi. 1492. 2 Dugdale, Mon., vi. 1531. 
Dugdale, Mon., vi. 1580. * Dallaway, Wm. Wyrcestre, p. 119. 
Dugdale, Mon., vi. 1599. 6 Transactions, xxii. 169. 



3 ^ 

5 



go 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



the four houses of friars in Bristol shows that even to the 
very end they had not lost the respect and affection of their 
fellow-citizens. For instance, Robert Thorne, founder of the 
Bristol Grammar School, by his will dated May 17th, 1532, 
left " the sum of Jj2o l to each of the four Orders of Friars in 
Bristowe, the one-half for the reparation of their churches 
and houses, and the other for their sustentation.' 2 Within 
six years all these houses had ceased to exist. The college 
of Secular Canons at Westbury-on-Trym, though it was 
much older than any of the houses in Bristol, seems to have 
been but little connected with the religious life of the borough, 
except, perhaps, for the five years after 1469, during which 
time William Canynges was Dean. 

This then was the series of religious houses in Bristol in 
1530. At their head stood St. Augustine's Abbey, which 
though it was never numbered among the greatest churches 
of England, held a respectable place among those of the 
second rank. There was an ill-endowed cell of a distant Bene- 
dictine abbey, and a nunnery of the same order, also slenderly 
endowed. There were four friars' churches, and at the head 
of a number of smaller hospitals and almshouses stood St. 
Mark's Hospital, dispensing year by year its magnificent 
hospitality. The almshouses were not affected by the Disso- 
lution unless there was connected with them a foundation for 
a priest. Except in the parish of St. James, the friars' 
churches were perhaps not really necessary, for the parish 
churches amply sufficed for the needs of the people. The 
services at the abbey, in the conventual choirs of St. James 
and St. Mary Magdalene, and in the chapels of the hospitals 
were not open to the people ; the religious houses as a whole 
stood apart from the life of the borough. 

Furthermore, the monastic system had to a great extent 
done its work; it had ceased to grow, the last -new house, that 
of Mount Grace, of Ingleby, in Yorkshire, founded in 1396, 
was completed by Henry VI. in 1440. In early days the 
1 Equal to some /300 of our money. 
2 Wadley, Bristol Wills, p. 181. 



The Religious Houses of Bristol. 9 1 
religious had been the missionaries and the teachers of the 
people; now they had retired to their choirs and therr 
cloisters. The monasteries had been at one time the great 
seats of learning ; now monks and canons and friars alike 
sought instrnction at the universities. William de Broke a 
monk of Gloucester, was the first Bened.ctine who took L he 
degree of D.D. at Oxford. This was in 1298. His convent 
attended him, with the Abbots of Westminster, Abingdon, 
Reading, Evesham and Malmesbury, and one hundred noble- 
men and gentlemen riding on horses > But it was really the 
beginning of the end when the best education of the time 
was to be found outside the walls of the minsters. The 
mark of old age was upon the monastic system, it was not 
s.mply standing still, it was decaying; the greater houses 
could not maintain their numbers, the condition of the lesser 
houses was not satisfactory, "that which decayeth and 
waxeth old is ready to vanish away." There can have been 
little in Bristol to excite enthusiasm except for the two 
houses in St. Augustine's Green. 

Now we must remember that there is no necessary con- 
nection between the dissolution of religious houses and a 
reformation in matters of religion. During the long and 
manifold series of processes of change which we call the 
Reformation three mam things were done, either of which 
might have taken place separately, or in combination with 
one or more of the others. First, the intruded supremacy of 
the Pope, which had grown up since the Norman Conquest, 
was swept away, this was completed by i 5 34; then the 
religious houses were dissolved, this was accomplished by 
I54I ; then changes were made in the outward forms of 
religion, these did not begin till the reign of Edward ill. 
As all growth means change, it is not likely that these 
changes are completed yet; and it is by no means clear 
whether the form to be finally assumed will be more or less 
like that of the pre-Reformation Church of England than was 
the settlement of 1662. 

1 Walcott, English Minsters, ii. 35- 



9 2 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

It is singular that the first dissolution of a religious house 
in Bristol at this period was a voluntary one, made by some 
who no doubt could read the signs of the times. William 
Wyrcestre says that the church of St. Bartholomew at the 
foot of Christmas Steps was formerly a priory of Canons 
Regular, founded by the ancestors of Lord de la Warre, but 
in his day a hospital of poor persons. 1 On March 17th, 1532, 
King Henry VIII., in consideration of the laudable purposes 
of Sir Thomas West and Lord de la Warre, representatives 
of the founder of the hospital, George Croft, clerk, probably 
the master, Robert Thorne and his executors, in the founda- 
tion and support of a grammar school in Bristol, granted 
licences to the mayor and burgesses of Bristol, that they 
might take possession of the house and hospital of the 
Bartholomews, and its property to the clear value of ^40, 
for the aforesaid purpose. In accordance with these letters! 
Robert Thorne proceeded to recover from the master and 
patrons of the hospital the property mentioned. 2 On May 18th 
following Robert Thorne made a will, which was proved 
on October 10th, in which a bequest of £25 is left to "Thomas 
Moffett, master in the Grammar School in Bristowe" ; there 
is also a bequest of £i,oov to be << distributed and ordered as 
my executors shall seme best for my soul," and it is likely that 
the sums of ^500 received by the Mayor and Commonalty of 
Bristol from his executor on November 3rd, 1533, and ^300 
from Nicholas Thorne on February 18th, 1534, W er^ instal- 
ments of this last bequest. 3 It is clear that no time was lost 
in acting on the provisions of the letters patent, the event 
showed that the master and patrons were wise in their 
generation in securing some of the spoil while there was yet 
time, and the poor inmates were probably no worse off than 
they would have been if the house had been dissolved under 
royal auspices some years later. 

In the Long Parliament, which met first on November 3rd, 
1529. and for its last session in February, 1536, Bristol was 
1 Dallaway, p. 88. 2 Manchee's Bristol Charities, i. 29. 
3 Wadley, Bristol Wills, p. 180. 



The Religious Houses of Bristol. 



J 3 



represented by Thomas Jubbes and Richard Abyngdon, 1 
though Barrett gives John Shipman instead of Jubbes; 
possibly one of the two last-named men had died. Things 
travelled fast and far in those days. On February nth, 1531, 
the Convocation of the Province of Canterbury acknowledged 
the king to be "of the English Church and clergy the singular 
protector, the only and supreme governor, and so far as the 
law of Christ permits, even the supreme head"; and the 
same form was accepted by the Convocation of York on May 
4 th. On March 31st, 1534, the Convocation of Canterbury 
resolved that "the Pope of Rome has no more authority 
conferred on him by God in Holy Scripture in this kingdom 
of England than any other foreign bishop," and in May the 
Convocation of York came to the same conclusion, as did also 
the University of Cambridge on May 2nd, and that of Oxford 
on June 27th. On June gth the king issued a proclamation 
abolishing the usurped power of the Pope, and finally, in 
November, i 5 34> the Supremacy Act was passed, by which 
the king was declared to be the only supreme head in earth 
of the Church of England. During this year also the 
renunciation of the papal supremacy by the members of the 
different religious houses was generally made. The document 
si-ned at Westbury-on-Trym is dated September 7 th, that 
at°St. Augustine's September gth, that at St. Mark's Hospital 
September nth. Care must be taken not to confuse these 
documents of renunciation with the deeds of surrender, which 
are of course of later date, as Barrett (p. 372) has done in the 
case of St. Mark's Hospital. The lay-people, and for the 
most part the secular clergy, seem to have been heartily glad 
to be rid of the papal supremacy, though no doubt there were 
misgivings with regard to the nature of the authority which 
would come in its stead. 

In the spring ot 1533 Latimer, who was at the time rector 
of West Kington in Wiltshire, preached several times m 
Bristol on pilgrimages, and other matters of controversy at 
1 State Papers Henry VIII., vol. iv., No. 6,043 (2). I owe this reference 
to the Rev. A. B. Beaven. 



( ,<4 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



the moment, with the natural result that troubles arose, which 
troubles were increased by the contrary preaching of an 
opponent, Hubberdin. The matter is only mentioned here 
because two letters on the subject in the Camden Society's 
book, Letters Relating to the Suppression of Monasteries, are 
wrongly dated 1534. 

In July, 1535, Thomas Cromwell had been in attendance 
on the Court in Gloucestershire, and Richard Layton, one of 
the clerks of the Council, was afterwards despatched on a 
visitation of the monasteries in the district. After visitine 
Monkton Farleigh, Maiden Bradley, Witham Charterhouse, 1 
Bruton, and Glastonbury, he reached St. Augustine's, Bristol, 
on St. Bartholomew's Day. 2 He gave a bad account of 
Maiden Bradley, but of Bruton and Glastonbury he testified : 
"The brethren be so straite keppide that they cannot offende, 
but faine they wolde if they myghte, as they confesse, and so 
the faute is not in them." Layton had nothing to say about the 
Bristol houses, and there is no reason for thinking that there 
was anything at all amiss with them; indeed, the last prioress 
of St. Mary Magdalen's, Eleanor Graunte, who entered on 
her office on March 4th, 1520, is described as being moribus 
undique ornata et virtutibus insignita 3 — " Arrayed in virtue, girt 
about with grace." 

Early in 1536 an Act of Parliament was passed for the 
total extirping and destruction of vice and sin in the smaller 
monasteries, and this end was to be attained by enacting 
that his majesty shall have and enjoy to him and his heirs 
for ever all houses whose property was of less value than 
^200 annually, and by this single stroke every religious house 
in Bristol passed into the king's hands except St. Mark's 
Hospital, the abbey of St. Augustine, and the priory of 
St. James, which survived because it was a cell of Tewkesbury 
Abbey. 

It remained to complete the process of moral purification 
by sweeping the property of 'the houses into the royal purse. 

iWiongly printed, Within the Charterhouse. 
2 Suppression of Monasteries, p. 58. s Barrett, p. 427. 



The Religious Houses of Bristol. 



95 



On April 24th, 1536, the Court of Augmentations was formed 
to receive the proceeds of the spoiled houses. In order to 
discover which houses possessed an income of less than ^200 
yearly, and were therefore already possessions of the king, a 
body of commissioners was appointed for each county. Of 
these the auditor, the receiver, and the clerk were royal 
officers, and with them were joined three other discreet 
persons. These officers were to make an inventory of the 
property belonging to the house on March 1st, 1536, and to 
take possession of the seal of the house and of all muniments. 
With regard to the inmates, those who wished to remain in 
religion were to be sent to other houses with letters to the 
governors, and those who wished to go to the world were 
despatched to the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Lord 
Chancellor for "capacities," and they were to receive some 
reasonable reward according to the distance which they 
would have to travel. Only the superior would receive a 
pension, for which application must be made to the Chancellor 
of the Court of Augmentations. A " capacity " was a licence 
for one of the regular clergy to act as one of the secular 
clergy, that is to say, to serve as one of the parochial clergy 
or as a priest of a chantry. An application for a "capacity" 
was in effect the petition of the sons of Eli : " Put me, I pray 
thee, into one of the priests' offices, that I may eat a piece of 
bread." 1 These licences were of course only issued to those 
of the religious who were in Holy Orders, and as the arch- 
bishops naturally required evidence of ordination, those of 
the religious who had not preserved their letters of orders 
were put to a very great amount of expense and trouble. 
Even when they had proved their ordination, it did not 
follow that the archbishops could, or would, find employment 

for them. . 

The conditions which arose in connection with the 
dissolution of the smaller houses may be well illustrated 
from the story of the friars' houses of Bristol. For some 
reason the friars' houses had not [ been dealt with at first 
1 1 Samuel ii. 36. 



9 6 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



under the Act of 1536, though they were without doubt 
included in its terms. Possibly their very poverty was for a 
while their protection, and it was judged wise, for the 
purpose of preventing alienations and loss, to deal with 
houses which possessed lands and valuables before touching 
those which, like the friaries, only possessed houses and 
necessaries for divine service. Probably also the friars, 
who were not shut up in their cloisters but went familiarly to 
and fro among the people, still possessed a good measure 
of influence and popularity, and it was judged better to leave 
them alone till it was clear from the fate of their brethren 
and sisters that the power of the king was not to be resisted. 
At any rate, no active steps were taken against the friars 
till the summer of 1538, nearly two years and a half after the 
passing of the Act of Suppression. The agent in the 
suppression of the Bristol houses, possibly on the principle 
of setting a friar to catch a friar, was Richard Ingworth, 
formerly Prior of the Dominican Friary of King's Langley, 
the richest house of that Order in England, since in apparent 
defiance of the rule of the Order it possessed an income 
of ^125 annually. He was consecrated to the Suffragan See 
of Dover on December 9th, 1537, and about the same time 
he received commissions to visit the friars' houses, to depose 
or suspend superiors and to appoint others in their room, and 
with regard to the property of the houses, to take possession 
of the keys and seals, to make inventories of goods and to 
sequestrate them. 

On May 23rd, 1538, the bishop was at Gloucester on 
his way to Bristol from Worcester. In letters written shortly 
afterwards he says that he found little that was of value 
in the houses, barely enough to pay the debts, and a tedious 
clamour of poor men to whom debts were owing. He had 
apparently received a sharp reproof from Cromwell on 
account of his leniency — he had not changed his friar's heart 
when he changed his coat. He replied that his leniency was 
owing to a desire to do his work with the most quiet, an 
indirect testimony to the popularity of the friars. He had 



The Religious Houses of Bristol. 97 

stopped all selling of property and granting of leases by 
taking possession of the seals and making inventories, so 
that he thought before the end of the year the inmates of all 
the houses which he had visited would for very need be glad 
to surrender them, because of course the Suppression Act 
of 15.6 had stopped the flow of gifts and offerings on which 
the friars depended for support. As the wretched Gloucester 
friars confessed when the choice was given them whether 
they would keep their religion or surrender their houses into 
the king's hands, they answered that as the world is now 
they were not able to keep their religion and live in their 
houses, wherefore they voluntarily gave their houses into 
the visitor's hands to the king's use.' They were simply 
starved out. 

With regard to the Carmelite house in Bristol, of which 
he had taken possession, the bishop writes thus : "The White 
Friars in Bristol, of which all that was in it did little more 
than pay the debts, ft is a goodly house in building, meet 
for a great man, no rents but their gardens. There is a 
chapel, and an aisle of the church, and diverse gutters 
spouts, and conduits lead, the rest all tile and slate. A 
goodly laver and conduit coming to it. This house was m 
debt above £16, of which paid £8, the rest discharged by 
pledges." At the eud of the letter is a list of the names 
of friars for whom he desires discharges that they may 
change their apparel, and among them occur the names of 
the following Carmelites of Bristol: Thomas Wraxall, 
Thomas Clyfton, Symon Vagan, Johan Hoper. It has been 
thought that the last-named was afterwards the bishop 
who was burned at Gloucester, but the name was not un- 
common, a Johan Howper occurs in the same list among 
the Black Friars of Gloucester, and as Bishop Hooper had 
been a Cistercian monk, there seems to be really no ground 
for assuming the identity. Writing from Haverfordwest on 
August 2 6th, 1538, the bishop says: "Also there be three 
conventes yet in Bristowe ; as for the Black, they be ready 
1 Suppression of Monasteries, p. 202. 
8 

Vol. XXIX. 



9 8 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



to give up, but the other two be stiff, and bear them sore 
by great favour. The Grey Friars, by reason that the 
warden is warden of Rechemonde, and is in favour by reason 
of that, yet for all his great port I think him twenty marks 
in debt, and not able to pay it. 1 The Austin Friar by reason 
of a grant that he hath of the king's grace for the term of 
his life, by which he thinketh that he may sell the house 
and all, for the plate is all sold, and also the timber that grew 
about the house, so that he hath within three years taken 
above a hundred marks of plate and timber and other 
implements, so that almost all is gone." He desires to know 
Cromwell's pleasure with regard to these three houses, which 
of course could not long survive in any case, and Ricart's 
Kalendav records that the friars' houses were surrendered 
m 1539. 2 The fate of the dispossessed friars was peculiarly 
hard ; the monk or nun, the canon or canoness, might have 
found a home in one of the larger houses of their Order, the 
friar was cast out into the world absolutely without any 
resource or shelter at all. Even if he were in priest's orders, 
and had obtained a " capacity," or licence to undertake the 
work of a secular, he found it difficult to obtain such work. 

There remained the abbey of St. Augustine, the hospital 
of St. Mark, and the cell of St. James. In 1537 and 153S 
several houses which were not suppressed by the Act of 
1536 were surrendered into the king's hands. It was evident 
that the end of the monastic system was drawing near, and 
in April, 1539, an Act was passed which confirmed all 
surrenders which had been or might be made. It became 
clear that practically there remained only the alternative 
of surrender or attainder. St. Augustine's and St. Mark's 

1 The beautiful tower of the unfinished church of the Grey Friars 
yet remains at Richmond in Yorkshire; the house was given up by 
Robert Sanderson and fourteen brethren on January 19th, 1539. (Dugdale, 
Mon., vi. 1544.) This house must be distinguished from that of the 
Franciscan observants at Richmond in Surrey, the warden of which had 
been executed on April 20th, 1534, and the house itself was suppressed 
on August nth in that year. (Dugdale, Mon., vi. i 53 a) 

3 Toulmin Smith, p. 55. 



The Religious Houses of Bristol. 99 

were surrendered on December 9 th, i 5 39; Tewkesbury 
Abbey, the mother house of St. James, on January gth, 
1540; and so it came to pass that the oldest religious house 
in Bristol was also the last to fall. 

It remains to consider the disposition of the spoils of 
these houses. The net income of the abbey of St. Augustine 
at the time of the surrender was ^670 13s. nd.; out of this 
the abbot received the manor house at Leigh and a pens.on 
of £80 a year for his life, and the prior and canons received 
pensions amounting to £^ 6s. 8d. a year; so that the clear 

value was £519 7*- 3*. less the value ° f the latB ^\ 
estate at Leigh. It seems that the old nave was destroyed 
at this time. At any rate, an account of the lead and bell- 
metal taken from the religious houses in Gloucestershire, 
rendered on May iSth, i 5 5<3, mentions 130 fother of lead (a 
fother being l 9 i ft.) as having been taken from the late 
monastery of St. Augustine at Bristol.' Another return, 
dated 1555, of lead given and granted by the kings letters 
patent states that « the lead of the late monastery of St 
Augustine nigh Bristowe remaining upon the cathedral 
church amounteth to cxxx ft- so that it would seem that 
the amount of lead removed was about equal to that which 
remained. But it is, of course, impossible to tell how much 
of the lead was removed from the church, and how much 
from the other buildings of the convent. 

On June 4 th, 1542, the church was refounded as the 
Cathedral of the Holy Trinity for a bishop, a dean six 
canons, and other officers. The clear income assigned for 
their support was £679 3* almost exactly the same 

with the net income of the dissolved abbey ; but of this 
sum only £301 9s- 9<1- was derived from the old abbey 
estates, the remainder came from the possessions of other 
dissolved houses in the western counties. The estates 
assigned to the bishop produced a clear income of 
X383 8s. 4 d., leaving ^05 15- yd. for the Chapter and its 
officers. The income assigned to the bishop did not at first 
■ reactions, xii. 106. 2 Transactions, xii. 113. 



IOO 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



compare very unfavourably with that assigned to other new 
sees: Chester received ^420, Peterborough ^414, Oxford 
^381, and Gloucester only ^315; but in 1549 Paul Bush, 
the first bishop, granted the manor of Leigh, valued at 
£56 3s. id., to the king, and the see was further im- 
poverished by later bishops, so that it became the poorest 
of the English sees. It cannot be said, however, that the 
Church lost in a pecuniary sense by the suppression of the 
abbey, and it certainly gained much, or might have done 
so, from a practical point of view by the foundation of the 
cathedral, for a foundation for a bishop, dean, and secular 
canons would be more generally helpful than a house of 
canons living under a rule of enclosure. 

^ Leland states that St. Mark's Hospital had at the 
Dissolution three hundred marks (^200) of land by the year, 1 
and this seems to be a more trustworthy estimate than the 
j£i4oof Speed, or the ^112 of Dugdale, for it is clear that 
the house did not fall under the operation of the Act of 1536, 
which suppressed all houses with a less income than £200, 
but that it was surrendered as one of the larger houses. It 
agrees with the larger estimate that the Augmentation Return 
gives a clear income of ^165 2s. 4 d., besides annuities 
granted by the convent for terms of lives amounting to 
£19 6s. 8d. The master received a pension of ^40 annually, 
and the steward and two clerks received pensions amounting 
to ^20 13s. 4d., leaving a clear annual value of only ^104 9s. 
It is not easy to see why the church of St. Mark was spared, 
unless it was regarded as parochial ; at any rate, a pension 
of ^8 was granted to John Ellis, assigned to be curate of the 
parish of St. Mark, so long as he should serve ; if he refused 
the cure, then to have but £6. 2 

The whole of the property of the hospital (except the 
manor of Paulet Gaunts, Southam and Northam, valued at 
£75 17s. gd.), also the sites of the Carmelite and Franciscan 
Friaries in Bristol, and the manor of Hampne in Somerset, 5 
1 Transactions, xiv. 252. 2 Barrett, p. 374. 
3 Valued at about £ 35 15s. gd. (Dugdale, Mon., ii. 409). 



The Religious Houses of Bristol. 



ioi 



lately a possession of the monastery of Athelney, were pur- 
chased by the Corporation from the king in 1 541-2 for the 
sum of ^i,coo and an annual rent of £10. These were of 
course very easy terms, for it was a part of the king's policy 
to make the suppression of the religious houses profitable to 
those in authority as well as to himself, and thereby to secure 
their support in what he did. 

On January 2nd, 1544, Heniy Brayne purchased from the 
king the site of St. James's Priory, with the rectories and some 
other property pertaining thereto, for the sum of ^667 7s. 6d. f 
and an annual rent of £3 10s. ad. The nunnery of St. Mary 
Magdalene was of course suppressed in 1536. The value 
of its property at that time seems to have been £21 us. 3d.; 
and on July 8th, 1545, Henry Brayne made application to 
purchase the site and land and rents belonging to the late 
nunnery, valued at £17 8s. iod., being all that remained in 
the king's hands. He was evidently satisfied with his former 
bargain. 

The Dominican Friary was granted in 1539-40 to William 
Chester, and the house of Austin Friars in 1543-4 to 
Maurice Dennis, no doubt in each case for valuable 
consideration. The college of Westbury-on-Trym was 
surrendered on February 18th, 1544, and was granted in 
the same year to Sir Ralph Sadler. 

The king, who was at war both with France and 
Scotland, found that his treasury was once more becoming 
exhausted, and in a Parliament which met in November, 
1545, in addition to the vote of a large subsidy, an Act was 
passed for the dissolution of chantries, hospitals, and free 
chapels, and for the annulling of any surrender of such 
foundations as might have been made; for it would seem 
that the representatives of founders had been forestalling his 
majesty in receiving surrenders of some of these charities. 
Presumably, however, the subsidy sufficed for present needs, 
for little or nothing seems to have been done in Bristol at 
any rate, in consequence of this Act, before the death of King 
Henry on January 28th, 1547. 



102 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

The guardians of Edward VI. found themselves with the 
charge of a beggared and discontented nation, an empty- 
treasury, a doubly-debased currency, a war with Scotland, 
and a threatened war with France; it was natural therefore 
that they should look around for some means of raising 
funds, and a revival of the project of the confiscation of the 
funds of guilds and chantries was an obvious resource. 
Parliament met in November, 1547, and passed an Act 
dealing with the matter. After speaking of the superstition 
and error which clung to the abuses of masses and chantries, 
and pointing out how much better the money would be spent 
on good and godly uses, such as the erecting of grammar 
schools, the augmentation of the universities, and the better 
provision for the poor and needy, to which purposes the 
king with his most prudent Council would most wisely and 
beneficially, for the honour of God and the weal of his 
majesty's realm, order, alter, convert, and dispose the same, it 
carried out these high-sounding promises by a simple 
enactment that all colleges and chantries existing within the 
last five years, with the property of all guilds and fraternities, 
should be vested in the king from the date (April 1st) of the 
Easter following. The certificates of the commissioners 
appointed to take a survey of the chantry properties in 
Bristol have already been printed in our Transactions} It 
will be enough to say that in Bristol the property of some 
fifty chantries, fraternities, and obits, with an income of 
£"430, passed into the king's hands, and with them the income 
of some eighteen charities for the poor, amounting to 
£11 4s. 7d., varying in amount from £1 12s. iod. given in 
connection with obits held by the Kalendars at All Saints 
to 3s. 4d; distributed in connection with ffraunce's Chantry at 
Temple. 2 These sums should be multiplied by about fifteen 
to give the equivalent of their present value. The incomes of 
the fraternities of weavers at Temple and of tailors at St. 
1 Vol. viii. 232. 

2 Particulars of the value of ornaments and jewels belonging to the 
chantries will be found in Transactions, xii. 98, 102. 



The Religious Houses of Bristol. 103 

Ewen's are not included, as their value is not stated in the 
return, though it ought to have been given ; but the total 
value of the property of the fraternity of Kalendars at All 
Saints is stated to have been ^39 16s. The robbery of the 
chantries had, however, already begun ; it is noted with regard 
to Rowley's Chantry at St. John's that the priest had received 
£10 yearly under the convent seal from the monastery of 
Bath, but that since the dissolution of that monastery the 
annuity had been detained, for that the whole came to the 
king's majesty's hand. It is also noted at St. Stephen's 
that the heirs of one Mr. Sheppard used to keep an obit of 
about 20s. annually, which had been discontinued. 

This confiscation of the properties of the guilds was the 
most cruel robbery of the poor that has ever been perpetrated 
in England, and went far to account for the utter detestation 
of Protestantism which marked the close of the reign of 
Edward VI. The guilds were the trade unions and benefit 
societies of the time, from their funds were provided means 
of help for sick and aged brethren and aid for burial, and 
their suppression must have caused very widely spread 

misery. . 

But there were still some small gleanings of church 
plunder to be obtained. Between May, 1552, and January, 
1553, commissions were issued to take inventories of all 
manner of goods, plate, jewels, vestments, bells, and other 
ornaments within every parish, belonging to any church, 
chapel, brotherhood, guild, or fraternity, and that the same 
goods should be safely kept. It will be noted that parish 
churches are now brought within the range of plunder. The 
few indentures relating to our district made in answer to 
these commissions which still exist are printed m the 
Transactions, xii. 76-97- All ornaments deemed to be 
superfluous were kept for the king's use, but the documents 
recording the return of one chalice and the bells belonging 
to each parish church in Bristol to its churchwardens by 
William Chester, Mayor of Bristol, and one of the royal 
commissioners, are printed in the Transactions, xu. 81-97. 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



It is amusing to find that it has been thought that William 
Chester was of his open-handed liberality distributing gifts 
of bells and chalices to the Bristol churches, whereas he was 
of course restoring only a small remnant of the beautiful and 
costly ornaments which had been lately theirs. Edward VI. 
died on July 6th following, and the plunder of church 
property ceased for the time; had he lived much longer 
there is little doubt that the endowments of the cathedrals 
and parish churches would have gone the way of the estates 
of the minsters. 

The dissolution of the religious houses was not so utterly 
ruinous in Bristol as it was generally. The churches of the 
two most wealthy of their number have remained to us, and 
Mr. Street's beautiful nave of St. Augustine's will compen- 
sate for the destruction of the Norman nave. Architecturally 
it is likely that the only serious loss is that of the Franciscan 
and Dominican churches; if they could have been preserved 
and made parochial (and there has been an ample area and 
population for two more parochial churches in the parish of 
St. James), the ecclesiastical history of that part of the 
borough would have been very widely different from what it 
has been. Moreover the waste of money and money's worth 
was not so serious as it usually was elsewhere. The 
cathedral was as well endowed as St. Augustine's Abbey had 
been, and the freeing of the city gates from toll and custom, 
and the quay and the Back from tolls on provisions, which 
was carried out with the income arising from the estates 
purchased from Henry VIII., 1 was in a very real way, by 
cheapening the cost of living, a continuation of the work of 
assisting the poor for which St. Mark's Hospital was founded 
at first. But the chief sufferers from the Dissolution were the 
poor. They suffered first of all from the destruction of the 
religious houses with their widespread and kindly hospitality, 
then from the destruction of the hospitals, of which they 
might have been inmates, then from the confiscation of the 
chantry charities, then from the enclosure of common lands, 
1 Barrett, p. 375. 



The Religious Houses of Bristol. 105. 

which led to a disturbance even in Bristol, and finally and 
perhaps most bitterly of all they suffered from the suppres- 
sion of the guilds. In addition to this they suffered from the 
general misgovernment of the country and from the debase- 
ment of the coinage both by Henry VIII. and by the 
guardians of Edward VI. As it was the case that a day s 
wa«es would purchase more of the necessaries of life in the 
fifteenth century than at any time before or after, so there 
was no period when the condition of the poor was more 
utterly miserable than it was during the closing years of the 
rei-n of Henry VIII. and under the guardians of Edward 
VI° The sturdy beggar of the days of Edward VI., and the 
poor rates which began in the reign of Elizabeth, followed 
hard on the heels of the destruction of the religious houses. 

It is difficult to tell how much of the plunder of the 
religious houses actually reached the king's hands, for it is 
certain that the needy men of the new families whom he had 
gathered around himself fattened on the spoils amazingly. 
Furthermore the pensions which were granted to the religious 
who surrendered their houses, and the annuities which were 
freely granted from the estates of these houses, formed a 
heavy charge on the revenues of the Crown, as we shall 
see presently. So far as Bristol was concerned, the king 
received £1,000 for the property of St. Mark's Hospital and 
the sites of the Carmelite and Franciscan Friaries, and 
/"66V 78. 6d. for property belonging to the priory ot St. 
Tames, while Henry Brayne made application to purchase 
the site of the nunnery of St. Mary Magdalene and property 
which had belonged to it to the value of £17 8s. rod. 
Supposing he gave fifteen years' purchase money, the price 
would be about £520, and this added to the before-mentioned 
sums would amount to about £2,187. There were besides 
the sites of the Dominican and Austin Friaries and of a tew 
small hospitals, the furniture and lead and fittings of the 
destroyed houses and the vestments and plate of the guilds, 
but it is not likely that the king received more than £2,400 
in money from Bristol. Besides this of course various 



io6 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



sources of income fell to the Crown ; a perpetual rent of £20 
was due from the estates of St. Mark's, and £3 10s. gd. from 
those of St. James, while the endowments of the chantries 
afforded, until the properties were dissipated, a very con- 
siderable income. As we have seen, there were about fifty of 
these chantries, colleges, and obits in Bristol, and it is likely 
that with the charities belonging to them they afforded 
immediately after their suppression a net income of some 
/440, giving with the rents mentioned some ^"463 annually. 
But from this would be subtracted the pensions due to 
the religious of St. Augustine and St. Mark amounting to 
£212, and to chantry priests amounting to ^128, leaving a 
net income of about £120. Thus it would seem that the 
spoils of Bristol amounted to about -£"2,400 in hard money, 
and an annual income of about £120, but how much of this 
reached the royal treasury it would be difficult to say. 1 

Pensions were granted only to the superiors of the houses 
possessing an income of less than £200 annually, the other 
inmates were obliged either to take refuge in the larger 
houses, which were surrendered some four years later, or to 
go out into the world ; and it would seem that pensions were 
not granted at the surrenders to religious who had been then 
transferred from smaller houses, for they were only given to 
those who had been inmates of the surrendered houses for 
some time. With regard to the surrendered houses, pensions 
were practically the price paid by the king for the house. 
Where the house was easily surrendered pensions were freely 
given, where difficulties were raised pensions diminished; 
the Abbot of Gloucester, who refused to sign the surrender, 
received no pension, 2 while the prior and monks who did 

1 As the only pensions to chantry priests which could be reckoned are 
those mentioned in the return of 1555, and some pensioners must have 
died, the total in 1548 must have been larger, and it is likely that the net 
annual income due to the Crown never exceeded £100. 

2 It is to be noted, however, that in the pension list of 1555 Thomas 
Parker, very probably a relation of the abbot, appears as Clerk of the 
Treasury of the possessions of the abbey at the substantial salary of 
£13 6s. 8d. annually. 



The Religious Houses of Bristol. 107 

sign it were pensioned as usnal. In such houses as Glaston- 
bury, Reading, and Whalley, no pensions at all were bestowed. 
It would seem that so far as the Crown was eoneerned the 
pensions were honestly paid, and efforts were made to protect 
the interests of the pensioners. For instance, it was found 
that some of the pens.oners had sold their pensions and in 
I549 an Aet was passed compelling purchasers of letters 
patent for pensions to restore them on repayment of the 
money given. The Act also dealt sharply with abuses which 
had arisen from excessive fees charged by the king s officials. 
By this time by far the larger portion of the spoils of the 
Dissolution had passed from the possession of the Crown, and 
the payment of the pensions must have been a heavy burden 
on its revenues. In I5S5 the pensions due on account of 
houses in Gloucestershire amounted to £1,4*4 «s . ad., and 
from Somerset to £1,507 I4»- i » a11 £*** 5*. ad. from only 
two count.es, but of course they were two counties in which 
religious houses had been numerous and wealthy. In i 5 55. 
therefore, an Act was passed (a and 3 Philip and Mary, cap. 4 
by which it was ordered that a list should be drawn up of all 
rents, pensions, annuities, corrodies, and fees due to any 
ecclesiastical persons, and that in future all these charges 
should be paid from ecclesiastical revenues m the po- 
of the Crown. A copy of this list is preserved in the^ BnUsh 
Museum (Add. MSS. 8,10a), and the portion relating to 
Gloucestershire, including Bristol, is printed at the end of 

T P he Pe following table, which will be found to be approxi- 
mately correct, shows the amount of charges on the estates 
of the surrendered houses in Gloucestershire in 1555- 
Kingswood Abbey was of the value of £a 44 2d - and 
pensions were granted to the abbot and twelve monk 
amounting to £ro8 13s. 4*. besides annuities grantee lund r 
the convent seal amounting to £33 5 but it was reckoned to 
lie in Wiltshire, to which county the parish pertained till 
recently for secular matters :— 1 

1 Dugdale, Mon., v. 425, 429. 



io8 Transactions for the Year 1906. 





Fees. 




Annuities. 


Pensions. 


Total. 




Value at the 
























surrender 




r s 


A 
U. 


£ 




s. d. 


£ 


s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d. 


^ s. d. J 






O 


25 


1 8 


58 


13 


A 
"t 


y j 


T C 


0 


1,051 7 0 


Lanthony 






20 


6 8 


76 


0 


O 


96 


6 


8 


749 0 0 


Winchcombe 


14 6 


8 


4 1 


0 8 




0 


O 


2 59 


ID 


4 


759 11 9 


Tewkesbury 


12 13 


4 


69 


0 0 


128 


6 


8 


210 


O 




1,598 1 - 3 


St. Peter, Glos. ... 


32 19 


2 


64 


10 0 


123 


0 


0 


220 


9 


2 


1,946 5 9 


St. Augustine 






35 


9 10 


32 


0 


0 


67 


9 


10 


670 13 11 


Hayles 






17 


3 4 


63 


0 


0 


80 


3 


4 


357 7 8 




69 19 


2 


273 


1 2 


685 


0 


0 


1,028 


0 


4 


7.132 7 4 



It thus appears that fifteen years after the Dissolution 
the annual charges on the estates of the surrendered houses 
still amounted to more than one-seventh of the net value at 
the date of surrender. At the Dissolution the pensions- 
granted (besides any annuities there might have been) 
amounted at Hailes to about four-sevenths of the net annual 
income, at Kingswood to about two-fifths, at Tewkesbury,. 
Winchcombe, and St. Mark's, Bristol, to about one-third, 
and at St. Augustine's, Bristol, and in the case of the Bristol 
chantries to about one-fourth of that amount. Assuming 

o 

that the surrenders which were made by the religious were 
justifiable at all, it cannot be said that persons who had 
taken a vow of life-long poverty were badly off on an income 
guaranteed by the Crown varying from £bo to £\oo annually 
of our money. It must be noted that at St. Augustine's 
the pensions were from the time of the foundation of the 
Cathedral a charge on the general revenues of the Crown, 
because the endowment of the Cathedral exceeded that of 
the dissolved abbe) , and at St. Mark's the rent of £10 
payable from the property sold would not go far to pay 
pensions amounting to £bo 13s. 4d. It would seem that the 
lay brethren and sisters and the servants of the houses, who„ 
as they could take no part in the surrenders, could receive 
no pensions, were really worse off than the pensioned 
religious. 



The Religious Houses of Bristol. 109 



Kingswood Abbey had been surrendered as early as 
March, 1538, and Lanthony Priory on May 10th, 1539, the 
other houses were surrendered in December, 1539, and Janu- 
ary, 1540, Winchcombe on December 3rd, St. Augustine's and 
St. Mark's on the 9th, Cirencester on the 19th, and Hailes 
on the 31st, St. Peter's, Gloucester, on January 2nd, and 
Tewkesbury on the 9th. A letter is extant from the com- 
missioners with regard to the highly praiseworthy conduct of 
the Abbot of Hailes, 1 who with his brethren were very 
honest and conformable persons, who surrendered their 
house with such discreet and frank manner as the com- 
missioners had seen none others do better in all their 
journey. The house and grounds were well furnished with 
jewels and cattle, the woods were uncut, the land was 
ploughed and sown, and the commissioners earnestly 
recommended this honest man's doings to the king. Alas 
for such virtue! Hailes was but a poor house, the monks 
learned the meaning of the saying, " The fewer the better 
cheer," for their butter had to be spread very thin. Twenty- 
one monks received ^106 13s. 4^ between them, but only 
eight received a pension of as much as £6; only three 
monks of Tewkesbury out of thirty-three received so little. 

At Winchcombe the abbot, Robert Mounslow, received 
a pension of £140, which he was still enjoying in 
1555 and the prior and sixteen monks received £110 
between them. At Tewkesbury the abbot, John Wakeman, 
received a pension of £266 13s. 4&; which with the pensions 
of thirty-eight other members of the house, made a total 
of ^550 6s. 8d. Robert Circester, late Prior of St. James at 
Bristol, was still enjoying his pension of £13 6s. 8d. in 1555. 
The pensions of the prior and fourteen monks of Gloucester 
amounted to ^240. The king did well out of the headships 
of Gloucester and Tewkesbury. As William Parker, Abbot 
of Gloucester, took no part in the surrender he received no 
pension, and on September 25th, 1541, John Wakeman was 
consecrated to the See of Gloucester. It is not likely that 
1 Suppression of Monasteries, p. 236 ; Dugdale, Mon., v. 689 



no 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



any amount of nolo episcopavi would have saved him, for on his 
appointment the pension which he had enjoyed for less than 
two years lapsed. 

It is likely that one of the last survivors of the religious 
of Gloucestershire was Thomas Rede, probably a monk of 
Hailes, who was a prisoner in the Marshalsea in 1579, thirty- 
nine years after the dissolution of his house. 

It is interesting to compare the list of pensioned chantry 
priests with the list of chantries in vol. viii. 232-296 ; the 
lapse of eight years had scarcely made as many changes 
as might have been expected. In the Wardens' Accounts of 
St. Thomas the Martyr, Bristol, for 1571, the following entry 
appears : " Convyding for the six that were sworn to present 
the dead chantry priest with a groat to the Registrar, 2s." 
This would probably have been Roger Lewes, priest of 
Stoke's Chantry, aged about thirty in 1549, who would 
have been about fifty-two in 1571, for Richard Griffithe, 
priest of Burton's Chantry, aged sixty-two in 1549, would 
hardly have lived so long. The entry shows that there was 
a formal certification of the death of a chantry priest, and 
it is a curious instance of the manners of the time that such 
an occasion should have been marked by a "convyding" or 
feasting, at a cost of some twenty-five shillings of our money. 

Thus we have considered the dissolution of the religious 
houses of Bristol, and have touched shortly on that of the 
greater houses of Gloucestershire. The fabrics of nearly all 
the smaller houses have perished, and of the greater houses 
described in the Act of 1536 as " great solemn monasteries' 
of this realm wherein (thanks be to God) religion is right 
well kept and observed," the greensward covers the sites of 
Hailes, Winchcombe, Cirencester, Kingswood, and Flaxley, 
ocean steamers traverse the precincts of Lantony, and a 
few ruined arches mark the resting-place of the bones of 
St. Oswald. But the noblest of all survive. Of all the 
monastic churches in England there can have been few more 
glorious than St. Peter's of Gloucester, with its incomparable 
tower and its lacework of tracery hanging before the arches 



The Religious Houses of Bristol. 



hi 



of the choir. St. Mary's of Tewkesbury falls little behind 
it with regard to the beauty of its fabric, while the chapels 
set round the eastern apse and the range of sepulchres within 
the church are surpassed only in the coronation church of 
the sovereigns of England. The groining of the choir of 
St. Augustine's at Bristol is a marvel of constructive and 
engineering skill; St. Mark's, on the other side of the Green, 
is & a good example of a small collegiate church ; while the 
church of St. Peter and St. Paul, St. Mary and the Holy 
Apostles, and the ttoly Trinity at Westbury - on - Trym, 
marking by the number and variety of its dedications the 
length of its existence and the changes of condition through 
which it has passed, is a good instance of a church that was 
both collegiate and parochial. 

And the question arises why the religious houses perished. 
Now we must clearly understand that their destruction was 
no deed of havoc wrought by Protestant iconoclasts. Much 
evil of that sort was wrought in later times, but between 
1536 and 1540 Protestantism was not an active force m 
England; there were a few Dutch sectaries and a few 
sympathisers, mostly at Cambridge, and that was all. The 
religious houses were destroyed by men of the old religion, 
and by none others. 

Nor again was the destruction of the religious houses to 
any great extent the result of anti-Roman feeling. No doubt 
the feeling of attachment to Rome was stronger among the 
religious than it was among the secular clergy or among 
the lay people. But the religious, with few exceptions, 
had accepted the royal supremacy in t 534 . It was 
not in Rome's quarrel that such men as the Abbots of 
Glastonbury, Reading, and Colchester died- rather were 
• they members of the old English Church, resisting to the 
death, as their consciences bade them resist, proceedings 
which seemed to them violent and unjust. 

• i The Abbot of Reading was present at the opening of Parliament on 
April 2 8th, 1539, and the Abbots of Glastonbury and St. John s, Colchester, 
sent their proxies ; before the year ended they perished. 



112 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



Neither, again, were these houses destroyed because the 
life led in them was irregular or bad. This was not so. It 
would be difficult to point to any house of women where 
general immorality was proved, and houses of men which 
were of bad report were few. The people generally desired 
that the monasteries should remain. Bishop Latimer, who was 
certainly not given to praise of the days that were passed, 
in a letter to Cromwell bearing date December 13th, 1536, 
pleaded earnestly that the priory of Great Malvern might 
stand, and that two or three houses in each county might 
remain : " The prior is old, a good housekeeper, feedeth 
many, and that daily, for the country is poor, and full of 
penury ; and alas ! my good Lord ! shall we not see two or 
three in every shire changed to such remedy." 1 

No doubt there were too many of these houses, they had 
in a great measure outlived their usefulness, they held too 
much of the land of England, and their superabundance both 
in number and wealth gave rise to the feeling that better use 
might be made of their property if it were otherwise ordered. 
And indeed it is likely that, at any rate so far as men's houses 
were concerned, the smaller houses might have been sup- 
pressed without loss, their inmates drafted into larger houses, 
and their property assigned to good and useful purposes. 
But the good of the Church and of the nation was not the 
moving cause of this destruction. The two main causes 
which destroyed the minsters were their wealth and their 
political weakness ; and of the evil and corrupt generation 
which destroyed them, it is enough to say that the most 
striking proof of the need of a thorough reformation of the 
Western Church lies in the character of the men by whom 
the work of that reformation was begun, for they were all of 
them children of the Mediaeval Church, and the parent is 
judged by her children. 

Little need be said about the list of pensions which is 
subjoined, the date of which is Michaelmas, 1555. The charges 
on the monastic estates are entered under three heads — fees, 
1 Suppression of Monasteries, p. 150. 



The Religious Houses of Bristol. 113 



annuities, and pensions. The fees were payments due for 
services rendered with regard to the care of the monastic 
estates. The annuities were payments due in virtue of 
grants made under the convent seal ; grants of this kind were 
frequently made by the religious houses for considerations of 
one kind or another. But it seems likely that some of them 
must have been made on the very eve of the Dissolution and 
in connection with it. Such most likely were the annuities, 
amounting in all to £"24, due to Sir Anthony Kingston from 
Cirencester, Lanthony, Tewkesbury, St. Peter's at Gloucester, 
and Hailes, and the annuity of £10 for thirty years granted 
to John Ayleworthe from St. Peter's, Gloucester. The 
pensions were the annual payments granted by the king to 
the inmates of the houses in consideration of the surrenders; 
similar payments were made to the priests of the chantries, 
though in their case the suppression of the chantries was 
compulsory. Full lists of the pensions granted to the 
religious of several of the larger Gloucestershire houses 
are printed in Dugdale's Monasticon. 



LIST OF PENSIONS PAYABLE IN 1555 
TO THE INMATES OF RELIGIOUS HOUSES AND TO 
CHANTRY PRIESTS IN GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 

B.M., A. MSS. 8102. 
Specificantur et continent 1 in septuaginta septem Ceduhs 
Indentatis sequen tarn noia et cognomina diversar 
personar, qm eor separalia Feoda, An tes , Corrodia, et 
Pencoes eisdm pro termio vite vel annor concessa 
m Cunje Scdj et Ducatu Lancastrie de Thesauro 
Regio solut, ac imposterum per clerum vigore cujusdm 
Actus parliament! exonerand et s_oluend videlt, a Festo 
sancti Michis archi, anms regnor Philippi et Mariae 
• dei gratia Regis et Regine Anglie, Francie, Neapohs, 
JerTm et Hibnie, fidei defensor, Principum Hispaniar 
et Cecilie, Archiducum Austrie, Ducum Mediolan, 

9 

Vol. XXIX. 



II 4 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



Burgundie, et Brabantie, Comitum Haspurgh, Flandrie 
et Tirolis, secnndo et tercio, prout in separalib3 
Comitatib3 particulariter apparet. 

Videlt 



Folio 38. 
Com. Gloucestr. 
Cirencestr nup mon. 
Feod. 





£ 


s. 


d. 


Ripi Palp ^pn'^ nmi Pncmp^monn dpi nun 








IvT nn n ctpn 1 nrprlri 

J.VA VJLl &S LCI 1J pitULl ... ... ... ... 


x . 






Ann 17 








Johnis Dawbeney senior 




llij. 


iiij. 


Henrici Edmond 


viij. 


X. 




Clement Reve 




XXXV. 




Willi Warbutt 




xlvj. 


viij 


Johnis Dawbeney Junioris 




xl. 




Thome Arundell 




lxvj. 


viij 


Xpofori Smythe 




x. 




Anthonij Kingeston mi*" 8 


iiij. 






Penc. 








Rici Woodall 


xiij . 


vj. 


viij 


Thome Hudde 


v j- 


xiij . 


iiij. 


Johnis Russett ... 


vj- 


xiij. 


iiij. 


Johnis Straunge 


vj. 


xiij . 


iiij. 


Henrici Hanke 


vj. 


xiij . 


iiij. 


Jacobi Plybyen 


vj. 


xiij. 


iiij. 


Rici Lane 




cvj. 


viij 


WiiTi Smythe 


vj. 


xiij. 


iiij. 



Lanthona juxta Glouc nup monastiu. 
Ann* 

Anthonij Kingeston 

Rici Morgan 

1 Senescallus, Steward. 



iiij. 

x^x. 



iiij. 



The Religious Houses of Bristol. 



115 



Rici Wyatt 

Johnis Morgan 

Rogeri Cockes 

NichT Arnolde mi ts - ... . 

Johnis Hodges 

Rici Hodgekins 

Willi Henlouee . 

Johnis Ambrose 

Johnis Kellame 

WiTlmi WorcesFr 

Georgij Deane 

Rici Westeburie 

Mauricij Barkeley 
Edmundi Burford 
WiTTi Presteburie 
David Mathew als Kempe 

WiTTi Alvington 

Willi Barrington 

Johnis Hempstede 



£ 



iiij. 



d. 



Penc. 



vnj 
viij. 

vj : 
vj. 

vj- 

vj. 

iiij. 

iiij. 

iiij. 

viij . 

vj- 
vj. 
iiij. 



Winchecombe nup Monastenu. 
Feod. 



Anthonij AylewoUi Receptor omi pos- 



session dci nup Monastii 
Thome Gwente et Rici Hyde 
monastiu pd • 



ss 



Ann' 



Edn Draicote 
Thome Sherle 
Willi Badger 
Johnis Bridgeman 
Rogeri Jervys 
Willi Edward 
Thome Gwente 
Edri Swalowe 



1111 



XX. 

lx. 
xl. 
cvj. 
xx vj 



VIIJ 

yiij. 



V J 



xl. 

Xl. 

xl. 

xxvj. 
xxiij. 
xl. 



xl 



vnj. 



VIIJ 

iiij. 



n6 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



d. 



Thome Belle 
Clement Throgmton 
Willmi Caritas 
Lodovici Craker . 
Thome Bailie 
Henrici Polstede . 
Xpoferi Smithe . 
Willi Freman 
Robti Throgmton 
Humfri Dicke ludimagri 

Penc. 

Rici Monnslowe nup Abbis ibm 
Johis Hancock 
WUTi Bradeley 
Rici Freman 
Rici Parker 

Willi Trenthme 
Walteri Coop 
Willi Whorewoode 
Rici Williams 
Walteri Turbutte. 
Rici Boydon 
Georgij Rooe 
Cristoferi Chamiffatte 
Willmi Blossome ... 

Tewkesbury nup Monasten 

Feod. 

Willmi Barners Supius omi possessionu 
nup Monastii pd 

Thome Wetherston clici coquine ejusdem 
Mon 

Ann*- 

Johnis Russell & Thome Russell 

Willi Barners 



cxx. 
viij . 
vj. 
vj. 
vj. 

vj. 
vj. 
vj. 
vj. 
vj. 
vj. 

vj. 
vj. 
vj. 



u. 



liij. 

lx. 
c. 



V11J. 

iiij. 
iiij. 



s. 

XX. 

lxvj. 
xiij. 
xiij. 
xl. 
xl. 
xl. 
xl. 

xxvj. viij 



xiij. mj. 
xiij. iiij. 



XIIJ. 111J. 



xnj. 111J. 
xiij. iiij, 

xiij. iiij. 



mj. 



The Religious Houses of Bristol. 



117 







£ 


s. 


d. 


johnis Tailo r als Barker 






Iiij. 


iiij. 


Nichi Wakeman 






lxvj. 


viij. 


Willi Dewye ... ■•• 






xxvj. 


viij. 


Edmundi Harman 






xl. 




Robti Comyn 






xl. 




Johnis Hareford 






xl. 




Henrici Crane 




... iiij. 






Xpoferi Smythe 







XX. 




Laurenc Poyner 




... vij. 


xiij. 


iiij. 


Hugonis Whittingdon 




... ix. 


lxvj. 




Thome Gwente 






viij. 


Hugonis Pagett ... 




. . . 


xxvj. 


viij. 


Johnis Bridges mi ts 






Iiij. 


iiij. 


T on f Ati P 1 i Ci QP 

.L/d III Cllv^ VJi cloc; ••• ••• 






xl. 




Thome Sherle 






xl. 




Edrus Walweyn 






lxvj. 


viij . 


Edi Robery 






XX. 




Willi Cole 






xl. 




Thome Higons ... ... 






xxvj. 


viij. 


Johnis Waters 






lxvj. 


viij. 


Anthonij Kingeston ... 


Penc. 


... vj. 


XIIJ. 


iiij. 


Robti Circetto 1 




xiij. 


vi. 

V J. 


viij. 


Thome Twynyng 




vi. 


xiij. 


iiij. 


Rici Compton 




viij. 






a 

Thome Lekehmpton ... 





... vj. 


xiij. 


iiij. 


Willmi Stremeshme 




... vj. 


xiij. 


iiij. 


Johnis Bates 




... vj. 


xiij. 


iiij. 


TVinme Bri^towe 




... vj. 


xiij. 


iiij. 


Tohnis Hartelonde 
j 




... vj. 


xiij. 


iiij. 


Thome Newporte 




... vij. 






PhiGardiff .,. ... 




... viij 






Thome Thorneburye ... 




... vj. 


xiij. 


iiij. 


Henr Worcester 




... vj. 


xiij. 


iiij. 


Edri Stanwaye 




... vj. 


xiij. 


iiij. 



n8 Transactions for the Year 1906. 







s. 


d. 


. — t a 

Rici Cheltenhme 


vj. 


xiij. 


iiij. 


Johnis Welneford 


vj. 






Rici Wymbole 


vj. 






Robti Astonne 


vj. 


xiij. 


iiij. 


Johnis Astonne 


vj. 


X11J. 


iiij. 


Sci Petri, Glouc nup Monasterium. 






Feod. 








Willi Walter & Thome Parker Audit omi 








terr & possessionu monastii pd 




cvj. 


viij 


Thome Parker clerici Sccij ibm 


xiij. 


vi. 

J 


viij 


Michi Arnolde mi 1 " Sen 11 omi possess dci 








nup monasterij 


xiiij. 


V. 


X. 


Ann* & Corrod. 








Johnis Aylevvothe assign Rici Cromwell 








p tmio xxx Annor 


X. 






Edi ap Hoell 




XX VJ . 


vin 


Thome Sherle 




xl. 




Johnis Machin 




liii 
11 ij. 


mi 
111J. 


Willi Uneawotn als .batnorne 


v j- 






jOllUlS ulcVcS Oc J. IlOIIl 111 bS ... ,.. ... 




c. 




J Oil 11 lb O LI d.U.lllJgc ... • ... ... 




liii. 
j 


iiii . 
j 


A/T ipfn 1^ c\ r* \z c 

1VX IClliV^tJdYo ••• ... ... ... . ... 




liii'. 
j' 


1 1 ] 1 . 


Thome Veale & Johnis ml ss 


vj. 


xiij. 


iiij. 


Johnis Pye 


vj- 


xiii. 
j 


iiii. 


Johnis Reade & fils ejus 


iiij. 


}> 


viij 


Robti Aldeswothe 


vij. 


vj. 


viij 


Willmi Barners 




xl. 




Anthonij Huddelstone 




xl. 




Thome Hale 




Iiij. 


iiij. 


Anthonij Kingeston mi ts 


vj- 


xiij. 


iiij. 


Penc. 








Thome Hartelonde 


viij. 






Willmi Newporte 


vj- 


xiij. 


iiij. 


Humtri Barkeley 


viij. 







The Religious Houses of Bristol. 



Willi Austen 

Rici Anselme 

Wiilmi Symes 

Johnis Etheldrede 

Thome Saybroke 

WITH Burfford 

WTTli Gam age 

Thome Baskarvyld 

Willi Ambrose 

Xpoferi Horton^. 

Johnis Ferrers als Clifford 
Gabrielis Moreton 



I 
vj. 

viij. 

vj. 

xhj. 

viij. 

vj. 

vj- 

vj. 

vj. 

X. 
XX. 



Sci Augustini nup Monasteriu. 
Ann 1 & Corrod. 



Willi ap Hoell ... 
Thome Gwente ... 
Edmundi ap Hoell 
Wuli Nasshe 
Johnis Aylewothe 

Waited Phillippe 

Phi Gryffyth 

Pdci Phi p Corrod 

David Brooke 

Georgii Owen 

Jacobi Gunter 

Johnis Rastall 
Rfci Oryell 
Rici Kerseye 
Rici Hughes 
WiTli Underwoode 



Othoni Sagar 
Edri Draieote 



iiij 



vj 



Penc. 



c. 



VJ, 



Hailes nup mon 
Ann 1 - 



iiij. 



viij 
vj. 
vj. 
vj- 
vj. 



XX. 

lx. 

xiij. 

Iiij. 

xl. 

lxj. 

xl. 

xl. 



II 

d. 



viij 



xx. 



iiij. 
iiij. 

iiij. 



xxvj. viij 



120 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



Pen< 



Willi Tracye ... . 

Thom Sherle 

Thorn Trussell 

Willmi Popeley 

Anthonij Kingeston 

Johnis Silvester 

Johnis Gryffythe 

Rici Eden 

Reginaldi Lane 

Ade Tylar 

Willi Netherton 

Thome Hopkins 

Rici Woodwarde 

Rogeri Reade 

Thome Reade 

Elizei Dugdale 

Xpoferi Hodgeson 

Cantar Colleg ffraternitat 
Penc. 

Johnis JRastall nup inc Cant voc Bradstons 

chuntrie in ecclia de Wyntbone 
Johnis Hurrold nup incumb Cantie de 

Brakenbury in pochia de Aldemon- 

desburye ;.. 

Thome Silke n magri ffratnit voc Kalenders 

inf a poch omi scor inf a Civit Bristoll 
Johnis Colyar nup incumb Cant voc Spicers 

"a , 

Chuntrie in poch Sci Jacobi in Bristoll 
Thome Bristoll n Stipend celebran m Fraln 

sci Johnis Bapte inf a poch sci Owini 

ibm 

Reginaldi Lane n incumb Camie beate 

Marie de Stone 



nip 

vj- 
vij. 



vij. 



iiij. 

vj- 

iiij. 

iiij. 
vj. 



s. 

xl. 

xxvj. 

1. 

xl. 



c. 
c. 
c. 

cvj, 
c. 

c. 

Iiij. 
Iiij. 



X11J. 



X11J, 



V11J. 



V11J, 



V11J. 



111J. 

iiij. 



111J. 



111J, 



The Religious Houses of Bristol. 

I 

Johnis Coiyns n incumb Cant sive lifee 
Capell de Workeley als Worteley .. 

Thorn Pynchyn n inc Cantie voc Balles 
Chuntry in poch sci Trimte als Criste- 
church 

Johis Bradeley n inc Cantie voc Cannynge 
Chantry in poch de Radclif Bristoll 

Nichi Harreis n u n inc ffratnitat vocat 
the Kalendars in poch omi scor 

Bristoll 1 

Thorn Balle n incumb Canl sive svicm bte 

a 

M e in Cheltenhme 

Tho"m Wayefeld inc Cant voc Framptons 
Chuntrye in poch sci Johis Bapte 

Bristoll 

Phi Barrey n incumb Cant voc Banbletts 
Chuntry in poch sci Steph Bristoll ... 
Thorn Theste nup inc Canterie sci Andree 

in poch de Barkeley 

David Dowelln incumb Cant voc Holweis 
Chuntrye in poch omi scor Bristoll ... 
Thome Kinge n inc Capell sive Fratmt 

bte M e in poch sci Nichi Bristoll ... mj 
David Thorns n mc Capell sci Johnis 
Evangeliste als Knappes Chuntrye... 
Rogeri Lewes n inc CanT voc Stooke 
Chuntrye in poch sci ThomBristoll... 
Willi Hunte n incumb Cant voc Spicers 
Chuntry in poch sci Nichi Bristoll ... 
Rici Griffith n incumb CaTTt v^c B r tons 
Chuntrie in poch sci Thorn Bristoll ... 



122 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

Anthonij Walmesby n inc Cant vocat 

a 

Framptons Chuntry in poch sci Joins 
Bapte 

Barnard Harreis n inc Cantie vocat 
Meade Chantrye in poch de Ratclif 
Bristoll 

Henrici Spendall nup inc Cant voc Furthe 
Chuntrye in poch sci Phi Bristoll ... 
Willi Smythyman n inc Cant vocat 

a 

Kverard le ffrenche Chuntry in poch 

sci Nicm Bristoll 

Thorn Reade nup inc Cant voc Kemys 

a 

Chuntrye in poch sci Phi Bristoll ... iiij. 
Willi Bono 1- n inc Cantie voc Everard Je 

a 

ffrenche Chuntrie in pochia de Ratclif 
Bristoll 

Rici Whale nup incumb Fratnit voc 
Kalendars in poch omi Scor in 
Bristoll vj. 

Johnis Sherman incumb Cant voc Fraunce 

Chuntrie in poch see cruce de le 
Temple Bristoll 

W T alteri Jenyns nup incumb Cant sive svic 
voc Katheryne Jones svyce in poch 
See Trinitate als Cristechurche ... Iiij. 

Nichi Saunders nup incumbente Cant sive 
S r vicij bte Marie in pochia de Burton 
sup aquam 

Phi Wyatt nup incumb Cantie sive svicij 
Scor Jacobi & Anne in pochia de 
Newent iiij. 

Rici Boydon nuper Incumben Cantie sive 
S vicij voc the Rode S r vyce in poch 
Sci Johnis Bapte Glouc „ iiij. 



The Religious Houses of Bristol. 

£ 

Th^m Mortiboyes nup Incumb Cant sive 
S'vicij vocat Godde_ S r vyce alias 
Trinitie Servyce in poch de Campden 
Stephi Pole nup inc Cant sive S^vic sci 

Johnis in poch sci Michis Glouc ... m> 
Georgij Pomfreye nup incumb Canter Scte 

Trinitate infra pochiam de^Litledeane mj. 
Willi Broke nup Incumb Cant sive svic 

bte Marie infra Parochia_de Newent mj. 
Johnis Shawe nup Incumb Cant bte M e in 
pochia de Westeburie ~. — 
Rici Burnell nup Incumb Cant sive svic 

See Anne in pochia sci Mi is Glouc mj. 
WTTlmi Wilson nup inc Cant sive svic 
vocat Robt Richarde Chuntrie in poch 

Cirencest 1 ' - ••• "' 

Johnis Mery nup incumb Cant sive svic bte 

Marie Gloucestr — ••• m J' 

Hugonis Fishepole nup Incumb Cant bte 

Marie in pochia sci Michis Glouc ... mj. 
Rici Bery nup Incumbjibe Capell de 
Tockington in pochia_de Olveston... 
Dei Rici Berye Incumb Cant bte Marie in 

pochia de Doursley ••■ 

Georgij Waddam Incumb Cantie sive 

SWic bte Marie in pochia de Newlond iiij 
Johnis Baker, nup Incumb Cantie in 

pochia de Newporte VJ ' 
Rici Fletcher nup Incumben Cantar sive 
Servicij beate Marie infra pochiam sci 

Brewelli ■*• J/' "' 

Henrici Jones nup Incumben Cantar sive 
S r vicij vocat Alice Avenynge Servyce 
in pochTa Cirencestr ..^ ••• — ••• 
Henrici Hooper nup Incumben Cantar sive 

Servicij S^e Trinitate in Michelden : . . m 



124 



Transactions for the Year 



Xpofori Baxter nup Incumb ij d - CanT ScTe 
Katherine in pochia de Campden ... 

Robti Joye Incumben Cantie sive Servic 
bte Marie als Barnarde S r vice in dca 
poch 

Thome Edmonde Incumbente Cantar sive 
Servicij Sci Xpofori infra pochiam 
Cirencest 1- 

Willmi Pereson nup Incumbente libe 
Capelle vocat Morecote in pochia de 

a 

Childewikehme 

Thome Neale Incumben Cantarie sive 

svicij vocat Nottinghme svice in 

pochia Cirencest r 

Danielis Tibbott Incumben Cant vocat 

a _ 

Stratford Furst Chuntrye als diet 

r 

Cant pma See Katherine in Campden 
Mathei Walker nup Incumben Cantar sive 

Servicij Jesu in pochia See Trinitate 

Gloucest r 

Johnis Lethe nup Incumben Cantie ScT 

Blasij in Lechelade poch 

Johnis Browne nup Incumben Cantarie 

sive Servicij See Katherine in pochia 

de Slymebridge 

Richardi Gravenour Incumben Cantar bte 

Marie de Mynchinnehampton 
Johnis Coke Incumb Cant voc Skarborough 

in Lydney 

Thome Marshall Incumben Cant See 

Trinite Cirencest 1 

Willmi Tailo r incumben Guild see Trini te 
in pochia See Marie Bradgari Glouc 
Wil.i Paynter nup Incumb Cantie See 
Trini te in poch Cirencestr 



The Religious Houses of Bristol. 125 

£ s - d - 

Henrici Bridge Incumb Cant bte Marie 

inf a EccTIam pochial de Norlatche ... lxvi. vnj. 

Georgij Cooper Incumb Cant bte Marie 

inf a EccTIam poch see Trinitat Glouc iiij. 

WnTmi Stremishme Incumben Cant sive 
S r vTc voc St. Annes S r vice in pochia 

sci Johls Bapte Glouc mj- 

JohnisGlou nup Incumb Fraternitat sive 

GuiTd de Chepingsodburie ^ ... nij. 
Henrici Neale nup Incumben Cantar Jesu 

in Marshefeld - xxx - 

Willi Wotton Incumb Cantie see Trinitat 

in Tettburye V J- 

Thome Harmare nup Incumb Cantie vocat 

Hemes Service ibm in J- 

Rogeri Capes n Inc Cant voc Pollard 
Chuntrie in pochia sci Laurencij 

Bristoll lxv J' vii j 

Willi WiUms Incumb Cant voc Barkeleys 

Chuntry in Cubberleye --^ vj. 

Thome Sweteman incumb Cant voc 

Hillesley Chuntrie in Hawkesburye c. 
Hugonis Dowsurg incumb Cantie Scti 

Georgij in Pauntley 

WiTlmi Mosey Incumb Cantie vocat 

Chanyngs in Ratcliff 

W T iilmi Corbett Incumb Cantie in Paynes- 

wicke ••• "j_ "' 

WiTlmi Willington Incumb Canter in 

Sembridge - 

Rboti Savage nup Incumb Cantarie sci 

Clemente in Marshefeld 

Ricardi Stanleye nup Incumb Cantie bte 
Marie in Parochia Sancti Owini in 
Gloucestr 



lxvj. viij 



x. 



xxx. 



c. 



X. 



J26 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

£ 

Thorn Smythe Incumb Cantie vocat 

a 

Brayes Chuntrie in Thorneburie ... 
Edri Fryer Incumb Cant voc Kinge 

Edwards Service in Newlonde iiij. 

Willmi Halle Incumb Cant bte Marie in 

Chorleton . 

Johnis Woode Incumb Cant bte Marie de 

Dymmocke Ixvj. viij. 

Jacobi Rathebone Incumb bte CapeTl de 

Kingeley in pochia de Nymefeld ... vj. 
Thome Perpyn Incumb Cant sci M r garete 

int a pochiam chri Bristoll iiij. 

Willmi Boner Incumb Cant voc Forsters 

S r vice in poch sci Warburg Bristoll iiij. 
Willmi Deane uni Incumb Fraternit voc 

Kalendars Bristoll c. 

Willmi Potter Incumb Cantie bte Marie 

in Tetteburie vj. xiij. iiij. 

Willmi Holder Incumb Cant vocat the 

Kings Service in Barkeley iiij. 

Sm om soluc in predco Comitat Glouc 

p Ann ... m 1 iiij c xxiiij 11 xj s ij d 



BRISTOL ARCHAEOLOGICAL NOTES FOR 1904. 

V. 



By JOHN E. PRITCHARD, F.S.A. 
Honorary Secretary for Bristol. 



" Archaeological researches on the sites of villas and towns, or along the 
line of road or dyke, often furnish us with evidence even more 
trustworthy than that of written chronicle ; while the ground itself, 
where we can read the information it affords, is the fullest and the 
most certain of documents."— John Richard Green. 



My notes of 1904 contain no records of finds of either 
of the fascinating pre-historic periods as has been the case 
regularly since 1900, but the year had hardly opened when a 
working-man from the district of Hanham brought a small 
ornament into the city and disposed of it to an antiquarian 
dealer. 

The object was a Romano-British fibula of the third 
century. 




This interesting brooch had originally been filled with 
red, blue and yellow enamels, some traces of which are still 
clearly visible; the pin is unfortunately lost otherwise it is in 
good condition, and it is a typical specimen of that period. 

The only explanation given by the labourer as to the 
discovery was that he found it when digging in his garden. 
It is to be regretted that no further question was put to 
the finder, otherwise by careful investigation some traces 



128 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



of Roman occupation in the vicinity may have been brought 
to light, as Hanham is practically on the line of the Roman 
road between Bath and Caerwent. Of course the brooch 
may have been simply dropped by a Roman lady in passing 
through the district, though a villa may have existed here or 
close by. 

A brooch somewhat similar in character was found at 
Verulam in 1856, and was then in the collection of Mr. 
(now Sir) John Evans ; and it is interesting to compare 
the specimen recently found with others discovered at 
Charterhouse-on-Mendip, now in the "Pass Collection." 

Then of the same period, the writer has found several 
more pieces of figured Samian ware, during casual strolls at 
Sea Mills ; and numerous small bronze fibulae, as well as 
sundry worn coinage have fallen into other hands as the 
result of the requisite digging for the widening of the railway 
cutting at that station. 

Another local collector also picked up in December a 
" second brass " coin of Nero— one of the " Imperial " series, 
which reads as follows : — 

Obv. imp. nero. caesar. avg. p.max. p. p.p. Laureated 

head of Emperor to right. 
Rev. s.c. Victory winged, holding a buckler inscribed 

S.P.Q.R. (Senatus populusque Romanus). 

Sea Mills is a spot of unusual local interest, and is 
continually offering proofs of Roman occupation. There is 
no doubt that we as a Society ought to investigate the site, 
and it is hoped that when Caerwent is finished this work will 
be taken in hand. 

DEMOLITION OF OLD HOUSES. 

And now I have to speak of several instances of 
demolition in the heart of the city, and each of considerable 
importance ; for naturally the value of all our old-world 
relics becomes greater as year by year the number of 
examples left to us is being rapidly diminished. 

The wave of destruction makes steady progress, and 



Bristol Archaeological Notes for 1904. 129 



though it must be borne in mind that the conditions of life 
are so changed that it is impossible to carry on the business 
of "now-a-days" in such badly-arranged buildings— with 
cramped rooms, narrow passages, and dismal basements as 
suited our forefathers— yet the regret at losing so many 
examples of domestic architecture is no less intense. 

To begin then with the Stuart period, when a large 
number of gabled houses, built mostly of timber, were 
erected in the heart of the city, which must then have been 
delightfully picturesque. 

The imposing half-timber structure known as No. 35 
Mavy-le-povt Street, facing the old Cheese Market, was built 
about that time; but on February 9th it met its doom, 
for the "wreckers" on that morning began their work, 
which in this instance meant total extinction, the space 
being required for an " up-to-date " warehouse. 

It was not the oldest house in this quaint thoroughfare— 
for the " Swan Inn," at the east end, was probably built two 
centuries earlier 1 — but its elevation was of very considerable 
attraction to visitors. 

The frontage, of 35 ft., included a double shop and a 
passage on either side. Latterly the property has comprised 
frontage only, a mere shell, there being but two rooms on 
each floor with no backlet ; but the arched cellars under 
were very large and extended a long way back, as doubtless 
the house itself did formerly, with a garden on the river 
side. 

The elevation had probably been somewhat altered from 
its original state, but it will be remembered that the round- 
headed windows were similar to those to be seen in 
the "Dutch House," and the numerous quaintly- carved 
brackets, 2 supporting extensions in the front elevation, 
were of typical Jacobian style. 

1 Some fifteenth-century woodwork— notably the carved barge boards 
and doorway — being still left. 

* Messrs. Wilkins and Sons, the builders, kindly gave several to the 
Museum collection. 

IO 

Vol. XXIX. 



I 3° Transactions for the Year 1906. 

It has been constantly stated that these premises — 
occupied for many years past by Messrs. Barnard and Co. 
—formed the original business place of Messrs. W. D. and 
H. O. Wills; but this is not so, for the gabled house known 
as No. 112 Redcliff Street is entitled to that distinction, and 
the date of foundation about 1792. 

The tobacco trade was first commenced in Mary-le-port 
Street at No. 33, in the house adjoining the one just 
destroyed, by Maurice James, about 1729, under the sign 
of the "Parrot." The Ricketts family followed, and later 
they were joined by a Mr. Leonard, the business being then 
carried on under the style of Ricketts, Leonard, and Co. 

The next change came in 1833, when it became Ricketts,. 
Wills, and Co., and again in 1847, when it reverted wholly 
to W. D. and H. O. Wills. 

In March, the month following the loss in Mary-le-port 
Street, two small gabled houses in Peter Street, 1 facing St. 
Peter's Hospital, were taken down, and new brick erections 
now exist. 

These half-timber houses were numbered 4 and 5, and 
only ten or twelve years ago the dates 1664 and 1663 could 
be plainly seen carved upon the frontages, which together 
only measured 30 ft. 

The interior had been altered many times, and there was 
therefore nothing of interest left. 

King Street, which was laid out for building soon after 
an Order was issued in Council in March, 1663, and which 
was probably so named by the Council as a mark of loyalty, 
has now suffered the loss of two more of the original houses 
built at that time. These stood on the west side of and 
abutting the Theatre Royal, or Old Theatre, and were known 
as Nos. 35 and 36. Both had gabled roofs with plaster 
fronts, and were pulled down at the end of the year— being 
quite beyond repair— to make room for bette/ erections. 
The interesting front of the theatre was taken down in 1903.. 
1 See Bristol, Past and Present, vol. Hi., p. 141. 



Bristol Archaeological Notes for 1904. 131 



There was a typical seventeenth-century staircase in No. 
36, and the balusters were formed of flat boards bearing 
slight carving. This house also contained a good "Hepple- 
white" chimney-piece; but, apart from these objects, there 
was really nothing of great interest, though some of the 
windows were rather unusual. 

These simple but typical tenements were doubtless the 
abodes of comparatively wealthy folk, even up to the days 
of the great Georgian era; for was not the playhouse 
adjoining, erected between 1764 and 1766, intended to 
provide for the opulent and fashionable residents of this 
district, which was only rivalled by College Green and its 
neighbourhood ? 

On the 13th October the historic property in Prince 
Street known as the Old Assembly Rooms was put up by 
public auction, subject to a certain lease; and it will not 
surprise anyone to know it was not so sold in the open 
market. 

The lease contained a covenant by the lessee " that the 
Corporation shall have the free use of the property for the 
space of six days in every or any one year of the said term 
when the same shall be wanted for the entertainment or 
accommodation of any of the Royal Family that may come to 
the city, on three days' notice in writing from the Treasurer 
of the City." 

It is interesting to record this curious clause under which 
the property in question has been held since the eighteenth 
century, as such cases must be quite rare. 

SMALL FINDS. 

No old coinage of intrinsic value has turned up during 
excavations in 1904, but a counter, a trader's token, and a 
medal, all of unusual interest, have come to light from 
excavations in St. Augustine's parish. 

The copper counter of Henry IV. of France was issued 
between 1589 and 1610, or when Queen Elizabeth was 
reigning. It reads as follows : — 



132 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

Obv. Bust of King to left ; around— 

VVLTV ■ QVO • COELVM. 

Rev. Arms of France and Navarre — 
H under shield, and around— 

HENRICVS • IV • FRANCORVM . E . NAVAR • REX. 

The seventeenth -century trader's token is particularly 
interesting, for it is yet another of those curious pieces issued 
before the era of a regal copper currency, and it has not been 
previously published. 1 It was issued by a Bath freeman, and 
is as follows : — 



Obv. AMBROSE • BISHOP — 
Rev. IN . BATH • 1669 = A- M-B 



I 

o- 

I 




The copper medal commemorates the fitting-out of two 
American ships. 1 It is perfectly struck and is in unusually 
fine condition. As there is no similar specimen in the British 
Museum cabinet, and apparently no record, it is very pro- 
bably unique; and it is certainly interesting that this piece 
should have been found several feet below the level of the 
roadway in St. Augustine's Place. 

The following is a full description : — 
Obv. A three-mast ship and a yacht sailing to the left, and 
around the inscription : Columbia and Washington. 

COMMANDED BY J. KENDRICK. 

Rev. Around the top: fitted at boston, n. America, for the 
pacific ocean. 

BY 

J • BARRELL, 
S • BROWN, CBULFINCH, 
J • DARBY, C • HATCH, 
J • M . PINTARD. 
1787. 

1 Exhibited at the Royal Numismatic Society on October 20th, 1904. 



Bristol Archaeological Notes for 1904. 133 



THE CARMELITE FRIARY. 
(White Friars.) 

I must now give some particulars about the extensive 
excavations in Colston Street, on the lower or south-west 
side of the Colston Hall, which stands largely upon the 
site of the monastic buildings of the Carmelites, as those 
interested in Bristol history are fully aware. 

This was one of the sites suggested for the new Central 
Library, and probably the one that the majority of the citizens 
would have selected. It was, however, eventually secured 
by the Bristol Gas Company for their new offices, and the 
work of clearing the space began in March last. 

The buildings which then stood upon what is known as 
St. Augustine's Place consisted of one block, decidedly 
plain in elevation, but with two bold string courses running 
the entire length of the frontage, surmounted by a plain 
parapet ; and beginning at the end, from the Colston Hall 
side, comprised two eighteenth - century dwelling-houses, 
each possessing interesting door -heads. These buildings 
were divided by a "passage" from a small chapel (fitted up 
for worship by the Countess of Huntingdon about the year 
1775), which was formerly the old Assembly Room ; at the 
corner of Pipe Lane stood a small but quaint seventeenth- 
century gabled house, and beyond again in Pipe Lane several 
tenements which were of a very poor style of architecture. 

The passage referred to — known as " Lady Huntingdon's 
Court " — extended 60 ft. backward from the line of frontage, 
when it turned at a right angle towards Colston's Hal], 
having on the left, or north-west side, two seventeenth- 
century gabled houses, with over-hanging fronts, and two 
later houses ; and on the right, or city side, the backs of the 
two dwelling-houses first mentioned, which faced the street. 

Hardly any features of interest were found in all this 
block, save some crude carved wood-work, and a few fire- 
grates of the Adams and Hepplewhite periods ; but several 
of the latter were secured for the city collection. 



T 34 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



As soon as the site was cleared by the "wreckers" — 
Messrs. C. A. Hayes and Son, the contractors, took posses- 
sion of the ground, and quickly commenced excavations for 
the necessary deep foundations. 

This being a part of the actual site of the Carmelite 
Friary, it was fully expected some interesting features would 
be revealed during the progress of the work. 

Unfortunately, when the "Great House," built upon the 
site of the domestic buildings of the Friary, was pulled down 
in the early sixties, no record was made of any finds or of 
anything that happened, or some remains of the mediaeval 
buildings might have been detected. 

The historian Barrett, writing in 1789, said that several 
very ancient arches were extant, and these, and possibly 
some windows, might have been traced in the " Great House " 
building when the Hospital was demolished in 1863 ; but as 
is well known great indifference was shown about everything 
of this kind about that period, and undoubtedly many relics 
of past ages were lost to us. 

Happily in Mr. Ashley, the present clerk of the works, 
we antiquaries had a " friend in situ," as the evidence 
will show ; and our member Mr. Hayes most kindly put me 
in possession to act as I wished, and promised to allow all 
finds to go where I thought best — a kindness much 
appreciated. 

The work of excavating commenced in August, and a 
month later, on September 13th, two skeletons were found 
at a spot marked No. 3 on plan. They were lying on the 
rock side by side, on their backs with their heads to the 
west ; but there was not a vestige of any coffin or clothing 
visible. 

Many further discoveries were made from time to time, 
and some ten or twelve skulls were fortunately saved in 
fairly good condition. 

My first communication was with that eminent crani- 
ologist, and our veteran member, Dr. Beddoe, who came 
down to Bristol immediately, visiting the site several times 




PLAN OF DISCOVERIES UPON SITE OF CARMELITE FRIARY, 1904. 



136 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

afterwards, and whose racy "skull problem" will follow 
these notes. 

On September 16th the first traces of old walling came 
to light (see plan— Nos. 4 and 5), and a few days later 
some further portions were found (plan— Nos. 11, 7, and 
8a). Unfortunately the walling was most fragmentary, but 
all was undoubtedly early mediaeval masonry as proved by 
the mortar, which was similar in character to that found 
elsewhere in the old city, of a like period. And as this 
discovery was followed on the same day by the find of 
two medieval tiles, yellow and green glaze, both 5 inches 
square ; and again on the 19th of September by a further 
discovery of two encaustic tiles bearing conventional design, 
one being part of a set, the facts seem to indicate most 
conclusively that on this spot once stood the church of the 
White Friars. 

The site of the church standing on the south-west side 
of the domestic buildings is mentioned in various old deeds 
at the Merchants' Hall, which were seen by Barrett. 

Altogether nine complete tiles and sundry fragments 
have been discovered, though it is quite impossible to say 
if any were actually in situ, owing to previous building 
operations ; and a small circular brass ring with tongue, 
probably a fastening for a girdle and evidently of early 
mediaeval date, was found in the midst of one of the 
burials. (See tail piece, f actual size.) 

Upon the ruins of many of our monastic sites early 
pottery has frequently been found, shedding considerable 
light upon the customs of the times, and curiously enough, 
some fragments were turned up during the demolition of 
the " Great House " ; for Owen, in his Two Centuries of 
Ceramic Art, 1 has recorded that fragments of large vessels 
of evident mediaeval date were found on the site of the 
Carmelite Priory at Bristol ; but no trace of these is known. 
It must be remembered that though sherds are often 
found upon the sites of domestic buildings, we should 
1 Two Centuries of Ceramic Art in Bristol, by Hugh Owen, 1873, p. 327. 



i 3 8 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



be rather unlikely to trace any in the precincts of the 
church. 

With regard to the history of the Order, it may be well to 
note what Abbot Gasquet says in his latest work on English 
Monastic Life. 1 

He tells us that " the Carmelite Friars were so called 
from the place of their origin. They were also named 
* White Friars,' from the colour of the cloak of their habit, 
and Friars of the Blessed Virgin. These friars are first 
heard of in the twelfth century on being driven out of 
Palestine by the persecution of the Saracens. Their Rule 
is chiefly founded on that of St. Basil, and was confirmed by 
Pope Honorius III. in a.d. 1224, and finally approved by 
Innocent IV. in 1250. They were brought into England by 
John Vesey and Richard Grey, and established their first 
houses in the north at Alnwick, and in the south at Ailesford 
in Kent. At the latter place the first European Chapter of 
the Order was held in a.d. 1245." 

Of the Carmelite Friary in Bristol very little is really 
known, but the house appears to have been founded in the 
year 1267, probably by Edward L, but before he was King. 

Carmel literally means "fruitful field," and the White 
Friars selected as the site of their house in Bristol the sunny 
slopes of the hill between Pipe Lane on the west to old Steep 
Street on the east, and from the Red Lodge to St. Augustine's 
Back. The Carmelites not only raised fruits and other crops 
for their own consumption, but, on account of the poverty 
of their Order, it was their custom to sell produce for their 
sustenance, and doubtless the site chosen here proved to 
be a most lucrative one. 

One of the earliest references appears to be in the Close 
Roll of the 4th of Edward I. (1276), recording an order 
of the King to the Warder of the Royal Forest of Deane to 
give the "Friars of Mount Carmel of Bristol 10 inferior 
Oakes with their Stoppings." 

1 English Monastic Life, by Abbot Gasquet, O.S.B., D.D., etc. London, 
1904, p. 238. 



Bristol Archaeological Notes for 1904. 139 



The house here must have been well established by 
the middle of the fourteenth century, for in the 32nd of 
Edward III. (1358) the King repeated the licence which he 
had given already to the abbot and convent of St. Augustine, 
Bristol, viz. " that they may give and assign 4 messuages with 
the appurtenances in Bristol contiguous to the dwelling of 
our beloved in Christ the Prior and Brethren of the Order of 
Blessed Mary of Mount Carmel, in the same town of Bristol, 
which are not held of us as found by inquisition taken 
thereon at our command by our beloved Henry de Preste- 
wode our Eschaeter in co. Gloucester, to the same Prior and 
Brethren to have and hold to them and their successors for 
the enlargement of their house forever." 

To that diligent antiquary, William Wyrcestre, who 
saw the monastic houses in all their glory in the fifteenth 
century, we owe the dimensions of the priory church, and 
from his account we find that " the nave or body contains 
45 paces (90 feet), the breadth thereof 25 paces (50 feet), the 
tower and spire or broche is 200 feet, and the breadth of the 
tower is 9 feet each way/' 

This appears to be the only detailed description of any 
of the buildings of this foundation known to exist. 

Besides being an edifice of considerable importance, as 
may be judged by these measurements, it must have had an 
attractive interior to have possessed a Screen such as the 
one recently re-erected in our Cathedral, which has been 
recently described and illustrated in our Transactions. 1 

Barrett also tells us that the church was most elegant 
and spacious, with many chapels in it, and that he finds 
mentioned in MSS. that " many very good families lie buried 
therein." 2 

Leland, who was in Bristol in the sixteenth century, 
recorded that « the Priory of the Carmelites was the 
fairest of all the houses of the Friars," and also said that 

1 «' The Choir Screen, Bristol Cathedral," by R. Hall Warren, F.S.A. 
See vol. xxvii. pp. 127-30. 

0 See also Wadley's Book of Wills, p. 40, No. 68. 



140 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

it stood " on the right Rype of Frome over against the 
Key." 

In a letter to Secretary Cromwell, Richard, the Suffragan 
Bishop of Dover, in writing of this house, said : " Yt is a 
goodly howse in byldenge, mete for a great man, no renttes 
but ther gardens. There ys a chapell and an yle off the 
Church, and dyverse gutteres, spowtes and condytes of lead, 
the rest all tylle and slate." 

We must now leave the scanty details we possess of this 
order and pass on to July, 1538, when the house of the 
White Friars was visited by Richard Ingworth, Bishop of 
Dover, the special visitor appointed to suppress all the 
friaries in England. This was the first in Bristol to be 
given up to the king. 

An inventory of the goods of the house can be seen in 
the Public Record Office, 1 and this shows that these had been 
valued at £8 2s. nd. This did not include two copper 
chalices, which were retained by the visitor, and two bells 
which were to be sold. The document, however, tells us that 
of " sylver ther was non." 

The house was very poof, and as the debts paid actually 
amounted to £8 2s. id., the visitor had little left for His 
Majesty ! 

Amongst the more famous of the Carmelite priors the 
name of John Milverton stands first. 2 He was born in 
Somerset and became a Bristol Carmelite, being chosen 
Provincial Master of the Order in England, in a general 
Chapter at Paris in 1456. He held office until 1465,. was 
then excommunicated and imprisoned, but was restored in 
1469, retaining the post until 1482. He died in 1487. 

John Pyne was prior at Bristol in 1535, and was probably 
the last. 

A few years after the suppression of the monasteries the 
Corporation purchased the Friary buildings and part of the 
garden ground, but within a short period the property was 

1 Exchequer Miscellaneous Book, No. 153 (Inventories of Friars). 
2 See Dugdale's Monasticon, vol. vi. 



Bristol Archaeological Notes for 1904. 141 



acquired by Thomas Chester, an alderman of the city, 
doubtless as a speculation, for the monastic buildings were 
soon afterwards occupied by John Yonge. This wealthy 
citizen becoming desirous of erecting a stately pile on the site, 
succeeded in purchasing the property in 1568. 1 By 1574 
the "Great House" was finished, and on Queen Elizabeth 
visiting the city in that year, she was lodged there with all 
her retinue. For this the hospitable citizen was knighted 
by the Queen. 

Another change came over the scene, for during the 
"Commonwealth" period— in 1654— the "Great House" was 
partly used as a sugar refinery. In 1708 it was bought by 
Edward Colston for his school 2 for boys, which was 
carried on until 1861, and then the charity was removed 
to Stapleton. 

The Great House was demolished in 1863, and the 
Colston Hall now stands upon that site. 

1 It was probably about this date that the church was pulled down. 
2 For a view see Bristol, Past and Present, vol. iii., p. 136. 



NOTES ON CRANIA FOUND ON THE SITE OF 
THE CARMELITE FRIARY. 



APPENDIX TO MR. PRITCHARD'S PAPER. 
By JOHN BEDDOE, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 

It seems desirable to supplement Mr. Pritchard's paper 
with some somatological details concerning the human 
remains disinterred during the excavations which he has 
described. We found no bones which could have belonged 
to women or children, though some may have been those of 
young, scarcely adult males ; and it may probably be taken 
for granted that the burials were mostly, though not solely, 
those of Carmelite Friars and of lay brethren or servitors 
attached to the monastery. 

We were fortunate enough to become possessed of eight 
crania in very fair condition, besides three which admitted 
only of very partial measurement. This amount of success 
was due very much to the kind interest of Messrs. C. A. 
Hayes and Son, the contractors, and of Mr. Ashley, the 
clerk of the works, and I may add of the workmen employed, 
without whose co-operation the hurry and exigency of the 
work would have left us little of value. 

The bodies lay roughly oriented as usual, the heads to 
the west, and in two or even three successive strata ; they 
reposed on a marly rock, and were wrapt and surrounded by 
red marly clay, in which I at least observed no vestige of 
anything like a coffin. As the work proceeded from east to 
west, the skeletons were attacked from the feet, and this may 
be one reason why we acquired few unbroken long-bones, and 
why I am unable to say much about the stature of the 
subjects, except that it was of course not uniform, and that 
the general impression I got was that the average was not 
high. 

On the other hand, the spade never reached a skull without 
notice, which made it possible for the workmen to avoid the 



Bristol Archaeological Notes for 1904. 



H3 



accidental damage which so commonly occurs when a skull 
is hit on unexpectedly. The facial bones, the nasal and 
orbital apertures, and the mandibles were secured in several 
cases. 

The "find" is one of extreme interest in proportion to 
its magnitude. The leading feature is the obvious division 
of eight or perhaps nine of the eleven measurable skulls into 
two very distinct types, of which the most largely repre- 
sented, including Nos. 1, 2, 4, 10 and 11, is quite uncommon 
in our modern population. These five are all over the 
average size, four of them considerably so, to a degree which 
renders it impossible, except very roughly, to estimate their 
capacity by Welcker's tables, as they are beyond their limits. 
These are all of fine form, brachykephalic— that is to say, 
very broad in proportion to their length (83.6 to 100), well 
filled, with good frontal development, the Stephanie breadth 
being 129, while in the other five it is only 112; in No. 6 
this measure is not practicable. 

To the other type belong Nos. 3, 7 (which is, however, 
somewhat aberrant) and 9, and probably 8, but the last is 
too imperfect to be averaged with the others. These are 
slightly longer than the five (as 184.6 to 182.8), but very 
much narrower (as 135.3 to 153.6), and lower (as 130 to 
140). They are also, of course, of much smaller capacity. 
I have not actually measured the capacity with rapeseed 
or any other material; but I have calculated it by nine 
methods, of Manouvrier's, Welcker's, Pelletier's, Karl 
Pearson's, Lee's, and my own; and the result is as 1,391 
cubic centimetres to 1,644, on an average of the nine methods, 
or as 1405 to 1660 on an average of 7 of them. I myself 
make it 1,415 to 1,730, the capacity of the ordinary modern 
Englishman being, on my plan, somewhere a little below 
1,500 centimetres. Now there is no reasonable doubt 
that cranial capacity, or intracranial area, and intellectual 
capacity, are in some degree related, though whereas the bram 
is by no means purely an intellectual organ, and whereas 
divers other factors, as stature, bulk, nutrition, temperament, 



J 44 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

disease, enter into the question, such correlation may often be 
completely obscured. In the present case I do not think 
anyone would raise a doubt that we have to do with two sets 
of men, of whom one set were intellectually superior to the 
other. I conjecture with some confidence that the one set 
were the Friars, and that the other set of inferior grade were 
lay brethren or servitors of some kind. 

It is noteworthy that such mediaeval English crania as 
can be with some confidence identified as those of ecclesi- 
astics are very apt to be brachykephalic. Ten such in 
Davis's Thesaurus Cvaniorum gave me a breadth-index of 81, 
the average of modern Englishmen being near 76 or 77. 
But in these two sets of Carmelite skulls we have means of 
83.6 and 73.3. This latter index is not in itself of great 
import ; it is taken from only three crania, and it must be 
mentioned that the other three (5, 6, 8), which did not admit 
of such complete measurement, but which were probably 
English and of good development, gave me indices averaging 
77-7- 

However, I think there may be sufficient basis for 
another conjecture. This Carmelite Friary was founded 
by Prince Edward, afterwards Edward I., and was one 
of the first of the kind in England. Now it was very 
common during the period of monastery- founding, which 
lasted two or three centuries after the Conquest, for the 
founders to bring over French or other foreign monks to 
people the new establishments. What if Edward brought 
over a few Burgundians or Aquitanians to Bristol for this 
purpose? In those parts, especially in Burgundy and 
Franche Comte, the modern natives have very generally 
broad heads of high kephalic index, though, of course, not 
usually of such remarkably fine development as those we 
are speaking of. In a paper in the Anthropological Transactions, 
"On the Mediaeval Population of Bristol," I have shown 
that so late as Edward II. 's reign the element of it that 
was French by birth or pedigree was very large. 

There are a number of minute details respecting these 



Bristol Archaeological Notes for 1904. 145 



Carmelite heads, for which the pages of the Anthropoi 
Journal may be more suitable than those of our Transactions. 
But I would like to direct attention to the beautiful photo- 
graphs with which Mr. Pritchard's paper is illustrated, and 
to express the high opinion which, as an anthropologist, I 
entertain of Mr. Brightman's work. One is accustomed to 
see such things so spoiled by skewness or other defects, that 
this excellent work comes somewhat as a surprise. The 
striking difference between the two types already indicated 
comes out very well in the photographs. The reader must 
not suppose that I attribute any surpassing virtue to the 
broad-headed as compared with the long-headed type. The 
two seem to be correlated with certain virtues and defects in 
a somewhat obscure way ; but some of the leading anthropo- 
sociologists, including Ammon and De Lapouge, give the 
preference on the whole to the dolichokephal ; and, to give a 
clear instance near at hand, M. Muffang, at Liverpool, found 
that masters and foremen had longer heads than their work- 
people. 

A table appended to this report gives a few more 
particulars as to measurements and capacities. 



Vol. XXIX. 



II 



146 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



53 

w 
h 

j 

w 
S 

U 

o 

w 

< 
Ph 

W 
H 

H 
co 

i-J 
iJ 



O 
H 

W 

m 
< 



rj V\ W 
^ ® V. 

^ O rtX) 
^ (J rt 

« a ^ § 

— T Vi 
ri O tn S 

.5 oj 

H CD — n ^ 
T £ CD - 

o w cd 
X) cd 2 

0) 



.2 be 3 XI 

'55 o - 

^--CD'g 



CD 

£ 'x 13 3 

tn rt CD 



c - S 

rt " • _ CO -S 0 

bo c zs 0 2 5J 
2 IS 2 § ^ § 
^ >^rt o 3 ~ 

^ o B a, w o 
J? rt ^ c a s o -g < 

g §^ a* 6^0 § a| <S 
wo jo ofe £ 3 



bo 
c a 

rt 

. OS 
cu — i aS 
C aJ irf 
q2 

O s_ 
> w Cu as 

o rt g a ^ 
cu o - 



CD 



bjo 



n3 



'a) 

6 
> 

O 



^ cu* 
bjc V 

c 



ci u « 

co CU 

^ S 

o 



c G • 7^ CO 

a,^ os ^ 

^ >u u 

>> 2 "5 w 

bi) g o cu — 

""^ « °^ 
• - wj q3 O cu 

> CO v.* ^ 

O - a &c > ^ 



"o 



op w 

aS w 

5-" <*h CD 

^ ° 8 



c 

. be <u ox: J2 

§ -ft g .£s-S «3 

C s_ CU 



o 

00 



^ CO 

00 ^ 

ro<0 



00 

I 



C/3 



CU 



CQ 



en 

XI ^' co 

o o 73 o 

m -JZ Z, co 

<+h - o 2 « 

w-i <~i~, 
COOO 

cu • . . 

> o o c 



^ 10 to ^ o 

°^ 4- 06 o> 4- 
^.00 



CM CM vo 

m ro on 
t^. 00 00 



CN 



cdS on rn 





















on 


1 Height 


CO 


' 00 


M lO 

ro ro 

1 — i H 


1 1 


CM 


1 


CM 

on 


O-. 

CO 

^- on 




. Breadtl 




<s 


tJ- on 
on »o 

M M 




on 

M 


on 


10 

on 


on 
10 10 

M h- 1 




Length 


O 
CO 


CO 


OJ M 

CO CO 
1— 1 1— 1 


<sO 10 
00 00 


^o 

00 


CM 
CO 


oc 


lo on 

00 CO 




No. 






on 


100 




00 









OY 



O 
H 

5 

PQ 

5 

W 
H 

W 

<! 
O 

w 

O 

w 

H 

GO 

W 

a 

H 

o 
<J 

a 



MONUMENTAL EFFIGIES. 
By IDA M. ROPER. 



DURSLEY RURAL DEANERY. 

BERKELEY CHURCH.— Dedicated to St. Mary the 

Virgin. 

Thomas III., 8th Lord Berkeley, a.d. 1361, and Wife. 

1. Military. Knight in armoui. 
Lady. 

2. Recumbent effigies. 

3. Alabaster. 

4. Life-size. Man, 6 ft. 2 in. long ; woman, 5 ft. 8 in. long. 

5. The knight wears a hauberk reaching to the middle of 
the thighs with long sleeves, which show through the other 
coverings at the armpits and under the elbows. Over it is a 
slightly shorter sleeveless jupon, tight-fitting, and embroidered 
in front with the arms of the Berkeleys : "A chevron between 
ten crosses pattee 4.2.1.2.1.," a similar chevron being partly 
visible at the back. On the head is a pointed bascinet 
with a small camail of chain attached by a cord running 
through staples on the bascinet and the plate 

edging of the camail. The shoulders are \g -± 
further protected by epaulieres of two plates ; -"fepj&H&T 
the arms by brassarts and vambraces of cuir ©O © 
bouilli, with folded guards for the elbows. The hands are 
restored, and are represented with gloves formed of a broad 
plate to the knuckles. The legs are cased in cuisses and 
jambs of cuir bouilli, the latter being laced up tightly on the 
inner side. The genouilleres are of plate, very convex and 



148 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

rounded, and the feet have articulated solerets of plate with 
rowel spurs strapped under the foot and buckled across the 
instep. A baudric, handsomely jewelled in quatrefoils, en- 
circles the hips, and is buckled and knotted on the right side ; 
to it is fastened a misencorde with fluted pommel and plain 
cross hilt. On the left side hangs a long sword with cross 
hilt and pommel of very handsome decorative Gothic 
work. 

The hands are in the attitude of prayer, the eves are 
open, the moustache drooping, and the expression restful. 

The effigy of the wife shows the costume of a lady of 
rank in the middle of the fourteenth century. The dress 
consists of the surcote or sideless gown, tight-fitting to the 
hips, below which «it falls in graceful folds over the feet. It 
is hollowed out at the sides and bordered with a wide band. 
Beneath is visible the tight-fitting cote-hardie, low at the 
neck with long, tight sleeves. From the shoulders hangs a 
long, loose mantle to the feet, fastened across the breast by 
a cordon, passing through large oblong eyelet holes placed in 
front of each shoulder. The ends are looped up and joined 
together in a tassel in front. 

The head-dress is a peculiar form of the reticulated : the 
Jiair is confined in a caul or network of quatrefoils forming 
.a wide band longer than the face on either side, with a small 
veil falling over the neck to the shoulders. 

The feet are covered with pointed shoes, visible beneath 
the folds of the surcote, and the hands are bare, clasped in 
the attitude of prayer. 

A similar head-dress is shown on the effigy of Katherine, 
wife of Thomas Beauchamp, 1370, in St. Mary's Church, 
Warwick. 

6. The man's head rests on the Berkeley crest— a mitre 
charged with the arms ; the mitre was first assumed by this 
lord. 1 It is suggested by Mr. A. E. Ellis that Harding, the 
founder of the Berkeley family, married about 1084 a niece 
of Maurice, afterwards Bishop of London, and that this 
1 Smyth, Lives of the Berkeley's, vol. i., pp. 19, 356. 



Monumental Effigies. 



149 



connection is the origin of the adoption of a mitre as the 
crest. 

The woman's head rests on two small tasselled pillows, 
the under one set diagonally. The upper one is supported 
by two winged angels seated, clothed in long robes fastened 
by a fibula, flowing curly hair and bare feet. 

7. The man's feet rest on a lion couchant, and those of 
the woman on a greyhound with a plain collar ; the head is 
restored and does not appear to be a form suitable to the 
body. 

8. The effigies on their slabs are placed apart upon a 
wide altar-tomb 3 ft. 8 in. high. Around its upper edge is a 
handsome frieze of castellated Gothic work; its sides and 
ends are divided into four and three square panels by narrow 
strips of deep-blue glass. Each panel contains within a 
quatrefoil a shield carved with the arms without tinctures: 
"A chevron between ten crosses pattee 4.2.1.2.1.," Berkeley. 

9. There is no inscription. 

Known to be Thomas III., 8th Lord Berkeley, died 27th 
October, 1361, aged 68, and Katherine, his second wife, 
died 1385. 

10. Both figures have been painted a buff colour, and 
on the mitre, under the man's head, there are traces of red 
colouring. 

11. The right spur is broken off, also the lion's tail; the 
features of the lady are worn and the cordons of the mantle 
mutilated. The man's hands, the left arm and nose, the 
sword and dagger, have been restored, as well as the lady's 
hands and the dog's head. On the tomb the frieze is 
fragile and has been mended in several places. At the last 
restoration of the church in 1864 all but one of the blue 
strips were renewed with modern glass, and a handsome 
iron railing which surrounded the tomb was removed. 

12. The tomb is placed under the second arcade on the 
south side of the nave. Lord and Lady Berkeley were 
buried "in a faire monument grated round with iron barrs, 

1 Smyth, Lives of the Berkeley's, vol. i., p. 346. 



*5° Transactions for the Year 1906. 

under the second Arch before the rode on the south side of 
the Church." 1 

13. Illustrated and described by Mrs. Bagnall-Oakelcy 
in Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. xv., part i., p. 94 (male 
figure), and vol. xvi., part i., p. 118 (female figure). Engraved 
in Gough, Sepulchral Monuments in Great Britain. 

14. The effigies are in good condition and well cared for. 

15. Thomas III. was born in 1293 and succeeded to the 
title when thirty years old. Before this he was a prisoner at 
Pevensey Castle for some years for injury done to the king's 
favourites, and on the deposition of King Edward II. he was 
released in 1325 and had his estates given back. In 1327 
King Edward II. was entrusted to him and to others as a 
prisoner at Berkeley Castle, and was there murdered on 
September 21st, 1327, in the absence of Lord Berkeley. 
Although blamed for negligence, no punishment was inflicted, 
and for about the next thirty-five years Lord Berkeley was 
continuously employed by King Edward III. in all sorts 
of high offices of State both in warfare and in Council. 
Altogether he went to the wars on twenty-five different 
occasions, and was present at both Crecy and Poictiers. 

He was one of the great lords of the Berkeley family, 
and added much to the estates, diligently improving them 
whilst maintaining an expensive household. He was twice 
married, and out of eight sons and one daughter only two 
sons survived him. The second wife, Katherine, who is 
buried beside him, was the widow of Sir Peter le Viele, Knt., 
and daughter of Sir John Clivedon, Knt. She survived her 
husband twenty-four years, and died in 1385. 2 

Three diminutive Figures of the Fourteenth Century. 

1. Two ladies and a civilian. 

2. Recumbent effigies* 

3. Stone. 

1 Smyth, Lives of the Berkeleys, vol. i., p. 346. 
2 Smyth, Lives of the Berkeleys, vol. i., pp. 280-361. 



3 




-A C 

PA 

DIMINUTIVE FIGURES, BERKELEY CHURCH. 



Monumental Effigies. 



4. Diminutive : (a) 2 ft. 9 in. long ; (b) 3 ft. 1 in. long ; 
(c) 2 ft. 4 in. long. 

5. (a) This effigy represents a woman dressed in a long, 
flowing gown, tight-fitting about the body, low at the neck, 
and with sleeves to the elbows, showing the tight sleeves of 
the undergarment below. The hair is long and curled into 
a roll above the ears. The shoes are very pointed, and 
are visible beneath the folds of the gown. The right hand 
as on the breast, and the left, hanging down, holds a small 
object too much mutilated to be identified. 

(b) This effigy also represents a woman dressed in a long, 
flowing surcote or sideless gown, low at the neck and 
gathered up under the left arm to show the full cote-hardie 
beneath, with its tight sleeves. The hair, curly and flowing 
on the shoulders, is confined by a narrow fillet. Pointed 
shoes are just visible beneath the cote-hardie. The raised 
hands held some object, which has been broken away. 

(c) This effigy represents a man wearing a full gown 
to the ankles, low at the neck, with long, full sleeves. 
The feet are covered with tight hose and apparently no 
shoes. The hair is worn short and curly, and encircled 
by a fillet. The hands are in the attitude of prayer. 

The dresses of the three figures correspond with those 
shown on other English effigies assigned to the latter part 
of the fourteenth century. 

6. (a) The head rests on two pillows, the top one set 
diagonally. 

(b) On a square pillow. 

(c) On a small, square pillow. 

7. (a) The feet, rather wide apart, rest on two small 
hounds, face to face. 

(b) On a hound with flap-ears, the head turned outwards. 

(c) On a dog (headless) lying stretched at full length. 

8. No tomb belonging to these effigies is known, and 
they are placed at present on window-sills. 

9. There are no inscriptions, and the figures have not 
been identified. No decided opinion has been formed as 



152 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

to what meaning should be attached to these and other 
diminutive effigies — whether they represent children or 
adults, or are placed over the heart or other portions of 
a body buried beneath. 1 The latter idea is not likely to 
apply to these instances, as the figures represent a civilian 
and two women placed in the church of a great baron's 
home. As no traces of their tombs are known, we are 
perhaps justified in regarding them as memorials of 
honoured retainers or collateral branches of the Berkeley 
family, who were thus commemorated by diminutive 
figures, such as were erected elsewhere up to the end of 
the fourteenth century. 

In the church there is a monument of Thomas III., 
8th Lord Berkeley, and his second wife, Katherine, who died 
in 1361 and 1385 respectively, and Smyth records that " in 
the south window over against the said monument are 
the pictures or monuments of their three sons, who died 
young." 2 But this would appear to refer to paintings of 
them on the glass of the window, and not to these three- 
small effigies, since two of them are undoubtedly dressed 
as women. 

10. The effigies have been covered with many coats 
of paint, which are now peeling off. 

11. (a) Article in the left hand worn away. 

(b) Features worn and the article between the hands gone. 

(c) Features worn and the dog's head broken off. 

12. Placed on three window-sills on the south side of 
the church. 

13. Engraved in Gough, Sepulchval Monuments in Great 
Britain, and in Bigland, Gloucestershire; referred to by 
Mrs. Bagnall-Oakeley in Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc. r 
vol. xv., part i., p. 95. 

14. The figures are fairly well preserved. 

15. See No. 9 above. 

1 Gough, Sepulchral Monuments, part i., p. xcix. ; Jour, of ArchtsoL 
Institute, vol. iii., p. 239; Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. xv., part i. 
P ' g6 ' 2 Smyth, Lives of the BerheUys, vol. i., p. 357. 



Monumental Effigies. 



153 



James I., iith Lord Berkeley, a.d. 1463, and Son. 

1. Military. 

2. Recumbent effigies. 

3. The tomb and figures are of alabaster, the canopy of 
freestone. 

4. The father life-size, 6 ft. 2 in. long ; the son diminutive, 
4 ft. 10 in. There are a few other instances known of two 
men on the same tomb, and it is thought that the difference 
in age of the father and son is shown by the difference in the 
size of the figures. 

5. The father wears a complete suit of plate-armour 
with a skirt of chain mail, the escalloped edge of which is 
visible on the thighs. The body is encased in a breastplate 
strapped to a backplate, buckled to which by three straps is 
a narrow skirt of taces with four tuilles also buckled. Over 
all is a tabard with short flap sleeves. This is open at the 
sides and shown loosely tied on the right with two points or 
aiguillettes ; it bears the arms of Berkeley: "A chevron 
between ten crosses pattee 4.2.1.2.1.," embroidered on the 
front and flaps. 

The throat is protected by a gorget of plate having a rim 
of studs ; the arms by brassarts and vambraces of plate ; and 
the elbows by heart-shaped coudes, secured by two sets of large 
aiguillettes or arming points passing through eyelet holes. 

The hands are restored and are represented with gloves 
formed of a broad-pointed plate over the back of the hand, 
and pointed cuffs. The cuisses are diagonally fluted in the 
manner usual at the time and are made wider by pieces of 
plate hinged to the outer edge, of such a width as would just 
reach to the saddle when the knight was mounted. The 
cuisses are strapped at the thighs on the inner side, and the 
hinged portions illustrate how armour was made suitable for 
riding on horseback, whilst keeping protected any portion of 
the leg not covered. At the knees are heart-shaped pointed 
genouilleres, and jambs, hinged and strapped on the legs, 
meet pointed solerets with ridged articulations. The spurs 



154 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

(broken) are strapped under the foot and buckled across the 
instep, the straps being decorated with three roses. 

A very narrow girdle encircles the waist, and from it on 
the left side hangs straight down a narrow belt decorated 
with roses, to which is attached a long sheathed sword, with 
depressed cross-hilt fluted pommel and beautifully engraved 
scabbard. On the right side, resting on the slab and not 
attached, is a square-topped misericorde with fluted pommel. 

Round the neck is worn a handsome broad Yorkist 
collar of alternate suns and roses, with a swivel pendant of 
the white Lion of March, the badge of Edward IV. The 
knight is represented bareheaded with long straight hair to 
the shoulders, being an example of a fashion onlv just 
introduced. The eyes are open and the expression suggests 
a man of strong character. The hands are raised in the 
attitude of prayer. 

The effigy of the son shows him dressed in a like manner 
to the father, but the arms on the tabard are differenced 
with a label of three points, the Yorkist collar is smaller, 
the hair is worn in curls of varying lengths to the shoulders! 
and the face is youthful. 

6. Both heads rest on tilting helms, the visors closed 
with slits for eyes and mouth, and side plates. They are 
surmounted by the crest-a plain mitre-and encircled by 
the mantling with tasselled ends. 

7. The heels of both figures rest against a lion couchant 
and the toes against the tail poised erect. 

8. The effigies are placed upon a very high altar-tomb, 
under what is termed a Berkeley arched canopy, and its four 
sides are adorned with numerous figures. 

The side on the north contains a row of four canopied 
niches with figures about a foot high standing on small 
pedestals. 

From the right : — 

(1) A saint in flowing gown and mantle, with long curly 
hair and turban, holding in her left hand a martyr's palm 
branch, in her right an article (unidentified). 



Monumental Effigies. 



155 



(2) St. Paul in flowing garments, long hair and short 
beard, holding a long staff in the right hand and a strapped 
book in the left. 

(3) St. Mark similarly dressed with a winged lion stand- 
ing at his feet. The hands broken off. 

(4) A bishop in plain mitre, amice, dalmatic and 
chasuble, holding a pastoral staff in his left hand. 

Between the niches are four square panels with quatre- 
foils containing shields pendent from a four-leaved flower, 
emblazoned with the Berkeley arms differenced with a label 
of three points. 

Above and below are fine hollow mouldings, containing at 
distances an acorn and leaf on a twig. 

The side on the south is of greater depth, because it 
reaches to a lower level. Accordingly it is divided into two 
rows, the top one containing seven niches with figures under 
beautiful ogee-shaped canopies, separated by pinnacles, and 
the under one seven panels with figures separated by shields 
within quatrefoils. 

Top row, from the right : — 

(1) The Virgin Mary, enthroned and crowned in flowing 
robes and long hair, holding the Holy Child (head gone) on 
her right knee. 

(2) Angel in alb and falling hood, holding a shield charged 

with the Berkeley arms. 

(3) A saint in gown, kirtle and long hair, holding a palm 
leaf in her left hand and a book with a bird (headless) 
perched on it in her right. 

( 4 ) A bishop in mitre, dalmatic and chasuble, with a large 
tasselled gypciere slung over the left shoulder, holding a staff 
(mutilated) in the left hand, and a strapped book in the 

right. 

(5) Similar to No. 2. 

(6) St. George in full plate armour, with a huge cross-hilt 
sword in a belt and a dagger, standing on the dragon and 
striking it with a long battleaxe, held by both hands 
diagonally from left to right. 



J 56 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

Under row : — 

(1) St. Christopher with the Holy Child (head gone) on 
his left shoulder, and a tree trunk in his right hand for a staff 

(2) A shield with the Berkeley arms pendent from a four- 
leaved flower. 

(3) A bishop in mitre, dalmatic and chasuble, holding a 
pastoral staff and a book (mutilated). 

(4) St. Peter in flowing garments, holding the keys in 
his left hand and a strapped book in his right. 

(5) Similar to No. 2. 

(6) St. John the Baptist in flowing garments, holding the 
Holy Lamb (headless) within the left arm. 

(7) Similar to Nos. 2 and 5. 

The ends of the tomb are almost hidden, but they appear 
to be alike and are divided into niches with figures. A 
bishop with a crozier and an angel holding a shield in the 
top row, and a bishop and a pendent shield on the lower. 

The canopy above the tomb on the north side is divided 
into twelve tall narrow panels with handsome canopied work. 
Each contains a bracket, but there are no figures. 

Above is a frieze of ducal leaves, alternating large and 
small, and the arch is cusped and finished with trefoils 
and a row of small ball flowers, with spandrels of foliage' 
For protection the space below the arch has been shut in 
by a sheet of glass. 

On the south side the canopy has thirteen canopied niches 
without figures, divided by decorated pinnacles ; they start 
direct from the arch, and there are no spandrels or frieze 
The vaulting is diamond-shaped, without bosses at the 
intersections. 

9. There is no inscription. 

Known to be James I, nth Lord Berkeley, died 1463, 
aged 69, and James Berkeley/ his second son, died 1450. 

10. There is no sign of painting. Smyth (p. 83) states 
the points of the son's label on the shields were sable, as 
though tinctured in his time. 

1 Smyth, Lives of the Berkeleys, vol. ii., pp. 83, 95. 



Monumental Effigies. 



i57 



11. The dagger of the larger figure is broken and the 
spurs are gone. Both pairs of hands and the noses have 
been restored, as also the swords. Some of the details on the 
figures on the tomb are broken, and in each case the head 
of the Holy Child is missing. 

12. The tomb is placed under an arch on the south side 
of the high altar leading into the Berkeley Chapel, which is a 
foot or so below the level of the chancel. 

13. Illustrated and described by Mrs. Bagnell-Oakeley in 
Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. xv., part i., p. 99. 

Tomb and effigies engraved in Gough's Sepulchral 
Monuments in Great Britain. 

14. The effigies are in excellent condition, and the figures 
on the tomb are wonderfully preserved. 

15. James I., nth Lord Berkeley, was nephew of 
Thomas IV., and succeeded in 1417 to the property, only 
after much dispute, being then about 23 years old. Till 
his death in 1463 he was occupied in a continuous series 
of disputes about the ownership of lands, which kept him in 
poverty and prevented his entering into any military employ- 
ment. He was thrice married, having by his second wife 
Isable, eldest daughter of the Duke of Norfolk, four sons 
and three daughters. He died in November, 1463, aged 
69 years. James, his second son, was slain in France about 
July, 1452, aged about 20 years and unmarried. His place 
of burial is unknown. 1 

Henry I., 17TH Lord Berkeley, a.d. 1613, and Wife. 

1. Military. Knight in armour. 
Lady. 

2. Recumbent effigies. 

3. The figures and canopy of alabaster, the tomb of 
freestone. 

4. Life-size. Man, 6 ft. long ; woman, 5 ft. 9 in. long. 

5. The knight is encased in a breastplate with tapul, 

1 Smyth, Lives of the Berkeleys, vol. ii., pp. 41-96. 



15S Transactions for the Year 1906. 

buckled to a backplate, and the shoulders are protected by 
large pauldrons strapped on the top, and thus showing that 
the shoulder blades were covered only by the epaulieres. 
On the arms are hinged brassarts, vambraces, and pointed 
coudes, secured by hook and staple. To the breastplate are 
fastened by buckle and strap two tassets with almayne rivets, 
strapped over bombasted trunk hose, and below, the legs are 
in ridged cuisses, rounded genouilleres decorated with a small 
rose and hinged jambs, meeting laminated square-toed sole- 
rets with rowel spurs fastened to the heels. Round the throat 
is a gorget of overlapping plates, above it a small fluted ruff 
of three folds, and at the wrists narrow ruffles. The hands 
are restored, and are shown in gloves formed of a broad- 
pointed plate over the back of the hand. All the armour 
has an escalloped edge, and is profusely engraved, which 
gives a very handsome effect. A narrow girdle is buckled 
round the waist, and hooked to it on the left side are the 
hangers of four wide straps kept in place by a narrow 
diagonal belt hooked on the right. Fastened to the hangers 
is a long sword resting on the slab with curved hilt and 
rounded guard. 

The hair is long and curly, the beard small, and the 
moustache long and drooping. It is stated to be a good 
portrait of Lord Berkeley. 1 The hands are raised in 
prayer. 

The lady is dressed in the robes of a peeress, such as 
would be worn on State occasions. She wears a loose gown 
to the feet, edged with a band of embroidered scrollwork and 
narrow fringe. The sleeves are gathered full at the shoulders 
but tight at the wrist, where they end in small ruffles ; the 
bodice is tight-fitting with a stomacher ending in a peak 
below the waist and closely buttoned down the centre ; it is 
encircled by a small jewelled belt, the end hanging straight 
to the knees and ending in a large pendant. Over it is worn 
a State mantle, doubled from the neck to the elbow with fur, 
and the front thrown open to show a lining of fur. It is 
3 Smyth, Lives of the Berkeley s, vol. ii. , p. 407. 



Monumental Effigies. 



fastened high in the neck to a jewelled fermaii by very long 
cordons ending in huge tassels. 

Above the mantle is a large single-fold ruff, and across 
the shoulders is worn a massive chain of raised jewelled 
medallions linked together. The hair is arranged in a mass 
of small curls on the temples, and confined by a Paris hood 
with a coronal of twisted design. Over it is placed a small 
baron's chaplet — a plain band of gold decorated with roses 
and pearls or silver balls. It was not till the time of 
Charles II. that barons were permitted to wear the present 
coronet. 

The feet are in pointed shoes with thick soles, and the 
hands are raised in prayer. 

This is also stated to be a portrait of the Lady Katherine. 

6. Under the man's head and shoulders is a large full 
cushion, decorated with a band of scrollwork and tassels. 
Under the woman's head and shoulders is a large tasselled 
cushion covered with embroidery. 

7. The man's feet rest against the crest — a mitre stand- 
ing on end charged with the Berkeley arms ; from it hang 
long fringed infulae. The woman's feet rest on a lion 
couchant. 

8. The effigies rest on a high altar-tomb within a semi- 
circular arcade, under a straight cornice supported by two 
slender Corinthian pillars, the whole surmounted by the coat 
of arms and crest. At the back of the recess there is an 
inscription on an oblong tablet within a frame of scrollwork 
and bosses. 

The front of the tomb is divided into four tricusped 
panels containing shields, charged with arms, but without 
tinctures. 

The heraldry is as follows : — 

On small shields in front of tomb. 1 : " A chevron 
between ten crosses pattee, 4.2.1. 2.1," Berkeley. 2: "A 
bend between six crosses croslet fitchy, 2.1. 1.2," Howard. 
3: "A lion rampant," Mowbray. 4: "A lion rampant 
ducally crowned," Segrave. 



i6o 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



On escutcheon. Quarterly of twelve. 1, "Gules a chevron 
between ten crosses pattee, 4.2.1. 2.1, argent," Berkeley. 
2, " Gules three lions of England, a label of as many points 
argent," Brotherton. 3, " Gules a lion rampant argent," 
Mowbray. 4, "Azure semee of crosses croslet, a lion 
rampant or," Breaus of Gower. 5, " Sable a lion rampant 
argent" (really, crowned or), Segrave. 6, "Quarterly or 
and gules a bend of the second," Beauchamp, Baron of 
Bedford. 7, " Barry of six or and gules," Fitzalleyn. 
8, "Gules a lion rampant or," Arundel. 9, "Azure three 
garbs or," Blundeville. 10, " Chequy or and azure," 
Warren. ii, "Gules an inescutcheon of France within 
an orle of lions of England." Really, " Azure semee de lys 
or within a bordure gules charged with eight lions of 
England," for Plantagenet. 12, "Or a bend lozengy 
gules," (Papworth) Pinckney. Query, wrong blazon for 
"Gules a bend lozengy or," Marshall. Crest on ducal 
helmet with heavy mantling and wreath : A mitre argent 
with labels and garnished or charged with arms of Berkeley. 
Supporters : Two lions argent, the sinister ducally crowned 
(gules), collared and chained or. Motto : Dieu avec nous. 
9. The inscription on mural tablet is : — 
" Here lyeth the Body of Sir Henry Berkeley, Knight t 
Lord Berkeley, Mowbray, Segrave and Bruse Lord Lieuten 
Of the County of Glouc, who departed this Life the 26 Day 
Of November, in the yeare of our Lord God 1613 being the 
Day that he accomplished the Age of Fowerscore Yeares. 
He first maryed Katherine, Sister to Thomas Howard, Duke 
Of Norfolke, by whom he had Yssue Thomas, Mary and 
Frances. Thomas beinge a Knight of the Bathe, maried 
Carey Knight, Lord Hunsdon. Mary, the eldest Daughter, 
Was maried unto Sir John Zouche Knight, & Frances 
the second Daughter was maried unto Sir 
George Shirley, Baronet. 

Hee secondly maried Jane, the Widowe of Sir Roger 
Townsend Knight yet lyving by whom he had no Issue." 
Sir Henry Berkeley died November 26th, 1613, in his 
80th year. 



Monumental Effigies. 



161 



Katherine, his first wife, died April 7th, 1596, aged 58. 

At the time the tomb was erected there were placed 
close by the kneeling effigies of the three children mentioned 
above. These may have been on a small mural monument 
near the head, but all traces of them have disappeared. 
On a window-sill in the same chapel there is, however, 
at the present time an unattached diminutive figure of a 
kneeling woman carved in white alabaster similar to the 
effigies, and this is likely to be the remains of the figure 
of one of the daughters. See page 163. 

The existence of the monument to the three children 
is mentioned in a manuscript written in 1634 (British 
Museum, Lansdowne Collection, No. 213, pp. 319-348) and 
is quoted in Gloucestershire Notes and Queries, 1887, p. 365. 

10. The escutcheon only is painted. 

11. Both effigies are chipped in a few places; the belt 
and hangers are mutilated, also the lady's jewelled belt. 
The baron's hands have been restored. 

12. Placed in a recess at the east end of the Berkeley 
Chapel, which is on the south side of the chancel. 

13. Illustrated and referred to by Mrs. Bagnall-Oakelev, 
Trans.' B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. xv., part i., p. 100 (male 
figure); vol. xvi., part i., p. 123 (female figure). Tomb 
described in Bigland, Gloucestershire, vol. i„ p. 159. 

14. The effigies are in very good condition. 

15. Henry I., 17th Lord Berkeley, was born in 1534, 
being a posthumous child, and obtained his name from 
King Henry VIII., his godfather. For the first half of 
his long life he lived in a very expensive manner, much 
crippling his fortune, and at all times seems to have been 
delighted to be at law with his neighbours or rivals. 
Although he got rid by sale of a number of the manors 
belonging to the family, he was successful in recovering 
Berkeley Castle and the lands of his barony of Berkeley 
that had become alienated from his predecessors for sixty- 
one years. His first wife, whose effigy rests by the side 
of his own, was Katherine, third daughter of Henry 

12 

Vol. XXIX. 



l6'2 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



Howard, styled Earl of Surrey, and son of Thomas, Duke 
of Norfolk. His second wife, who survived him, was Jane, 
widow of Sir Roger Tovvnsend, and daughter of Sir Michael 
Stanhope, of Shelford, Notts. 

The Lady Katherine, who died in 1596, aged 58, was 
buried at St. Michael's, Coventry. 1 

An unknown Lady of the early Seventeenth Century. 

1. Lady. 

2. Kneeling effigy, now separated from its monument. 

3. White alabaster. 

4. Diminutive. 

5. The figure wears the dress of the beginning of the 
seventeenth century. A full gown over a modified farthingale 
falls round the feet, the bodice is tight-fitting with a wide- 
pointed stomacher, closely buttoned down the centre, to 
which is fastened a short, full flounce, falling over the hips. 
The sleeves are padded at the shoulders and turned back 
at the wrists with plain cuffs, and about the waist is a narrow 
girdle of round beads. Over the shoulder is a long mantle 
falling behind in flat folds, the lower corners, edged with 
beading, are turned back over the feet to show the plain 
inner lining. There are traces of a big ruff with the tying 
cords and aiglets, but the head has been sawn off. The arms 
are raised in the attitude of prayer. (Hands broken off.) 

7. The figure is kneeling on a cushion with cording. 

8. This solitary figure belonged probably to a mural 
monument, of which no traces now exist. 

9. There is no inscription. It is probable the person repre- 
sented is either Mary or Frances, daughters of Sir Henry 
Berkeley and Lady Katherine, his wife. It is known from a 
MS. written in 1634 that the figures of these two ladies with 
their brother were, erected kneeling by their parents' tomb, 
and additional identification is obtained from the larger 
figures, being portraitures in "white alabaster." ' 2 

3 Smyth, Lives of ilie Berkelsys, vol. ii., pp. 26C-275, 3S2. 
2 Gloucestershire Notes and Queries, 1S87, p. 365. 



Monumental Effigies. 



163 



10. There is no sign of painting. 

11. The head and left side have been sawn off, and a 
portion of the drapery on the right. Both hands are gone. 

12. Placed temporarily on the sill of the south-west 
window of the Berkeley Chapel, which is on the south side 
of the chancel. 

13. No illustration or description known. 

14. The remnant of this well-sculptured figure is well 
cared for. 

15. The inscription on the tomb of Sir Henry Berkeley 
shows into what families his two daughters married. See 
page 160. 

BEVERSTON CHURCH.— Dedicated to St. Mary 
the Virgin. 

Sarah Shipway, a.d. 1705. 

1. Lady. 

2. Bust in high relief. 

3. Stone. 

4. About half life-size. 

5. The face represents a young woman with long curly- 
hair falling to the shoulders. The neck and throat are bare. 

8. The bust is placed on the top of an oblong mural 
tablet with frame and inscription, and is overshadowed 011 
either side by a cherub's head with outstretched wings. The 
sides of the tablet are adorned with scrollwork, and below is 
a Death's-head crowned with laurel leaves. 

9. Inscription in centre of slab (nearly defaced) : — 
" In memorie of Sarah the daughter of John Shipway and 

Katherine his wife who departed this life May . . a.d. 1705. 
.Etat 22. In memory of John Shipway who departed this life 

May . . a.d. 171 1 In memory of 

Katherme, wife of aforesaid John Shipway, who departed 
this life Jan. 29, a.d. 1718, aetat 51." 

Sarah Shipway, died 1705, aged 22. 



164 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

10. The hair of the cherubs is painted black, as is also 
the background of the inscription. 

11. The inscription is becoming illegible. The bust is 
not mutilated. 

12. Placed against the west wall over a Norman doorway 
leading into the vestry. 

13. No illustration or description known. 

14. In fairly good condition. 

15. About 1640 the Castle of Reversion passed into the 
occupation of a farmer named Nicholas Shipway, and no 
doubt this Sarah Shipway was a descendant of the same 
family still occupying a portion of the broken-down castle. 

There is a rudely.-sculptured figure in relief placed high 
up on the south wall on the outside of the tower. 

Bigland (vol. i., p. 177) considers it to be an ecclesiastic 
and part of a sepulchral monument. The present rector, 
however, regards it as purely decorative, and is satisfied that 
U is a representation of the Risen Christ. 



DURSLEY CHURCH.-Dedicated to St. James. 
Cadaver. 

1. Male cadaver. 

2. Recumbent figure. 

3. Freestone. 

4. Life-size, 6 ft. long. 

5. The figure represents a well-developed man lying on 
his open shroud in the first stages of decay, the naked 
muscles being apparent. The arms are straight at the 
sides, keeping down the cloth. This may be an inter- 
esting example of a cadaver erected in memory of a 
civilian: such are not common, the majority representing 
ecclesiastics. 

6. The head being missing, it is not known on what 
it rested. 



Monumental Effigies. 165 

7. The feet rest on the slab only. 

8. There is no tomb, and the slab with the effigy is 
built into a shallow niche high in the wall, having a backing 
of three panels with ogee tricusped arches and a window 
above. On the outer edge of the slab are the remains of 
three plain bases of pillars belonging to the original tomb. 
In Bigland, Gloucestershire, p. 513 (published 1791), there is 
a drawing which shows the headless figure was on a low 
altaiStomb on the ground, under a flat, oblong canopy 
supported by four moulded arches. 

9. Inscription on a small leaden tablet let into the slab 
where the head rested (now illegible) : — 

"This vault (in which the remains of Tanner, Founder 
of this Chappie were deposited) was opened and 
his bones collected and preserved in this place by 
W. F. Sharpnell Surgeon Anno 1789. 

"James Webster Archdeac of Glo'ster 

Rector . 1789." 1 

Supposed to be Thomas Tanner, died after 1432. 

From the above inscription it is clear that Thomas 
Tanner was considered in 1789 to be the founder of a chantry 
chapel dedicated to the Holy Trinity, and situated on the 
south side of the church. From Fuller's Worthies it appears 
that a "Thomas Tanner of Dursoleye " (Dursley) was a 
magistrate in 1432, and on the parapet outside of the chapel 
there exists at the present time a shield, having on it a 

merchant's mark — the letter pierced by a cross croslet 

titchee, which may have reference to a chief founder bearing 
that initial (? Thomas Tanner). 

The architecture of the chapel is late Perpendicular, thus 
showing that it was built about the end of the fifteenth century, 
and the carving of two Tudor roses on the parapet outside, 
near the merchant's mark, gives additional evidence for the 
same period. There is thus a space of about sixty years 
between the date when Thomas Tanner is known to have been 
1 J. H. Blunt, Dursley and its Neighbourhood, p. 71. 



1 66 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



alive and the date of the building, and it is difficult to know 
how to bridge over these years. The difficulty is not made 
less by the fact that at the end of a further sixty years the 
founder was unknown, as is shown by the chantry certificates 
in 1548, which declare " Trynyte Service founded by dyverce 
psons not knowen," although the churchwardens' accounts 
refer to it at that time as " Tanner's Chapel." 1 

On the other hand, from deeds now existing, it appears 
that in 1494 a certain house in Dursley was vested with 
feoffees of the church, and Bigland (1791) states that 
tradition reports it to have been the gift of Thomas Tanner. - 
If this were true w T e may presume Thomas Tanner died at a 
ripe age about 1494, and may by his will have given the 
house and left money to endow the chapel in which he was 
buried. 

10. There is no sign of painting. 

11. The head is broken off at the neck and both arms 
at the elbows. Only traces of the canopy are left. 

12. Placed on a window-sill in the east end of the 
south aisle. 

13. Illustrated in Bigland, Gloucestersliivc. 

14. The effigy is in very fair condition. 

15. The only mention of Thomas Tanner is as above. 

FRAMPTON-ON-SEVERN CHURCH.— Dedicated to 
St. Mary. 

A MEMBER OF THE CLIFFORD FAMILY, ABOUT A.D. I3OO. 

1. Military. Knight in armour. 

2. Recumbent effigy, cross-legged below the knee. 

3. Freestone. 

4. Life-size, 6 ft. 3 in. long. 

5. The knight is enveloped in a suit of chain mail. A 
hauberk reaches to the middle of the thighs with long sleeves 

1 Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. xi., pp. 192, 243. 

2 Trans. B\ and G. Arch. Soc, vol. xiii., part i., p. 18. 



Monumental Effigies. 



167 



covering the hands and divided at the fingers. The coif de 
m ailles is not continuous with it, but is in the form of a flat 
circular cap, laced to it above the ears, although the 
method is not shown. Underneath the hauberk is a quilted 
haketcn which shows above the knees, and is slightly cut up. 
Chausses of mail cover the legs and feet, with straps buckled 
on the instep and passing under the foot, to which are 
attached prick-spurs (broken oft) ; at the knees are small 
kneecaps, probably of cuir bouilli. Over all is worn a long 
flowing surcoat, sleeveless, folded about the body and cut 
open below. It is girdled at the waist by a very narrow 
cingulum, and below, passing across the hips, is a broad 
sword-belt, buckled on the left side, with a long plain cross- 
hilt sword fastened to it. Borne upright on the left arm is a 
heater-shaped shield, with armorial bearings, fastened to a 
narrow guige passing round the neck. The shield has been 
built into the wall, so only a portion of the Clifford arms— 
"chequy (or and azure) "—is visible. The left hand holds 
the scabbard and the right rests on the top of the 
pommel. 

6. The head rests on a small oblong pillow. 

7. The feet rest on a dog lying down and facing the 
knight. 

8. The effigy is placed on a low altar-tomb built into a 
shallow, cusped recess, with a plain stone background. 

9. There is no inscription. 

Supposed to be a member of the Clifford Family. 

The armour clearly shows the figure belongs to the very 
early years of the fourteenth century, because by about 1320 
the chain mail was strengthened by plates of metal, or cuir 
bouilli, on the arms and legs, whereas there is no trace of 
such plates on the present effigy. It is not possible to decide 
what member of the Clifford family is represented; but if it 
could be traced that one of them was connected by marriage 
with the family of de Malton, that would probably give a 
clue to the identification. In an adjoining recess is an effigy 
of a lady, with which is associated the arms of Clifford and 



168 



Transactions for the Year 1906, 



de Malton,i but there is no proof the two figures represent 
man and wife, or were in any way related. 

The church was consecrated in 1315, having been bu.it 
by Robert FitzPayn, who died in 1316. He had married 
about 1288 Isabel Clifford. Her father, Sir John Clifford 
died in 1299, and her brother, Richard Clifford, the head of 
the family, died about 1305 without children living. The 
effigy might represent one of these near relatives. 

Bigland considered William Clifford, died 1321, to be the 
person represented. He, however, does not state his reasons 
and was writing nearly 5 oo years after. This William Clifford 
was a grandson of Henry Clifford, who belonged to a younger 
branch of the family, whilst the above-mentioned Isabel was 
descended from the elder line of the Cliffords « of Frampton " 
He was thus only a distant relative of the founder of the 
church, and it is not apparent why he should have a monu- 
ment therein, especially when he died about twenty years 
after the period to which the armour of this effigy 
belongs. 2 



10. 



The rings of mail are no longer represented, that 
part of the effigy having been originally made of "gesso," 
and become worn off from the cleanings of the figure. 

11. The features are much worn. The spurs, the top 
of the left foot, and the dog's tail are gone. The lower ed-e 
of the shield is broken off. The left side of the figure is built 
into the wall, and the arch of the recess is modern. 

12. Placed in the western recess of the north wall of the 
chapel in the north aisle. 

13. No illustration or description known. 

14. The effigy is in fairly good preservation, but neglected. 

15. The family of Clifford received the manor of Framp- 
ton-on-Severn from William the Conqueror, and continued to 
hold it through younger sons down to 1303. The head of 
this branch, Sir Hugh Clifford, died in 1254, and his grand- 
daughter Isabel married Robert FitzPayn, and to him the 

1 Bigland, Gloucestershire, vol. i., p. 195, 
Smyth, Lives of the Berkeley's, vol. i., p. 189. 



Monumental Effigies. 



169 



property passed by purchase in 1304. Henry Clifford, a 
younger brother of Sir Hugh, bought other land at Frampton 
about 1275, and through his line the Cliffords of Frampton 
were continued for many generations. 1 

A MEMBER OF THE CLIFFORD FAMILY ABOUT A.D. I3IO. 

1. Lady. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Freestone. 

4. Life-size, 6 ft. i in. long. 

5. The lady wears a long loose gown, plain above the 
waist, and falling in long flowing folds over the feet. The 
sleeves are tight to the wrists, and appear to have falling 
sleeves from the elbows, but they quickly become blended 
with the folds of the gown. Over the shoulders is worn a long 
mantle fastened by a cordon, now hardly visible. The neck 
and chin are covered with a wimple, raised on either side of 
the face to the ears, and there slightly distended to show the 
hair. A veil falls in graceful folds over the forehead and 
backwards to below the shoulders. The hands are raised in 
prayer. 

6. The head rests on two pillows— the lower one oblong, 
the upper one square and set diagonally. 

7. The feet probably rested on a dog, but they are built 
into the wall, and the animal cannot be identified. 

8. The effigy is placed on a low altar-tomb, built into a 
shallow arched recess with a plain stone background. On 
the outside, above the arch, there are two plain shields 
without arms. Bigland gives them bearing the coats of 
Clifford and de Malton. 2 

9. There is no inscription. Supposed to be a daughter 
of the de Malton family and the wife of a member of the 
Clifford family, whose effigy lies in the adjoining recess. 
Bigland considers her to be Catherine de Malton, wife of 
1 Atkyns, Gloucestershire, p. 230. Smyth, Lives of the Berkeley's, vol. i., p. 189. 

2 Bigland, Gloucestershire, vol. i., p. 595- 



I 7° Transactions for the Year 1906. 

William Clifford, died about 1321, but this seems incorrect. 
(See page 167.) 

The de Malton arms — "Argent a cross voided gules" 

having been on the tomb and marshalled together with the 
Clifford's coat, it looks as if there were an alliance at some 
time between the two families, but a marriage is not thereby 
certain. In the same way, in the east window of Frampton 
Church, of four shields, one bears the arms of Clifford and 
another of de Malton. These are the reasons why a marriage 
between the two families is thought probable, but so far no 
alliance or marriage has been traced. 1 

10. There is no sign of painting. 

11. The features are very much worn; the fingers and 
part of the hands are gone; the left elbow and feet are built 
into the wall. 

12. Placed in the eastern recess of the north wall, under 
a window of the chapel in the north aisle. 

13. No illustration or description known. 

14. The figure is much more worn than the corresponding 
male one, and is neglected. 

15. Nothing is known of the person represented. 



NORTH NIBLEY CHURCH.-Dedicated to St. Martin. 
Grace Smyth, a.d. 1609. 

1. Lady. 

2. Kneeling effigy. 

3. Stone with alabaster columns. 

4. Diminutive. 

5. The figure wears a very full skirt, reaching to the feet 
over a moderate farthingale, and it is thrown open to show a 
plain kirtle. The bodice with its closely-buttoned stomacher 
is tight-fitting and has a narrow frill fastened to it by a bead 
edging. The sleeves with narrow epaulets are padded and 
end in small turn-back cuffs. From the shoulders hangs 

1 Bigland, Gloucestershire, vol. i., p. 595. 



Monumental Effigies. 



171 



a full mantle with a square collar, surmounted by a big three- 
fold ruff, below which is a necklace of beads passed twice 
round the neck. The hair is curly and confined by a Pans 
hood and coronal, with the veil turned upwards and project- 
ing over the forehead. The eyes are open and the- arms are 
raised in the attitude of prayer. (Hands broken off.) The 
features are those of a middle-aged woman, and are probably 
a portrait. 

7. The figure kneels on a square cushion with tassels 
and cording. 

8. A high mural monument with narrow-arched canopy, 
the vaulting divided into squares with roses in the centre. 
The canopy is supported by two Corinthian pillars resting on 
plinths and corbels and bearing a plain architrave. Above 
there are three shields without arms. 

9. Inscription on oblong slab beneath the figure :— 
" Here before in this isle resteth the body of Grace Smyth 

Paughter and heire of William Thomas and of Alice his wife 
Daughter of Richard Hill all of them being descended of wor- 
shipevil famylies, which Grace was first the wife of John 
Drewe Esqr. and afterwards for the space of twelve yeares and 
35 dayes the wife of John Smyth Gent, in memory of whose vert 
Life,lovmge obedience to both her said husbands and of her vo- 
luntary leavinge this life the IX day of November 1609 with a 
longinge desire to bee with Christ, the said John Smyth hath 
erected this monument desirous thereby to make perpetual 
the memoryail of her vertues.'' 

Grace Smyth, died 1609. 

10. The features and ruff are painted white, and the rest 
of the figure and the cushion black. The corbels, lower edge 
of the inscribed slab, and two bosses on the architrave are 
black, the rest cream-coloured. 

11. The hands are broken off. 

12. Placed against the south wall of the south aisle. 

13. No illustration is known. 

14. The effigy is in very fair condition. 

15. Beyond the particulars given in her epitaph little 



: 7 2 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

is known of Grace Smyth. Interest centres round the effigy 
largely on account of her second husband, John Smyth, the 
historian of the Berkeley family. After studying at' the 
Temple, John Smyth in 1596 became steward of the house- 
hold of the Berkeleys, and in the following year was 
appointed to the much more important position of steward 
of the hundred of Berkeley. Thereupon, on October 5 th, 
1597, he married Grace, the well-dowered widow of John 
Drewe, Esq., of North Nibley, at which place they lived 
until her death in 1609. She had no children. 1 

Note.— The illustrations belonging to this paper will be 
issued with the second part of the volume. 

1 Smyth, Lives of the Berhelcy s, vol. i., p. 4 . 



CERTAIN ROMAN REMAINS AT WATERCOMBE, 
NEAR BISLEY. 



By St. CLAIR BADDELEY. 

Either in 1799 or a year or two later (it is reported by 
Lysons), in a place between Painswick and Bisley, and 
called " Custom Scrubs," were found two small votive stone 
tablets (anaglyphs) shaped like the front elevation of a 
temple, and each containing an upright male figure, carved 
in relief, facing the spectator. 1 

The exact spot was in a stone quarry that had eaten into 
the side of a steep tongue of land which there ends (over- 
looking and commanding one of the most beautiful scenes in 
Gloucestershire, the head and body of the Slad valley) in a 
grassy platform, still called " Roman Tump." The nature of 
these discoveries renders it probable that this fine platform 
may have been crowned with a local sanctuary or Romano- 
British temple. In the side of the coombe at its foot rises a 
lonely chapel of the Methodists, the present representative 
of local religion, and a ruined seventeenth- century lodge 
(? keeper's), called 'The Mill.' 

The two tablets are of similar dimensions, measuring 
19 in. high by 14 in. wide. They are not made of the 
local lias, but of fine-grained Bath stone. 

Another, but inferior, example from the same place is in 
Cirencester Museum. 2 This later specimen was found in 
1851. It measures eighteen inches in height. In it a 
warrior holds his shield high, covering his left shoulder and 
side. His spear is in his right hand, slanting. No other 
Roman remains (with the exception of some coins), such as 
tesserae or pottery, are recorded to have since been found 
1 Cf. Reliquics Brit. Rom., par, 2, table 28, figs. 5, 7. 
2 A warrior bearing his shield. 



174 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

thereabouts nearer than at Bisley itself, or a full mile 
away. 1 

In 1845, having been acquired by Mr. T. Baker, he took 
these tablets, together with certain other remains found at 
Oakridge (Church-Piece), and building at Watercombe, near 
his residence, a fancy summer-house, he set them into the 
south wall thereof, at about seven feet above the ground. 
At that time, or perhaps before it, they suffered grave 
indignities. The carved edges had been shaved down as 
if to fit them to the surface of a wall, and they had been 
painted all over with black. The paint has since worn off. 

Upon No. 1 Lysons doubtfully read : — 

DEO ROMVLO .... VETTINVS DON AVI T . JVVENTINUS 
FECIT. 

Upon No. 2 some other person read : — 

MARTI OLLVDIO.' 2 

I will deal with No. 1 first. The inscription upon 
No. 2, indeed, has by this time left traces only of what 
may have been the terminal dio. 

As the photograph reveals, the first word of the dedica- 
tion, deo, and the first two and a half letters of roa[,ivlo] 
are sufficiently clear. Then occurs an awkward break along 
the shaven-off ascending cornice ; but the lettering takes up 
faintly again before reaching the crown, or apex, made by the 
inclined cornices of the tablet, and here can be made out 
' A V,' followed, after the median line has been passed, 
by a fairly clear G. 

Before proceeding, it is necessary to point out firstly 
that, unless it was smartly abbreviated by the sculptor, 
there was, and is, only just room for the entire name romvlo. 
Secondly, it is needful to ask what can avg signify here, 
unless we supply (in short) et . n [vminibvs] avg [vsti] ? 

1 Similar, but inferior, votive representations occur on the little 
altars found at King's Stanley, now in the British Museum. 

2 Lysons gives no trace of inscription upon this example in the 
ReliquicB Brit. Rom. He also omits the representation of the caligse, which 
are still well seen, while, on the other hand, he represents diagonally 
across the altar-stem three (? spiral) bands which are now obliterated. 



Certain Roman Remains at Watercombe, 



175 



We might therefore take that to have been the intention 
of the mutilated dedication, and that it originally read: — 
deo . rom[vlo] et . n[vmintbvs] avg[vsti]. 

On the other hand, there is reason for not attributing this 
sculpture to a later date than the third century ; and although 
it is probably much later than that of the Antonmes, it is 
well to recall that under various Emperors occur occasional 
brasses stamped with the flattering legend— 

ROMVLO AVGVSTO, 

evidently intended to identify the virtues of the reigning 
sovereign with those of the Founder of Rome. It is probable, 
therefore, that in our anaglyph, when perfect, we should have 
seen that very formula, with the aforesaid prefix deo. Hence, 
we are in all likelihood correct in reading here :— 

DEO . ROMVLO . AVGfvSTo], 

for which, it will be found, there is just sufficient room. 

Next occurs the name of the donor of the votive tablet, 
whom the Corpus Inscviptionum 1 (following Lysons) gives as 
vettinvs. 

Careful scrutiny shows that reading to be impossible, 
for there is a letter more in the name under consideration 
than in vettinvs. The name, in fact, has nine letters, of 
which the first two are ve, and the last four are certainly 
epivs. Between these the two more doubtful letters are lo. 
The last letter has lost its top, and consequently resembles 
the lower half of an English u, but the curved sides show it 
to be not a v (or part of an n), but the lower half of the 
letter o. 

Hence the name should really read veloepius. 
By itself, below this, and to the right of the warrior's 
head, follows : — 

DONAVIT 

jvventi . is (jvventinvs) 
fecit (rather bedimmed by rubbing). 
It is therefore clear that to the god Romulus a 
1 First edition, vol. vii., p. 3 r 



176 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

provincial (perhaps a legionary) named Veloepivs gave 
this votive offering (probably, judging from the style, in 
the third century a.d.), and that one Jvventinus made 
it for him. 

The figure standing thus under the dedication, within 
its stone frame, may be considered above the average of 
its class in point of technical execution. It measures 
14 m. in height, and is habited in the typical accoutrements 
of the Roman warrior. It may here either represent the 
donor or the deity. 

He is girt with a ribbed cuirass (lorica), tunic, and subu- 
cula, not descending below the knees. Around the waist is 
worn, with a large central buckle, the cmgulum, into which 
is fastened, upon the left side, the short sword; the belt 
seeming to pass through an invisible loop behind the sheath. 
Above the thick rounded head of the sword-handle is seen 
the sagum (or plaid) crossed over the breast, and passing 
from the right shoulder on to the left arm over the elbow- 
joint, that arm being extended freely so as to hold in place 
by its rim the long ovate (damaged) shield, the central boss 
of which is just apparent. The opposite or right arm 
holds at rest an upright lance (pilum), having a peculiarly 
thick socket to the broad head. At the neck is worn 
a graceful collar of radiating metal (?) plates leading 
up to a continuous hood, apparently all in one with the 
helmet, and framing round the entire visage. The whole 
effect recalls the Fool's cap of the fourteenth century. 
The helmet (galea) is of an unusual form, and most of 
the central (plumed) crest (crista) is worn away; but at a 
short distance from it, on either side, appears another ridge 
or knob of well-rounded form. These side ridges are placed 
too high upon the head, and project too far, to belong to 
the hinges of the visor. 1 Below each of them projects a 
large curved ornament, like a wing, somewhat giving the 
effect of a volute. If these lower projections were intended 

1 The appearance of this helmet of three ridges recalls the Truphaleia, 
however distantly. 



ROMAN BRONZE HELMET. 

GUISBOROUGH ( YORKS. ) 




ROMAN SPEARHEAD. 
(Great Wakering (Essex. 



Page. 176 




WATER COM BE. FIGURE I. 



Page 176 




WATER COM BE, FIGURE II, 



Certain Roman Remains at Watercombe. 177 



to represent the metal neck-rim,- they also are placed 
unwarrantably high, as high as would be the wings on the 
helmet of Roma, as shown upon coins. These might not 
be inappropriate to the god Romulus. The helmets of 
gladiators occasionally bore them. 1 The cheek-pieces are 
wanting. Caligse are worn, extending to above the ankles, 
and ending in a thick band, as if turned over and tucked in. 

Beyond the lance stands an altarlet, upon which is 
erected a twofold cornucopia containing "plenty," repre- 
sented by three (?) apples. 

We have a dedication, therefore, to Romulus, the 
protector of the crops, and we should consequently either 
conjecture the donor to have been a native of Central Italy, 
in spite of his barbaric name, or that he had served in the 
days of Maxentius (a.d. 306), to whom the revived cult of 
Romulus signified so much, and whose son was purposely 
named Romulus Augustus. But, chiefly owing to the style, 
we think that he belonged to a rather earlier date, and 
simply used a formula uniting the titles, imperial and divine. 
This, it is believed, is the sole dedication to Romulus known 
in Britain. 

The second relief, similar in dimensions to the first, and 
evidently by the same hand, presents us with another male 
figure, represented holding a pendent patera by its rim m 
his right hand above another altar. With his left he 
clasps close to his body an erect cornucopia, 2 the loaded 
head of which reaches above his left shoulder, and holds 
fruit. Though in some portions (particularly the right half 
of the figure) more damaged than its fellow-tablet, sufficient 
remains of the details to be described. 3 

The tunica here descends to rather below the knees. 

1 Cf. A bronze helmet in the British Museum, found at Guisborough, 
co. York, and another from Cambridgeshire. The former is here repre- 
sented. See, however, the illustration from Greek gems under Galea 
(Diet. Gr. and Rom. Antiq.). 

2 This also may have been a double one. 

s It has been mentioned already that the altar, as Lysons saw it, was 
decorated with bands or fillets (probably spiral in intention). 

Vol. XXIX. 



i7 8 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

The caligae (strangely omitted by Lysons) are similar. The 
right half of the body has now so lost surface that the 
details of the armour have vanished, nor is there left a trace 
■ of the " cingulum " or a sword. 

From the left shoulder, and entirely covering ' the left 
breast, falls an ample military cloak or paludamentum, 
spread outward by the left arm and elbow in clasping 
the cornucopia, and descending thence in rigid herring-bone 
folds as far as the base-line of the skirt or tunic. There 
is visible a broad hem or border. The face, well-delineated, 
shows from a tight-fitting (? cloth) head-dress, resembling' 
that of a mediaeval knight. But there is no visible helmet. 
The effect is rather that of a Georgian wig. 

In the hollowed space, rather more than midway between 
the head and the cornice (to left), are faint traces of a 
dedicatory inscription .... 10. The Corpus Inscrip. gives 
this as marti . OLLVDio. or Mars Olludius, 1 but says that 
'it seems to be corrupt.' Scraping and a now worn-through 
coat of dark paint have done their worst, and the former 
operation, alas ! would seem to have been perpetrated 
merely in order to make the face of the relief flush with 
the wall surface, when the little building was erected by 
its original possessor in 1845. 

The said building or summer-house (now much needing 
repairs) has been constructed and roofed largely with 
material brought by Mr. Baker from remains of a Roman 
villa located in Church-Piece field near Oakridge. 2 It is 
tiled with hexagonal Bisley slats, and in the walls, besides 
courses of tripled red tiles, there are hypocaust tiles inserted 
here and there, face-outwards, so as to display their stamps. 
These tiles are of two sizes. 

The smaller (measuring 71 in. by 7 | in.) are impressed 
in the hollow letters by a metal stamp (i 2 f in. b V ii- in ) 
T-PFP. 

1 Cf. Olus oiera = garden herbs, vegetables. 
* Cf. Journ. Arch. Assoc., vol. i. p. 44 , vo l. ii. p . 3M . Arc]u ]ounu 
vol. 11. p. 42. 



"tmv 




Certain Roman Remains at Watercombe. 179 

The next, measuring 14^ in. by io£ in., are stamped with 
a wooden stamp, likewise with hollow letters, as shown 
in the photograph. 

While No. 3 (same size) repeat the letters of No. 1 in 
the larger scale of No. 2. 

In all of these examples the most noticeable and 
interesting feature is the early form of the unjoined loop of 
the letter P. 1 

Next, in No. 2, a stop occurs after the letter T, and the 
space should indicate another stop after the P. Probably 
there should be stops between each letter. 

As it is unlikely, though not impossible, that we should 
find ' Tegvlae . Publicae,' or ' Privatae,' in Britain, it 
might seem wiser to look for owners' names in the above 
letterings. The period and (probably) the factory have been 
identical and of early date. We might therefore, but with 
due reserve, have hazarded T[itus] P[lavtivs] Fa[bianvs] . 

But it is important to note that similar brick-stamps 
came to light in 1800 with some Roman remains within a few 
miles of Bisley, at Rodmarton, and among these latter was 
found a third related variety marked TPFC. 2 These are 
now to be seen in the excellent museum at Cirencester. 
The bricks are from the same factory. It is curious that 
neither Lysons nor Mr. Baker have represented the stops 
which occur between some of these letters. But further, 
since those days, at Cirencester (Corinium) itself, have been 
brought to light similar tdes bearing the following additional 
varieties : — 

tpfc (here the top of p is joined). 
tpfp do. do. 

tplf (raised letters). 
tpfa (loop joined). ■ 
tc.m (hollow letters). 

TC. 

1 This usually belongs to the first century, and its provincial 
survival in this instance is noteworthy. 

2 Cf. Archcologia, 1808, S. Lysons. 



i8o 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



Hence, one may the rather conclude that the factory 
of all these bricks was located at the large neighbouring 
town of Corinivm; and that the Community there may 
have issued public tiles ; the earlier ones bearing in the 
stamp (with stops), the unjoined p, and the later ones the 
later form of the letter and no stops. In such case, the last 
two letters of the various examples may have had reference 
to different ' issues,' or series. 

It has been noticed that in the I fold Villa, at Painswick, 1 
the tiles bear a stamp relating to the community of glevvm. 
We should therefore reasonably expect those found at the 
above localities to bear one relating to corinivm. 

In conclusion, the writer owes his thanks to Mrs. Davis, 
the present owner of these interesting relics, for much 
courtesy, and to Mr. E. W. Reed, of Painswick, for photo- 
graphing them in the manner desired under considerable 
difficulties. In view of the superior quality of the work- 
manship and the peculiar interest of the subject, he ventures 
to express the hope that these objects will some day find 
an honourable home in the Gloucester Museum. 

1 Trans. B. &> G. Arch. Soc, vol. xxvii. p. 159. 



HENRY ALLEN PROTHERO. 

The death took place at Cheltenham in November, 1906, of 
Mr. Henry Prothero, F.R.I.B.A., one of the best known of 
Gloucestershire architects. Mr. Prothero, who was born in 1848, 
was a son of the late Rev. Thomas Prothero, J. P. and D.L., 
of Malpas Court, Monmouthshire. He was educated at Cheltenham 
College and Balliol, Oxford, where he graduated in 1871. He will 
be long remembered for his skill as an ecclesiastical architect, and 
specimens of his work are to be found in all parts of England. He 
designed the new chapel at Cheltenham College, was architect for 
the Cheltenham Ladies' College, and designed additions to many 
churches in Cheltenham and neighbourhood ; also new churches in 
various parts of the country, He was co-opted a member of the 
Gloucestershire Education Committee in 1903, and proved himself 
a very useful member. 

Mr. Prothero, who had been a member of our Society for 
about ten years, succeeded Mr. Currie as Local Secretary for 
Cheltenham when Mr. Currie became our Treasurer, and many 
of us will have a grateful recollection of his kindly help in 
organising and carrying through our Summer Meeting at 
Cheltenham and Worcester in 1905. Though he never contributed 
any separate paper to our Transactions, the descriptions of the local 
churches which he provided for us on that occasion, and especially 
the accounts which he gave of the development and restorations 
and ruinations of the ancient parish churches of Cheltenham and 
Cl'eeve were most interesting, and as they are incorporated into the 
account of the meeting, they will be very valuable for future 
reference. Mr. Prothero brought to any task which he undertook 
the mind of a scholar rich with very varied interests, and so it is 
that he will be missed not only as an architect, but in many other 
directions by people who valued his help in widely-differing kinds 
of work. 



ftotirfs jof gublirations. 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN ENGLAND : An Analysis of the 
Origin and Development of English Church Architecture from 
the Norman Conquest to the Dissolution of the Monasteries. By 
Francis Bond, M.A. London: B. T. Batsford. 1905. 

This great work is very much more than a treatise on architecture; it is, 
as its title implies, an account of the growth and development of an 
organisation that was quick and vigorous with life and energy of its own. 
the science and art of planning and building temples of worship for the 
living God. It is avowedly a treatise on church architecture ; not that 
secular and domestic buildings are to be regarded as being inferior either 
in plan or execution, but that they are things of another sort, designed 
for other purposes, and so of necessity executed in other ways. And it 
is a treatise on one particular phase of Christian church building, that 
of Gothic architecture in England during the five centuries which followed / 
the Norman Conquest ; not that this style or development of styles was 
more essentially Christian, or was better adapted for Christian worship 
than other styles, but it was our own, a thing of native growth, and so 
naturally of more interest to English people. The basilicas of St. Mary 
and St. Paul Without-the-Walls at Rome are as noble buildings as any 
English Gothic church, and each type of building is planned as a temple 
for the offering of the Christian sacrifice, but the two plans are quite 
distinct. In the basilica the altar stands plainly out in the centre of the 
building, in the English church it is reverently veiled and guarded by 
reredos, choir stalls, and screen ; and the story which Mr. Bond tells is 
of the way in which the structure of the English church came to be 
the thing which we know so well, whether as a mighty minster as at 
Gloucester or Tewkesbury, or as a little village church, which may 
nevertheless contain work worthy to find a place in the noblest cathedral 
in the land. 

The book is set out on the plan of tracing out the growth and 
development of English Gothic architecture first as a whole, and then in 
its details. There is first a chapter dealing with the definitions of terms, 
and then five chapters dealing with the characteristics of the different 
periods of English church architecture between the Conquest and the 



Notices of Publications. 



183 



Dissolution, the periods being marked by years and not by "styles." 
Indeed Mr. Bond very definitely puts aside the four periods — Norman., 
Early English, Decorated, and Perpendicular, as mere figments of the 
imagination ; there is no such fourfold sequence. There are but two 
periods of planning, and the dividing-point of time lies at the end of the 
twelfth century, by which time also all the main methods of abutment 
had come into use. With regard to vaulting, the periods are not four 
but five, and in time they do not coincide with the traditional forms. 
Only with regard to the windows does the traditional sequence of " styles " 
apply, and here not accurately, because the "Decorated" style at least 
ought to be divided into Geometrical and Curvilinear. Gothic art was 
a living, growing thing, no more to be divided into "styles" than there 
is a "style" of childhood, and another of youth, and another of mature 
age; furthermore, just as one individual comes to maturity more quickly 
than another, the "styles "do not coincide with periods of time — Curvi- 
linear tracery was in use in some parts of England fully half a century 
after "Perpendicular" had come into use at Gloucester. 

Following on these chapters on the origin and development of mediaeval 
architecture is a chronological history of the greater English churches, 
extending over some fifty pages, illustrating by examples the story which 
had been told. This is a most interesting and helpful chapter, as it 
shows which of our great churches, and which parts of them, were in 
building at the same time, and gives an idea of the churches which were 
most often taken as models for others, and also of the varieties of local 
style which were in use in different parts of the country. 

Then there follows what is called an "Analysis of the Mediaeval Church 
Architecture of England," in which the church is as it were taken to 
pieces, and each single portion and the development of each single portion 
is described separately. First of all, the planning of the various types of 
churches and of each member of them, then the development of each 
portion of the church — piers and arches and vaults ; buttresses, pinnacles, 
windows, and their tracery ; triforium, clerestory, and roofs ; doorways, 
porches, towers, and spires; so that not only is a comprehensive view 
obtained of the whole church, but also a thorough understanding is 
obtained of the purpose, method of construction, and ornamentation of 
each part Of it. Finally there is an alphabetical list of dated buildings, 
and a series of indices to illustrations, to places, and to the subject-matter 
of the book, and it may be said at once that the indices are thoroughly 
well compiled and arranged. There is also a series of mouldings, drawn 
throughout to scale, of the various members of Gothic churches, which 
will be very helpful not only to architects, but also to all persons who have 
a good eye for form, in their visits to different churches. 

The illustrations form a strong feature in the book. They number in 



184 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



all 1254, of which 785 are photographs, sketches, and measured drawings, 
and 469 are plans, sections, diagrams, and figures of mouldings. And 
this wealth of illustration and of measured drawing is most valuable in 
bringing clearly before the eye a representation of the object, the purpose 
and development and form of which has been described. Of course the 
method adopted in the book involves a good deal of repetition, the same 
churches and the same members of the churches are referred to a-ain 
and again. If, for example, any one were to take this book and master 
thoroughly all that is said about Gloucester and Worcester cathedrals 
in it, he would have gone a long way towards the possession of a complete 
knowledge of the development of English Gothic architecture ; at any 
rate, he would have acquired such an amount of reasoned and well-ordered 
knowledge as would enable him to understand the history of almost any 
English church he might visit. But this very repetition is most helpful, 
there is no monotony about it ; just as the bones and muscles of the face 
are the same for all mankind, and yet there is an infinite variety of 
character and expression, so it was with English Gothic art so long as 
it was a living, growing thing, each church had an individuality of its 
own, it is itself, and not a mere copy of another. And the abundance 
of illustration is most helpful in making this truth clear : mere descriptions 
of arrangements in stone would be more than monotonous enough; 
translated into visible form, they are quickened into beauty and grace. 
It is no depreciation of the work of Mr. Bond to say that it is likely that 
the fact that a subject which can be beyond almost any other dry and 
repulsive is in his book thoroughly interesting, may be due in great 
measure to the willing help which he has received from so many fellow- 
workers, the many minds representing many sides of truth, and so 
appealing to a far wider range of readers than any one writer could do. 
It is to the credit of our Society that some of our members have been able 
to lend a helping hand. 

Naturally in a book which covers so wide a range there is room for 
some criticism with regard to local matters. When it is said (page 639), 
apparently on the authority of Rickman, that the porch and tower of 
St. Mary Redcliff were begun in 1292, it is clear that there is some 
mistake, for the lowest stage of the tower must have been begun nearly 
a century before that time. In a charter of confirmation granted in 1232 
by Henry III. to the Priory of Bradenstoke the following passage occurs ■ 
"Ex dono Johannis filii Willielmi capellani de Radeclive, totam terram 
suam, quae fuit Ricardi de Mera, quae est contra clochiarium ecclesiae 
S. Manae de Radeclive." * This bell-tower must have included no doubt 
the lowest stage of the existing tower. Again, when it is said that the 
south transept was finished in 1376 by William Canynges the elder, it 
1 Dugdale, Mon., vi. 340. 



Notices of Publications. 



must be remarked that there is no evidence at all for the date given, and 
there is no real reason for thinking that the elder William Canynges had 
anything to do with the church ; his family burying-place was in the 
Lady Chapel of St. Thomas the Martyr, and the entry in Ricart's 
Kalendar attributing to him the building of the church from the cross 
aisle downwards was inserted in the seventeenth century. 1 Also there 
will naturally be differences of opinion. For instance, when it is said 
(page 632) that we may go so far as to lay down that where we find a bad 
tower produced by the removal of the spire the presumption is that the 
spire is a success, and the tower and spire of St. Mary Redcliff are given 
as an instance of the truth of the saying, it is likely that many of those who 
knew the tower before 1870 will differ from Mr. Bond. The tower is, in fact,, 
the noblest feature of the church, and if it stood alone it would be quite 
adequate. The spire, however, which measures 180 feet from its base to the 
vane is out of proportion to the tower, which measures only no feet from 
the pavement to the leads, while the heights ought to be much more equal, 
and for a spire of that height another story ought to have been added to 
the tower. The defect is not so apparent from the north side, where the- 
rise of the ground gives the additional elevation which is needed, but from 
the south side of Redcliff Hill the relative lowness of the tower is very 
striking. It is quite possible that it was an appreciation of the fact that 
the completion of the spire was no real addition to the beauty of the 
church which led the men of the fifteenth century to acquiesce in the 
truncated spire after the disaster of 1446. They had seen the spire as we 
see it now, they deliberately left it as we saw it before 1870 ; and we may 
be sure that they did so not from any lack of means or will, but because 
they thought it was better so, that in fact the completed spire had not 
been a success. Again, on page 267 reference is made to a thirteenth- 
century four-centred arch which is supposed to exist in the doorway 
of the City School at Bristol ; anyone who should visit the building on 
Brandon Hill in search of it would search in vain. No doubt the reference 
really is to an arch at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, but the City School 
left that building in 1847. Both here and in the reference to the south 
transept at St. Mary Redcliff the book has not been brought up to date, 
and it is strange that this is so, because Mr. Bond gave some most helpful 
and instructive lectures in Bristol not long ago. 

The book is very far indeed from being a mere description of outward 
forms, it is a thoroughly scholarly work, going to the very root of the 
matter, as anyone will find who sets himself to master the first chapter 
on definitions, or what is said about vaulting and its thrusts. It is, in 
truth, a volume which is likely to hold its place for some time to come as. 
the best and most complete book on the subject with which it deals. 

i Ricart's Kalendar, 32. 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



BRISTOL : A Historical and Topographical Account of the City. 
Written by Alfred Harvey, M.B. Illustrated by E. H. _\ 
London : Methuen & Co. 1906. 

Messrs. Methuen are publishing a series of books on " Ancient Cities," 
and Dr. Harvey's subject takes its place with Canterbury, Chester. 
Shrewsbury, Edinburgh, and Lincoln ; the inclusion of Shrewsbury 
marking the fact that the possession of a bishop's see is no necessary 
mark of a city, for though Shrewsbury was a civitas in Domesday it has 
ne.-er been the seat of a diocesan bishop. Though the volume on Bristol 
by the Rev. W. Hunt in the Historic Towns Series is by no means out of 
date, there is plenty of room for a good and readable account of the city 
and irs history, and that Dr. Harvey has given to us, dealing, as his title 
implies, both with the history and topography of the place. Four chapters 
deal with local history, five with topography, and the remaining three 
with different aspects of city life. It is evident that the scale of the book- 
does not allow of any great amount of minute detail, but the book gives 
in a very interesting form a good account of what Bristol is, and of the 
manner of its growth. It is curious that in one place the writer speaks 
of periods of ■"■ decline " in the history of Bristol ; it is doubtful whether 
there have been such periods. No doubt there have been temporary checks 
to its prosperity, such as those caused by the Black Death or the Reforma- 
tion or the Civil War, but in each case there was a quick recovery, and 
the end of each century has found Bristol more populous than it was at 
the beginning. 

The chapter which deals with the "Origin and Early History" of 
Bristol is commendably short, for though the Clifton camp and the Stoke 
Bishop cromlech, and the Sea Mills enclosure exist on the soil of the 
borough, and must be accounted for, they have no more to do with the 
Bristol whose history the book relates than remains of habitations of 
Indians or Bushmen would have to do with the history of New York or 
Sydney. With regard to the form A bone in the Antonine Itinerary, it is 
simply an ablative formed from Abon, the name of the river— from Abon, 
fciiii. miles ; there does not seem to be any ancient authority for the form 
Abona applied to a Roman station near the site of Bristol at all. The 
forras in the Itinerary are ablatives, from Isca Calleva, from Venta Silurum, 
from Abon, and so forth ; this form of construction does not seem to have 
been sufficiently observed. It might have been mentioned that the 
boundary of Stoke Bishop Tithing, as given in the Charter of Alderman 
Ethelred, 883,1 seems to be the same with the present southern boundary 
of Westbury-on-Trym, so that at that date the northern boundary of the 
estate containing the present site of Bristol must have been the same with 
1 K., CD., cccxiii. ; C.S., 551 ; Transactions, xviii. 301. 



Notices of Publications. 



i8 7 



the northern boundary of the ancient city and the parish of St. James ; 
this seems to be the first appearance of the boundary of Bristol on the 
map of England. It is doubtful whether the use of the term Burgenses 
in Domesday is sufficiently definite to imply the existence of a fortification ; 
there were Burgenses in Wiltshire at Bedwin, Tilshead, and Warminster, 
though we can hardly assume that those places were fortified ; yet so far 
as Bristol is concerned it is more than likely that a place which could 
beat off a plundering body of Irish Danes under the sons of Harold in 
10C9 was protected by some kind of fortress. There is nothing remark- 
able about the Domesday ferm of Bristol, either with regard to its 
amount or form ; in all it amounted to £101 6s. 8d. ; no marks of silver 

(£73 6s - 8d ) to the kin S> and 33 marks of silver (£ 22 ) and one mark of 
gold (£6) to Bishop Geoffrey. Now as this sum is almost identical with 
the sum of the firma unius metis in Somerset, £lo6 for the hundreds of 
Bruton and Frome, and £105 16s. 6|d. for the hundreds of Carhampton, 
Cannington, and Williton, it would seem that the ferm of Barton by 
Bristol was simply a commuted night's ferm, as the estates of Bitton, 
Wapley, and Winterbourne were rated at one night's ferm. The areas of 
the Bitton group and the Barton Manor were about equal. 

It may be noted that the fact that no houses are mentioned in 
Domesday as having been destroyed for a site for the castle shows either 
that it had not then been built or that the ground on which it was built was 
as yet unoccupied. The way in which the Bedminster parishes were taken 
into the Diocese of Bristol is not quite correctly stated on page 130. All 
Bristol south of the Avon was originally both civilly and ecclesiastically 
in Bedminster, the 112 acres of meadow and wood which appear in 
Domesday as belonging to the Bishop of Coutances being probably the 
173 acres of the three parishes south of the river, profitless marsh not 
being reckoned ; for their area was certainly considered to be in Bristol 
at the time of Prince John's Charter a century later. Early in the 
twelfth century Robert, Earl of Gloucester, gave the area which now 
forms Temple Parish to the Templars, and 'as they were a spiritual 
body, the district became a separate ecclesiastical parish as well as an 
independent secular jurisdiction. Later on Henry II. and the Lords 
of Berkeley formed the borough of Redcliff, including the two parishes 
of St. Mary Redcliff and St. Thomas the Martyr, but though this area 
was separated civilly from Bedminster, ecclesiastically it remained 
attached to the mother church, of which the two daughter churches 
continued to be chapels till 1852. In 1542, when the Diocese of Bristol 
was formed, Temple, St. Thomas, and St. Mary's were included in the 
new diocese because they were in the city, as was also the parish of 
Abbot's Leigh, another chapel of Bedminster, probably because it was 
a part of the endowment of the See ; but the mother church of Bedminster 



i88 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



remained in the Diocese of Bath and Wells, and a single institution at 
Wells admitted to the whole benefice. In 1836 the Sees of Gloucester 
and Bristol were united, and on July 19th, 1837, the parish of Bedminster 
was joined to the new diocese; finally, in 1852, the three ancient chapels 
of Bedminster were formed by Order of Council into independent parishes. 

With regard to the fabric of St. Mary Redcliff, it is unfortunate that 
Dr. Harvey, on pages 52 and 186, should attribute any part of the building 
to the elder William Canynges ; there is really no evidence at all for 
connecting him with St Mary's, the entry in Ricart's Kalendar relating 
to the building "from the cross-aisle downwards" is in seventeenth- 
century handwriting, and Canynges himself was buried in the Lady Chapel 
of St. Thomas the Martyr. With regard to the cathedral, it was far from 
being the case that the naves of all Austin Canons' churches were parochial. 
They were so at Bolton, Dunstaple, Lanercost, St. German's, and Worksop, 
but they were certainly not so at Bristol or Keynsham ; a passage on 
page 124 should be revised. It might have been well to explain that 
Bishop Butler was buried in Bristol Cathedral because he died at Bath, 
far from his See at Durham. On page 71 it should be noted that Tyndall's 
Park is to the north-east, not north-west of Brandon Hill, and on page 171 
that Sir Thomas Berkeley, who died in 1361, was of Uley, in Gloucester- 
shire, not of Ubley, in Somerset. With regard to the-castle mentioned 
on page 96, which according to the sixteenth-century writer, Stow, was 
built by Edward the Elder at Avonmouth in 915, it is likely that the 
statement grew cut of a misunderstanding of a passage in the Worcester 
Chronicle for that year : - The king had arranged that his men sat down 
against them on the south side of the Severn shore, on the west from 
Cornwall, east to Avonmouth, so that they durst not attempt to land 
anywhere on that side." The king guarded the coast carefully against 
the Danes, and it is likely enough that he set up some fortresses, but the 
chronicler does not say that he did so, and in the contemporary list of 
West Saxon fortresses there is no mention of Avonmouth, or of any name 
which could apply to the spot. 

It is an encouraging sign of the times that there seems to be a steady 
demand for interesting and well-written books on the history of our old 
boroughs ; such a book Dr. Harvey has given to us, it affords a good 
general account of the history of the city and its site, and will serve as an 
useful introduction to more serious study. There is a satisfactory index 
and an Itinerary pointing out the means of access to the points of chief 
interest. Finally, Mr. E. H. New has contributed a number of really 
helpful sketches, and also a plan of the city, though with regard to the 
latter it should be noted that the Hospital of St. John in Redcliff Pit was 
not a house of Austin Friars. 



Notices of Publications. 



189 



•GLOUCESTER IN NATIONAL HISTORY. By F. A. Hyett, B A. 
Gloucester : John Bellows. MCMVI. 

Mr. Hyett has very wisely extended the scope of his book, and has made 
it not simply a history of the borough of Gloucester, but rather an account 
of the place which Gloucester has occupied in national history. He has 
done well, for though Gloucester was a colonia in Roman times, and the 
seat of Mercian Government under Ethelred and Ethelflsed, all that is 
really known about British or Roman or Anglo-Saxon Gloucester itself, 
apart from what may be guessed from the analogy of other places, is little 
indeed. The place was not even incorporated till 14S3, though it had 
returned members to the House of Commons since 1295, and was styled 
civitas in a document of 1022 1 and in Domesday. But if the range of 
view is widened to take in the incidents of history which have centred in 
Gloucester, there is material for a most interesting story. A colony in 
one of the most flourishing districts in Roman Britain ; the seat of one of 
the earliest Christian churches in the district in Anglo-Saxon times and 
of one of the most beautiful and wealthy of English abbeys even till the 
Reformation ; one of the border boroughs from which the Welsh were 
kept in check, and the lowest point at which the Severn can be crossed 
by foot and horse traffic even to the present day ; the fortress which by 
its resistance to Queen Margaret in 1471 and Charles I. in 1643 did much 
to turn the course of English history ; the birthplace of Domesday Book 
and the burial-place of Edward II., will provide a tale that is well worth 
the telling. 

Mr. Hyett treats his history by subjects rather than chronologically, 
with chapters for Roman, Saxon, and Norman Gloucester; Milo of 
Hereford, the thirteenth century, and kings and Parliaments in 
Gloucester; Gloucester during the Civil War, the Methodist Revival, 
Municipal and Ecclesiastical Gloucester ; and there is no doubt that since 
Gloucester itself is for the most part the setting of the history rather than 
its subject, this is the best arrangement. Beyond the fact that Gloucester 
was already Roman in a.d. 50, that it was a colony, and that its name was 
much what it is now, very little is known about Roman Gloucester, which 
became Saxon after the battle of Dyrham in 577. Owing to the old 
English distaste for town life, it is quite likely that both Bath and 
Gloucester remained desolate till the foundation of their minsters by 
Osric a century later ; certainly the names Bath-wick, -hampton, -easton, 
-ford, North- and South-stoke look like English colonisation from a centre. 
If the Danes could have held Gloucester after 878 it would have gone 
badly with Southern Mercia, but in fact they had overrun more than they 
-could hold, a fact which was convincingly brought home to them by their 
1 K,, CD., mcccxvii. 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



defeat at Ethandune later in the year. The palmy age of Saxon- 
Gloucester lay in the days of Alderman Ethelred and his wife Ethelfla?d, 
the Lady of the Mercians, 880-918. In the later Danish wars Oxford 
appears as the chief Mercian borough, and Gloucester does not again 
acquire importance till the time of the wars with the Welsh in the days 
of the Confessor, and the days when the Conqueror wore his crown in 
Mercian Gloucester at Christmas, as he wore it at West Saxon Winchester 
at Easter, and at Westminster by the great merchant borough which had 
become the capital of all the English at Pentecost. Indeed, in the reigns 
of William the Conqueror and Rufus Gloucester was as near as any other 
place to being the centre of government of the realm ; there Domesday Book 
was devised and St. Anselm was called to the Primacy. It can hardly, 
however, be truly said that Archbishop William, of Corbeuil, who was 
elected at Gloucester in 1122, left the church in a stronger position than 
he found it ; because by his acceptance of the office of legate he made the 
Primate a dependant of the Pope and prepared the way for numberless 
difficulties in later yearst During the wars in the reign of Stephen, owing 
to the support which was given to the Empress Maud by the Earl of 
Gloucester at Bristol and Earl Milo at Gloucester, Gloucestershire was 
the chief centre of her cause, and right down to the close of the 
Plantagenet period Parliaments were held there and royal visits were 
not infrequent. 

The siege of Gloucester during the rebellion was a consequence 
of its position on the Severn, commanding the passage of the river ; for 
the Welsh forces refused to cross the Severn till the city had been taken, 
and the king was in urgent need of their help. The story of the siege 
and of the subsequent ingratitude of the Parliament is well told, and two 
things appear very clearly— first, that Gloucester was saved through the 
superior generalship of its commander, Colonel Massey ; and, secondly, 
the very small amount of influence which the towns have exercised on the 
opinion of the nation. In the very month in which the siege of Gloucester 
was raised all the most important positions in the shire except the county 
town were garrisoned by Royalists. 

Gloucester contributed to the Methodist Revival George Whitefield, 
and Robert Raikes, one of the originators of Sunday Schools and the 
man who probably did more than any other to popularise their use. 
Whitefield, who was descended from Gloucestershire clergymen, was 
ordained when under the canonical age by the Bishop of Gloucester ; it 
is likely that this premature ordination was a mistake, and that a further 
year and a half of training for Holy Orders would have been most truly 
helpful. The almost universal testimony of his contemporaries, learned 
and unlearned, rich and poor, goes far to justify Mr. Hyett's judgment that 
"Whitefield was probably the greatest pulpit orator that the English 



Notices of Publications. 191 

Church has ever produced " ; but when the Church of England is blamed 
because he was detached from her communion it must be remembered, 
both with regard to Whitefield and John Wesley, that whether their 
principles and teaching were in accordance with those of the Church or 
not, their practice was distinctly separatist, and could only end in 
separation. Sunday Schools did not, of course, begin to exist in July, 
1780, when one was opened in the parish of St. John, Gloucester, by 
Mr. Raikes and the Rev. Thomas Stock, curate of the parish, but as 
Mr. Raikes, from 1783 onwards, constantly spoke of the good which his 
schools were doing in his newspaper, the Gloucester Journal, the system 
became known and spread very widely and rapidly through his agency. 

It is curious that in his chapter on " Municipal Gloucester " Mr. Hyett 
does not mention the title civ Has, applied to the place in the charter of 
1022, and its prafectus, whose name appears in the form Ibihiside ; the 
charter is passed by Kemble, and there seems to be no good reason for 
rejecting it. In Domesday Book Gloucester is described by an almost 
bewildering variety of titles; on a single page it is called civitas, burgus, 
villa, burgus civitatis, 1 but it is doubtful whether the designations either 
of 1022 or of 10S6 tell us anything definite about the local constitution of 
the town. It is worth noticing that Gloucestershire and Lincolnshire are 
the only two Mercian shires in which two county boroughs appear, 
Winchcombe and Stamford taking their places with the capital towns. 
Stamford no doubt retaining a part of the dignity which pertained to the 
five burns of the Northmen, and Winchcombe having been a military 
centre in earlier days. Municipally, Gloucester profited by being a royal 
borough, for though the king had long hands, he was a long way off, and 
would be less difficult to deal with in matters of local independence than 
a prelate or a secular potentate on the spot; it is really remarkable that 
Gloucester had to wait for incorporation until 1483. The charter of incor- 
poration was in some respects rather a narrovf one, for it compelled the two 
bailiffs to go to London to take their oath of office before the Lord Mayor. 
Gloucester does not seem to have been very prosperous at this time, and 
in 1555 a note of the poverty which followed on the dissolution of the 
religious houses is found in the purchase of cords and whips for whipping 
vagabonds. It is curious that the Cotswold wool trade does not seem to 
have helped Gloucester commercially, probably because Bristol formed 
a more convenient seaport for the traffic. 

Ecclesiastically, the history of Gloucester from the beginnings of 
Hwiccian Christianity to the Dissolution was bound up with St. Peter's 
Abbey, for though the abbots seem never to have possessed any jurisdic- 
tion over the town, tlie other religious houses in or near the town were 
mostly of late date and were comparatively small. Happily the abbey 

1 D. B., f. 162. 



ig2 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



church was spared at the Dissolution. Mr. Hyett is doubtful concerning 
the action which was taken by the last abbot, William Parker. It is 
certain that he took no part in the surrender of the house, and it is certain 
also from expressions in a letter from the commissioners appointed to 
receive surrenders, dated two days after the actual surrender of the house, 
that difficulties had arisen, and that it had not yet been determined into 
whose care the property of the dissolved abbey should be committed. 1 
This would rather tend to show that the abbot refused to have anything 
to do with the surrender. 

Mr. Hyett has given us a very accurate and well-written account of 
our county town, and we may surely trust that our Society is doing well 
at any rate a portion of the work for which it was founded when we find 
that two members of our Council have written really good and trustworthy 
histories of the cities in our district. There is a full list of authorities at 
the head of each chapter, with a good and well-arranged index, also a 
plan of the city in 1610, and some illustrations of the seals of the borough. 



THE MANOR AND MANORIAL RECORDS. By Nathan. el J. 

Hone. London : Methuen & Co. 1906. 
This is one of the very useful series of "Antiquary's Books" which 
Messrs. Methuen are publishing, and it is assumed that an "Antiquary" 
understands the nature of a manor, and of its working, and of the relations 
of the men living upon it one to another ; the book therefore begins with a 
chapter on the "Origin of the Manor." But it would have been more 
helpful to a large class of readers if there had been a preliminary chapter 
on the " Nature of a Manor." Knowledge of manorial matters is know- 
ledge of a very technical kind, and it is never wise to assume an elementary 
knowledge of technical matters. A reader who approached the book with 
an open and uninformed mind might indeed learn from it most of what he 
wanted to know, but his task would have been much simplified, and the 
method of his learning would be much more intelligent, if there had been 
a short preliminary chapter of the kind indicated. 

But taking the book as it is, it consists, as its title implies, of two parts 
one concerning the manor, the other relating to manorial records; and 
of two appendices, one containing a list of Court Rolls in various deposi- 
tories, the other consisting of notes on miscellaneous subjects. In' the 
chapter on the " Origin of the Manor," after mentioning various theories 
which have been held on the subject, Mr. Hone concludes that at some 
unknown time and in some unknown way the seignorial element was super- 
1 Suppression of the Monasteries, 238 ; Dugdale, Monasticon, v. 689. 



Notices of Publications. 



x 93 



imposed upon original free communities. Two things are clear, first that 
we find an estate with a lord and subjects as the essential form of property 
as far back as we can get in Old English law and history, and then that 
this elementary condition was not immediately altered by the Norman 
Conquest. The estate which we find described in Domesday Book as 
containing so many hides, and worth so much T.R.W., is essentially the 
same thing as it had been T.R.E. The chapters which follow, first on 
the men of the manor and their homes-the lord, the house and estate, 
the dwellers, officers and servants, and then concerning the life of the 
manor, the work and recreation of the manor, rights of common and 
enclosure, fairs and markets, royal and church manors, are all well put 
together and full of information, and between them they cover the whole 
subject so far as a book of this kind can be expected to cover it. The 
chapter on the manorial hall and estate is especially interesting, as the 
subject is illustrated by a number of plans and views of old manor houses 
and of the various rooms comprised in them, which remind us of the 
beautiful manor houses visited during our last summer meeting. The 
description of the officers and servants of the manor is taken from a 
treatise on husbandry by Walter de Henley, who wrote it about 1250; 
and the chapter on the work and recreation of the manor gives an account 
of the routine of the field-work of the estate throughout the year, illustrated 
by pictures taken from a fourteenth-century Shepherd's Calendar in the 
British Museum. As the work of the manor was well defined and 
regularly required, so its recreations were marked out with equal 
exactness; besides the Sundays, the festivals of the church during 
which no work was done amounted to fully six weeks in the year. 
Furthermore, it was due from the lord that he should provide certain 
refreshments during work-time and certain feastings at holiday times 
during the year. At Banwell in 1447 the reeve accounted for "a custom 
called gestns viUanamm at Christmas, 51s. ^d." ; a Christmas " gest " or 
revel costing some £50 of our money would provide good fare for the 
servants even of a manor extending over 5,000 acres. Other recreations 
there were such as unlicensed shooting or fishing, which ended much as 
they end now, in appearance before the manor court and the infliction of 
fines. It would seem that the most highly privileged tenants were those 
on the ancient estates of the Crown, and that tenants on church land 
were generally better off than those on the properties of lay owners. The 
subject of enclosures is well and carefully treated. It is evident that any 
enclosure of the land of the manor in addition to that which rightly 
pertained to the lord's court was an invasion of the rights of the tenants of 
the manor, by diminishing the area available for the pasture of their 
beasts ; it wab, in fact, an ignoring of their customary right of pasture 
over the portion enclosed—the tenants lost what the lord gained. These 
• 14 

Vol. XXIX. 



194 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



invasions began early. By the Statute of Merton (1236) the lord was 

allowed to enclose the waste, provided sufficient pasture was left for the 

tenants ; this was, of course, a distinct robbery of the poor by the rich. 

The Black Death and the Wars of the Roses in different ways hastened 

the process of enclosure, which by the reign of Henry VII. had become a 

pressing evil. Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, had license to 

impark 1,000 acres at Thornbury in 1510. Leland tells how " the Duke 

of Buckingham made a fair park, hard by the castle, and took much fair 

ground in, very fruitful of corn, now fair lands for coursing. The 

inhabitants cursed the Duke for those lands so enclosed." 1 The curse 

that was not causeless came home, and the Duke lost his head in 1521. 

The enclosures were increased by the dissolution of the religious houses, 

and there is no doubt that they were the cause of much of the beggary 

that followed on the Reformation. Mr. Hone quotes a very striking 

passage from Aubrey's "Collections" on Wiltshire, written about 1660, 

wherein, after saying that the enclosures were still going on, he concludes : 

There were no rates for the poor, even in my grandfather's days : but at 

Kingston St. Michael (no small parish) the Church Ale at Whitsuntide 

did their business. Since the Reformation and enclosures aforesaid these 

parts have swarmed with poor people." 

With regard to the second portion of the book on "Manorial Records," 

there is an excellent collection of documents exemplifying the processes of 

the manor courts and the nature of their working, but there is no clear 

account of the constitution of the courts themselves. This is a weak point 

in the book. It is as though a writer should give a good technical account 

of the construction of a steam engine and its uses, and should neglect to 

explain how the steam is raised. What is needed is a chapter on the 

"Nature of the Court," explaining the differences between Courts Baron, 

Courts Leet, and Courts Christian, and what were the constitution and 

functions of each kind of court. This is a piece of elementary knowledge 

which is absolutely necessary for understanding the subject, but which it 

would be very difficult to gather from the book itself. The procedure of the 

Court Baron is illustrated by a translation of a thirteenth-century treatise 

on the subject, which gives instances of the various kinds of cases which 

might come before the court and the method of dealing with them ; while the 

copious extracts from Court Rolls, Account Rolls, Extents and Custumals, 

will be most helpful to those who are entering on the study of the subject. 

There are some most useful lists of Court Rolls in various depositories :— 

1. Public Record Office. (A) Roils belonging to the Ecclesiastical 

Commissioners, whose permission is needed for their inspection. 

{B) Rolls belonging to the Land Revenue Office. 

1 Transactions xiv. 262. There was also a park at Eastwood of a mile or more 
concerning which Leland says that the Duke "twice enlarged i to he compass of sfx 
miles, not without many curses of the poor tenants." compass 01 six 



Notices of Publications. 



195 



2. The British Museum. Arranged under counties. 

3. Lambeth Palace. Especially rich in Roils relating to Kent and 

Somerset. With regard to the latter county, no doubt because 
Bishops of Bath and Wells who were promoted to the arch- 
bishopric took the Rolls with them. 

4. Bodleian Library. Arranged under counties. Some Rolls, how- 

ever, relating to Bibury, Arlington, and Turkdean for the 5th, 
gtb, and 15th of Henry VII. will be found with Oxfordshire 
documents referring to Hook Norton. 
These are followed by a list of Manor Courts with testamentary jurisdic- 
tion, containing the names of about forty such courts, with the dates of 
the earliest wills and their present place of deposit. It is likely, however, 
that this list is very imperfect, and that there were very many more 
Testamentary Courts attached to Peculiars. No mention is made, for 
instance, of the Peculiar Court of Ban well, which held jurisdiction over 
that parish, Churchill, and Puxton, till about forty years ago, attached 
before the Reformation to the Priory of Bruton, and since to the Dean and 
Chapter of Bristol ; the wills are in the registry at Wells. There is also a 
copious bibliography of manorial literature, and the book is provided with 
an excellent index. 



THE HOUSE OF MARTIN. By W. G. Willis Watson. Exeter: 

William Pollard. 1906. 
The attention of Mr. Watson was called to the Martin family by a coat of 
arms in Crewkerne Church, with a monkey contemplating himself in a 
mirror as a crest, and he has evidently expended a very great amount of 
time and trouble on the subject of his choice. The Martin family held 
little or no land in our district, but for many centuries they were large 
landowners in Somerset and Devon, where they have left their mark on 
Compton Martin and Combe Martin to this day. Their capital manor in 
Somerset was Blagdon, which at the date of Domesday was held by Serlo 
de Burci; and Dartington, held in 1086 by William de Faleise, was their 
chief estate in Devon. William de Faleise married a daughter of Serlo de 
Burci, and it was no doubt by this marriage that the two groups of estates 
were united. He received Woodspring (Worsprinca) with her as her 
portion. All this appears clearly on the face of Domesday, and then we 
plunge into the dark. There is an interesting passage on the devolution 
of the Faleise estates in Eyton's Domesday Studies of Somerset, vol. i., p. 63, 
but it throws no light on the manner in which they passed to the Martins. 
Robert FitzMartin, however, entered into possession of the combined 

14 A 



r 9 6 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

group cf estates in the reign of Henry I , and as the Martins do not appear 
among the families mentioned by Mr. Eyton as connected with Sibil de 
Faleise, it seems likely that the properties came to him otherwise than by 
descent Woodspring belonged in 12 10 to William de Courtenay, who 
placed a priory of Austin Canons there in that year, the Courtenays being 
among the families noted by Mr. Eyton. The Martins, however, came to 
stay; they held their estates till 1326, when the properties were scattered 
by marriages of coheiresses. The only point at which the Martins touched 
the history of our district lies in a gift to St. Augustine's, Bristol, by 
William, son of Robert FitzMartin, of a messuage with two crofts, ten 
acres of land, and common of pasture in Blagdon. 1 It is likely that this 
gift is now represented by the little Mendip parish of Rowberrow. 
William FitzMartin lived in the reign of Henry II. Rowberrow does not 
appear in Domesday, and by Somerset antiquaries it has usually been 
connected with the Glastonbury estate of Burrington, but Rowberrow 
shows no Glastonbury affinities, and was always connected with St. Augus- 
tine's. Care should be taken to set aside all references to the Cheddar and 
Wells property of Rowbarrow Farm by Priddy. Rowberrow does not 
appear by name before the date of William FitzMartin's gift, and no 
St Augustine's property can be traced in Blagdon after that time, so that 
there can be little doubt that the gift is represented by the parish of 
Rowberrow. 

After the extinction of the elder line of the Martins the interest of the 
family passes from our neighbourhood, though until the reign of Charles I. 
its members continued to be large landowners, and to hold positions of 
dignity and influence in Somerset and Devon. The book contains a great 
deal of very interesting family history, and is likely to be of real value to 
those who are interested in Devon and Somerset. It concludes with a 
series of carefully compiled pedigrees and a satisfactory index. 



SOMERSETSHIRE PARISHES : A Handbook of Historical Reference 
to all places in the County. By Arthur E. Humphreys. London : 
187 Piccadilly. 1905. 

This is a very valuable collection of the dry bones of history, and is 
considered by its compiler to contain about 25,000 to 30 000 references 
to Somersetshire history, arranged alphabetically under Parishes, Hamlets, 
Ti things, &c. Mr. Humphreys had prepared the way for this work by 
publishing some nine years a list of worthies, unworthies, and villains born 

Dugdale, Mon., vi. 366 



Notices of Publications. 



197 



in the county, and he had collected a very large number of references to 
persons and places, when at last he determined to reduce them to order, to 
arrange them under parishes, and to publish the result. 

Under the heading of each parish or place there appears first any 
general reference to its history, ignoring naturally such obvious sources 
of information as county histories and the proceedings of county societies. 
Then there follow the particulars of registers, both Church and Noncon- 
formist, drawn from the Government returns of 1833 and 1838 ; these are 
most valuable, and will show whether any of these precious parochial 
documents have been lost in the last seventy years. Then are given in 
order references to court rolls, accounts, awards, and proceedings in 
actions relating to the place, with a section relating to manorial matters, 
and another relating to the church and its history. There is usually a 
very full biographical section, which as it includes references from Calamy 
and the Tucker records, will be useful in illustration of the rise of 
Nonconformity in the district. Finally, there is a most useful collection 
of references to wills. With regard to Banwell, which is a fair example 
of a large country parish, there are about 100 references, of which 17 are 
biographical, and 54 are to wills. The principles on which the biographical 
section is drawn up do not seem to be clear. The registers of Eton 
College and Harrow and Merchant Taylors' Schools have been collated, 
but no such use has been made of University registers, which would have 
.been much more useful ; the choice of schools too is strange, Winchester 
and Westminster would have been of much more value, at least until the 
middle of the nineteenth century, for no large proportion of the names 
from the two selected schools is of much interest. 

The work will be invaluable to all those who are engaged on the history 
of Somersetshire parishes, not only in consequence of the information that 
is actually given, but also as suggesting lines of inquiry which it would be 
well to follow. The information concerning wills is likely to be most 
helpful in this direction. Of course in a work covering so large an area, 
and drawing information from so many sources, there will be some slips. 
For instance, the reference to " Coal Mines within the Manor of Benwell " 
no doubt really applies to the Northumbrian Benwell, and not to any parish 
in Somerset ; but generally the book seems to be a very careful compila^ 
tion, at any rate there are very few misprints. Possibly some one of our 
members with a good many years of life before him would like to under- 
take a similar work for Gloucestershire. 



BRISTOL LIBRARY. 

FOUNDED 1904. 

A List of the Books presented by Members of this Society to 
found a Reference Library at the Society s Bristol Room at the 
Literary and Philosophic Club, 20 Berkeley Square, Clifton. 

These books are kept for reference only. 

Any Member, whether lady or gentleman, can use the Society's 

Room by obtaining the key from the Steward of the Club, which 
must be returned after use. 

Further Gifts are required to make the Library more useful, 
and works on Architecture, Monumental Brasses, Church Bells, 
Costume, Fonts, Coloured Glass, County and General Histories, 
Medieval Tiles, &c, will be welcomed. 

These should be addressed to John E. Pritchard, Hon. Secretary 
for Bristol, as above. 

LIST OF BOOKS. 

From the Author, 
A History of Banking in Bristol. By Charles H. Cave, B.A. 
(Privately printed.) Large paper. Bristol, 1899. 

From the Author. 

Bristol— Historical and Topographical. By Alfred Harvey, 
M.B. 8vo. London, 1906. 

From the Author. 
Effigies of Bristol. Parts I. and II. in one vol. By I. M. 
Roper. (Reprints from the B. and G. Trans., vols. xxvi. 
and xxvii.) 

From the Author. 

The Bristol Royal Mail. By R. C. Tombs, I.S.O. 8vo. 
(No date.) 

The King's Post. By R. C. Tombs, I.S.O. 8vo. Bristol, 
1905. 



Bristol Library. 



i99 



From the Author. 

Pleas of the Crown for the Hundred of Swineshead and the 
Township of Bristol, taken at Bristol a.d. 1221. By 
Edward j. Watson, F.R.Hist.S. Royal 8vo. Bristol, 
1902. 

From the Author. 
Historic Bristol. By Charles Wells, F.J.I, 8vo. Bristol, 1902. 

From the Author. 

Somerset Mediaeval Libraries. By Thomas Webb Williams. 
8vOo Paper covers. Bristol, 1897. 

Monastic Orders in Somerset. By Thomas Webb Williams. 
8vo pamphlet. Bristol, 1902. 

From ]. W. Arrowsmith. 

The History of the Society of Merchant Venturers of the 
City of Bristol. By John Latimer. Imp. 8vo. Bristol, 
1903. 

Bristol, Past and Present. By J. F. Nicholls, F.S.A., and 
John Taylor. 3 vols, in 1. 4to. Bristol, 1881-2. 

From G, E. Blood. 

Mediaeval Military Architecture in England. By Geo. T. 
Clark. 2 vols. 8vo. London, 1884. 

From Herbert Bolton. 

Moko, or Maori Tatooing. By Major-General Robley. 4to. 
London, 1896. 

From Charles E. Boucher. 

A Popular Flistory of Bristol. By George Pryce, F.S.A. 
8vo. Bristol, 1861. 

Bristol and its Environs. 8vo. Bristol, 1875. 

" Reprint " of Bristol Directory, 1794. 

From J. B. C. Burroughs. 

A Chronological Outline of the History of Bristol. By 
John Evans. 8vo. Bristol, 1824. 

From R. H. Carpenter. 

Notes on the Old Crosses of Gloucestershire. By Charles 
Pooley, F.S.A. Imp. 8vo. London, 1868. 



2oo Transactions for the Year 1906. 

From Sir Charles D. CavT, Bart. 
Illustrations of the Remains of Roman Art in Cirencester. 
By Professor Buckman, F.L.S., F.A.S., and C. H. 
Newmarch. 4to. London, 1850. 

Roman Antiquities at Lydney Park, Gloucestershire. By 
Rev. W. H. Bathurst, M.A. With Notes by C. W. 
King, M.A. Imp. 8vo. London, 1879. 

Old English Plate. By Wilfred J. Cripps, C.B., F.S.A. 
Eighth Edition. 8vo. London, 1903. 

From J. Fuller Eberle. 
Annals of Bristol in the Eighteenth Century. By John 
Latimer. 8vo. Bristol, 1893. 

From H. L . Evans. 
Annals of Bristol in the Seventeenth Century. By John 
Latimer. 8vo. Bristol, 1900. 

From Francis F. Fox. 

The Little Red Book of Bristol. Edited by Francis B. 

Bickley. 2 vols. 4T0. Bristol, 1900. 
Shiercliff's Bristol and Hotwells Guide. 8vo. Bristol, 1789. 
A Book about Bristol. By John Taylor. 8vo. Bristol, 1872. 
Archaeological Handbook of the County of Gloucester. By 

G. B. Witts, C.E. 1 vol. 8vo. Cheltenham; and 

large map. (1883). 

From Claude B. Fry. 
Ancient Stone Implements of Great Britain. By Sir John 
Evans, K.C.B. Second Edition. Svo. London, 1897. 
The Maire of Bristowe is Kalendar. By Robert Ricart. 
Edited by Lucy Toulmin Smith. (Camden Society, 
1872.) Small 4to. 

The Sieges of Bristol during the Civil War. By a Fellow 
of the Queen's College in Oxford (R. Robinson). 
8vo. Bristol, 1868. 

Numismatic. Chronicle. Fourth Series. Vols. I., II., III., 
and IV. Svo. 1902-5. (In progress.) 

From Dr. Fryer. 

Ancient Baptismal Fonts. By F. Simpson, jun. Imp. Svo. 

182S. 

From C. W. George. 
The History and Antiquities of the City of Bristol. By 
William Barrett, F.S.A. 4 to. Bristol, 1789. 



Bristol Library. 



201 



From Dr. Alfred Harvey. 
Manual of Gloucestershire Literature. By F. A. Hyett, B.A., 
and Rev. W. Bazeley, M.A. 3 vols. 8vo, cloth. 
Gloucester, 1895-7. 

From H. M. H eve path. 
The Bristol and Hotwell Guide. By E. Shiercliff. Fourth 

Edition. Bristol (1809). 
The Picture of Bristol. By Rev. John Evans. Second 

Edition. Bristol, 1818. 

From J. H. Howell. 
English Archaeologist's Handbook. By Henry Godwin, 

F.S.A. 8vo. Oxford, 1867. 
Some Account of the Oldest Plans of Bristol. By William 

George. 4-to. Bristol, 1881. 

From E. T. Morgan. 
Chilcott's Descriptive History of Bristol. 8vo. Seventh 
Edition. Bristol, 1846. 

From W. S. Moxley. 
The Visitation ol the County of Gloucester in 1623. Edited 
by Sir John Maclean and W. C. Heane. London, 1885. 
(Harleian Society, vol. xxi.) 

From Arthur W. Page. 
Annals of Bristol in the Nineteenth Century. By John 
Latimer. 8vo. Bristol, 1887. 

From Miss Alice Pavey. 
An Introduction to Heraldry. By Hugh Clark. 8vo. 
London, 1899. 

Arms and Armour. By Charles Boutell, M.A. 8vo. 
London, 1893. 

From John E. Pritchard. 
Delineations of the North-west Division of the County of 

Somerset. By John Rutter. 8vo. Shaftesbury, 1829. 
The Reliquary and Illustrated Archaeologist. 4-to. Vols. I. 

to VI. 1895 — 1900. 
The Coin Collector's Manual. By H. Noel Humphreys. 

2 vols. 8vo. London, 1887. 
Coins and Medals. Edited by Stanley Lane-Poole. 8vo. 

London, 1894. 

The Anglo-Saxon Home. By John Thrupp. Royal 8vo. 
London, 1862. 



202 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

From J. J. Simpson. 
Antiquarian Essays. By John Taylor. Printed by Sub- 
scription. 8vo. Bristol, 1895. 

From J. Hudson Smith. 

Notes on the Middle Ages in Bristol. By George Pryce. 
Bristol, 1850. 

Bristol (Historic Town Series). By William Hunt. 8vo. 
London, 1895. 

Fairford Graves. By W. M. Wylie, B.A. 4 to. Oxford, 
1852. 

From E. J. Swann. 
The History of Bristol, Civil and Ecclesiastical. Vol. I. 

by John Corry ; Vol. II. by Rev. John Evans. 2 vols. 

8vo. Bristol, 1816. 
Collections for a Parochial History of Chew Magna. By 

Frederick A. Wood. 8vo, paper covers as issued. 

(Privately printed.) Bristol, 1903. 

From Rev. Charles S. Taylov. 
Memoirs Historical and Topographical of Bristol. By 

Rev. Samuel Seyer, M.A. 2 vols. 4to. 1821. 
An Historical and Architectural Essay on Redcliffe Church. 

By J. Britton, F.S.A. Imp. 8vo. London, 1843. 

From Mrs. Thompson. 
Glossary of Terms used in Grecian, Roman, Italian and 
Gothic Architecture. Third Edition. Oxford, 1840-1. 
Part I., Text; Part II., Plates; Part III., Companion. 

From H. C. Thurston. 

The Charters of Bristol. By the Rev. Samuel Seyer, M.A. 
4to. Bristol, 1812. 

Various Acts of Parliament relating to Bristol from 
George II. to George IV. 1730— 1828. 

From Francis Fox Tuckett. 
Journal of the Royal Archaeological Institute, from the 
commencement in 1845 to 1879. 36 vols. 8vo, half 
calf. Also Parts Nos. 145, 146, 147, for 1880. 
Proceedings at Annual Meetings. The Special Volumes:— 
Winchester in 1845. 8vo, cloth. 
York „ l84 6. „ „ 

Norwich „ 1847. 
Lincoln „ 1848. 
Salisbury „ 1849. 
Bristol „ 1851. 



Bristol Library. 



203 



Gloucestershire Notes and Queries— 

Vols. I., II., III., IV., V., VI. 8vo, half calf. 
Vols. VIII. and IX. in 1 vol. 8vo, half calf. 
Vol. X., Parts 85 and 86. (In progress.) 
Abstracts of Gloucestershire Inquisitiones Post Mortem 

(Charles I.). Vols. I. and III. and sundry parts. 
Monumental Brasses of Gloucestershire. By Cecil T. Davis. 

8vo, half calf. 1899. 
Proceedings of the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural 

History Society, from the commencement in 1849 to 

1904. 23 vols. 8vo, half calf. (In progress.) 
The Flora of Somerset. By R. P. Murray, M.A., F.L.S. 

8vo, half calf. 1896. 
Somerset and Dorset Notes and Queries, from the com- 
mencement in 1888 to 1903. 8 vols. 8vo, half calf. 

And 6 parts. (In progress.) 
Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine, 

from the commencement in 1854 to 1904. 33 vols. 8vo, 

half morocco. (In progress.) . . 

Wiltshire Inquisitiones Post Mortem, Charles I. 8vo, half 

morocco. 1901. 
Wiltshire Inquisitiones from the reign of Henry III. 

Parts I. to IV. 1902-5. 
\ Catalogue of Antiquities in the Museum at Devizes, " Stour- 

head" Collection. Part I. 8vo. 1896. Pamphlet. 
Catalogue of Drawings, Prints, and Maps in Library at 

Devizes. Svo. 1898. Pamphlet. 
Additions to Library at Devizes. Appendix II., 1897, and 

III., 1899. Pamphlets. 
History of the English People. By J. R. Green. 8vo, 

cloth. 1875. 

Description of Greece. By Pansanius. 3 vols. 8vo, cloth. 
1824. 

The Antiquary, from Vols. I. to XL. 4to, half roxburgh. 

London, 1880 to 1904. (In progress.) 
Records of Gloucester Cathedral. Vols. I. and II., and III., 

Part L 8vo. 1882-97. 

From R. Hall Warren. 
English Monastic Life. By Abbot Gasquet, O.S.B., D.D., 
&e. Svo. London, 1904. 

From Edward J. Watson. 
The Martin Family. By W. G. Willis Watson. Royal 8vo. 
Exeter, 1906. 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



From Charles Wells. 
Bristol Lists. By Rev. Alfred B. Beaven, M A. Bristol, 
1899. 

From Francis Were. 
A Display of Heraldrie. By John Guillim. Fourth Edition. 
Small folio. London, 1660. 

From Charles Wintle. 
A Synopsis of Heraldry. 1 21110. London, 1682. 

From H. Mant Worsley. 
Science of Heraldry in England. By James Dallaway, A.M., 
F.S.A. Large 4to. Gloucester, 1793. 

Publications of the Society deposited in the Library. 
The Transactions from 1876. Vols. 1. to XXVIII. (In progress.) 
Index to Transactions. Vols. I. to XX. 

The Lives of the Berkeleys from 1060 to 1618. 2 vols. 4to. 
1883. 

The Hundred of Berkeley. By John Smyth, of Nibley. 

Edited by Sir John Maclean, F.S.A. 1 vol. 4to. 1885. 
Abstracts of the Great Orphan Book and Book of Wills in 

the Council Flouse, Bristol. Bv the Rev. T. P. Wadley, 

M.A. 8vo. .1886. 
An Analysis of the Domesdav Survey of Gloucestershire. 

By the Rev. Charles S. Taylor, M.A. 8vo. 1889. 
The Cartulary of the Abbey of Winchcombe in the County 

of Gloucester. Edited by the late David Royce, M.A. 

2 vols. Imp. 8vo. 1892 — 1903. 
Church Plate of Gloucestershire. Edited by Rev. J. T. 

Evans. Royal 8vo. 1906. 

Society's purchase. 
Rudder (Samuel). History of Gloucestershire. Folio. 
Cirencester, 1779. 



Drawing, from the Artist. 
Water-colour Drawing of the " Stag and Hounds," Old 
Market Street, Bristol, the site of the ancient Pie 
Poudre Court, by F. A. W. T. Armstrong, R.B.A. 



November, 1906. 



ON EARLY AND MEDIEVAL LIBRARIES 
AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE BOOKROOM AND 
THE BOOKCASE. 1 



By T. W. WILLIAMS. 

It is well to consider at the outset the meanings of the term 
" Library," for this apparently simple word is used in several 
senses. The definitions given in the New English Dictionary 
include amongst others : " (i) A place set apart to contain 
books for reading, study or reference : (a) applied to a room in 
a house, &c, also a bookcase, quoting from an inventory of 
the goods in the church of St. Christopher-le-Stocks made in 
1488, 1 On the south side of the vestrarie standeth a grete 
Tibrarie with ii longe lecturnalles thereon to lay on the books ' 
(Archczologia, xlv. 120) ; (b) A building, room,, or set of rooms, 
containing a collection of books for the use of the public, or 
of the members of some society or the like. (2) The books 
contained in a library (sense 1) ; a large collection of books, 
public or private. Johnson." 

With the other meanings we are not concerned now, the 
object of this paper being to set out some of the steps in the 
evolution of the room or building and the cases in which 
books were stored in the Middle Ages, with some account of 
the way in which the books were produced, and of the rules 
usually adopted for their use. 

The interesting point, whether the bequest of a library 
(bibliotheca) included merely the press or presses, or the books 

1 This paper is enlarged from one read to the members of the Bristol 
and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society in December, 1905, and I 
should like to acknowledge the generous and courteous way in which 
Mr. John Willis Clark allowed me to use what plates I pleased from his 
work, The Care of Books (1901), to which book I am indebted for much 
in this paper, as also to Mr. Falconer Madan's work, Books in Manuscript. 

Vol. XXIX. 



206 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

as well, was referred to the decision of the jurist Ulpian, who 
died a.d. 228. 

Mediaeval historians generally began their chronicles with 
the Creation, so, to comprehend the evolution of the library, 
we should glance at the earliest modes of caring for books 
known to us. The earliest form of book was the tablet, as 
used in Babylonia and Assyria, and I may be pardoned for 
going somewhat outside my prescribed limits in alluding to 
the libraries in which these were stored. 

Mr. Sayce 1 says : " From the earliest period the literature 
of Chaldaea was stored in public libraries. According to 
Berosus, Pantibibla, or ' Book-town,' was one of the ante- 
diluvian cities of Babylonia, and Xisuthros had buried his 
books at Sippara before the Flood. Every great city had at 
least one library, and the office of librarian was considered 
honourable enough to be held by the brother of the king. 
The most famous of the Babylonian libraries were those of 
Erech, Larsa and Ur, and (after the Semitic conquest) of 
Agade. The older library of Babylon perished for the most 
part when the town was destroyed by Sennacherib. Scribes 
were kept busily employed in copying and re-editing old texts,, 
and more rarely in preparing new ones. The copies were made 
with scrupulous care, and an illegible character or word was 
denoted by the statement that there was a 'lacuna,' or a 
' recent lacuna,' while attention was drawn to the breakage 
of a tablet. When an Assyrian scribe was in doubt as to the 
meaning of his Babylonian copy, he eitherjreproduced it or 
gave it two or more possible equivalents in the Assyrian 
syllabary. 

" The libraries established by the^ Assyrian kings at Assur, 
Calah, and Nineveh were formed in imitation of those of 
Babylonia. Like the Babylonian libraries also, they were 
thrown open to the public, though it is extremely doubtful 
whether the reading public was so large in Assyria as in the 
sister kingdom. At any rate, their contents were derived. 
1 Herodotus, vol. i., app. ii., p. 399, ed. 1883. 



Early and Mediaeval Libraries. 207 



almost entirely from Babylonia. The tablets or books were all 
numbered 1 and arranged in order, and the table of the chapters 
in the great astronomical work compiled for Sargon's library 
at Agade (b.c. 2000) enjoins the student to hand to the 
librarian in writing the number of the book or chapter he 
wishes to procure. 

"The literary matter in these libraries comprised every 
branch of learning known at the time. Historical and mytho- 
logical documents ; religious compositions ; legal, geographical, 
astronomical, and astrological treatises ; magical formulae and 
omen tablets ; poems, fables and proverbs ; grammatical and 
lexical disquisitions ; lists of stones and trees, of birds and 
beasts, of tribute and eponyms ; copies of treaties, of com- 
mercial transactions, of correspondence, of petitions to the 
king, of royal proclamations, and of dispatches from generals 
on the field— all were represented." 

The use of papyrus in Egypt for the making of books is of 
extreme antiquity, and the bulk of the earliest Greek and 
Latin writings we possess are on this material — in the case of 
Greek of the third century B.C., of Latin of the first century 
a.d. It was freely exported to Greece and Rome, and though 
it gave way before parchment, it was not until the tenth century 
a.d. that in Egypt itself its use was abandoned. Practically 
in about a.d. 935 its fabrication ceased, although for Pontifical 
bulls it was invariably used till a.d. 1022, and occasionally 
till 1050. Parchment has also been used from the earliest 
times; and its use was revived in the second century B.C., 
and lasted till the invention of printing, after which time it 
was reserved for sumptuous editions, and for legal and other 
records. Paper was first manufactured (outside China) at 
Samarkand in Turkestan in about a.d. 750. Even in Spain, 
where it first obtained a footing in Europe (in the tenth century), 
it was imported from the East, not being manufactured in 
the West till the twelfth century; but from that time its use 

1 They appear to have been placed on shelves in cases, with the 
catalogue on a tablet at the side. 



208 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



spread rapidly. In England there was a paper mill at Hertford 
shortly before 1470, owned by John Tate ; but no book was 
printed on English paper till 1495, when Bartholomaeus 
Glanville's De proprietatibus rerum was issued on native 
paper. 

In regard to Roman libraries, it must be remembered in 
the first place that those who fitted them up had to deal with 
rolls (volnmina), probably of papyrus, but possibly of parch- 
ment ; and that a book as we understand the word, the Latin 
equivalent for which was " codex," did not come into general 
use until long after the Christian era. The length and width 
of the roll depended on the taste or convenience of the writer ; 
the average length may be taken at 20-30 ft, the width at 
9-11 in. The contents were written in columns, the lines of 
which ran parallel to the long dimension ; and the reader, 
holding the roll in both hands, rolled up the part he had 
finished with his left hand, and unrolled the unread portion 
with his right. The end of the roll was fastened to a stick, 
the sides were carefully cut, smoothed and coloured. A 
ticket with the title written on it (index or titulus), made of 
a piece of papyrus or parchment, was fastened to the edge of 
the roll in such a way that it hung out over one or the other 
of the ends. The roll was kept closed by strings or straps 
{lord), usually of some bright colour, and if especially precious 
an envelope, which the Greeks called a jacket (S«p0epa) was 
provided. 

The rolls were kept in shelves divided into pigeonholes. 
The wall-space above the bookcases was decorated with the 
likenesses of authors, dead and living, or friends. This obvious 
form of decoration was in all probability used at Pergamon. 
Pollio (c. 38 B.C.) introduced it into Rome, and Pliny, who 
calls it a novelty, deposes to its general adoption. 

When books of a shape similar to that with which modern 
librarians have to deal had to be accommodated as well as 
rolls, it is manifest that rectangular spaces not more than a 
lew inches wide would be singularly inconvenient. They 



Early and Medieval Libraries. 209 

were therefore discarded in favour Of a press, a piece of furni- 
ture which would hold rolls as well as books., and was in fact 
used for both purposes. 

The jurist Ulpian, in a discussion as to what is comprised 
under the term " liber" decides in favour of including all rolls 
(volumina) of whatever material, and then considers the 
question whether codices come under the same category or 
not, thereby showing that in his day both forms of books 
were in use. 

With regard to the custody of books in the early monas- 
teries, or indeed anywhere in the first few centuries of the 
Christian era, it is difficult to say much ; they were probably 
kept in presses or cupboards. 

The centre of monastic life was the cloister, and there at 
first the monks kept their books (except perhaps in a few 
special instances) ; we have no certain knowledge of the 
furniture used. St. Pachomius (a.d. 292^345) places his books 
in a cupboard (fenestra). S. Benedict in his Rules (early 
sixth century) uses only the general term library (bibliotheca) , 
which may mean either a room or a piece of furniture ; and 
the word press (armarium), with which we become so familiar 
afterwards, does not make its appearance till near the end 01 
the eleventh century. This word was used by the Romans to 
signify both a detached piece of furniture and a recess in a 
wall into which such a contrivance might be inserted. There 
are two such recesses in the east wall of Worcester Cathedral, 
formerly a Benedictine monastery. They are between the 
chapter-house and the passage leading to the treasury and 
other rooms. These were in use so late as 15 18. 

In the customs in use at Barnwell, near Cambridge, it is 
said in the chapter headed, " Of the safe keeping of books, 
and of the office of librarian " (armarius) : " The press in 
which the books are kept ought to be lined inside with wood, 
that the damp of the walls may not moisten or stain the books. 
This press should be divided vertically as well as horizontally 
by sundry shelves, on which the books may be ranged so as 



210 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

to be separated from one another, from fear they be packed 
so close as to injure each other, or delay those who want 
them." 

In the twelfth century, when books were few, they were 
kept in chests, and the owners seem to have used the edge 
as a desk to lean their books on. Chests were used at the 
Vatican library for the permanent storage of books in the 
fifteenth century, and a book chest frequently formed part of 
the travelling luggage of a king. 

Mr. J. W. Clark says in his work, The Care of Books, p. 292 : 
" The earliest information about the furniture of a mediaeval 
private library that I have as yet discovered is contained -in 
a fragment of an account book, recording the cost of fitting 
up a tower in the Louvre in 1367 and 1368 to contain the 
books belonging to Charles V. of France." 

As books multiplied, ampler accommodation for them 
became necessary ; and as they were to be read in cloister, 
it was obvious that the new presses or cases must either be 
placed in the cloister or easily accessible from it. The time 
had not yet come when the collection could be divided, and 
be placed partly in the cloister, partly in a separate and some- 
times distant room. This want of book room was supplied 
in two ways. In Benedictine and possibly in Cluniac houses 
tjie books were stored in detached wooden presses, but the 
Cistercians adopted a different method. At the beginning of 
the twelfth century, when that Order was founded, the need of 
additional book space had been fully realised, and consequently 
in their houses we meet with a special room set apart for books. 
But the conservative spirit which governed monastic usage, 
and discouraged any deviation from the lines of the primitive 
plan, made them at first keep the press in the wall close to 
the door of the church ; and in addition to this, they cut off 
a piece from the west end of the sacristy, which usually inter- 
vened between the south transept and the chapter -house, 
and fitted it up for books. 

There are rooms in such a position, and destined no doubt 



Early and Medleval Libraries. 



211 



-to this use, at Kirkstall Abbey, Beaulieu, Hayles, Jervaulx, 
Netley, Tintern, Croxden, and Roche. The practice of de- 
voting separate rooms to this purpose of course grew, and is 
attested by extant catalogues. 

At Durham Cathedral 1 (Benedictine), it "may be stated 
that the monks did not keep their books in one room, but in 
various places within the precincts of their Cathedral., in the 
Spendimentum, or Splendement, in the Cloister, and the 
Refectory. The first of these places is . . . the same room 
as the Chancery where . . . money was received and paid. 
In this Spendimentum there were apparently two classes of 
books, the one accessible to the monks at large, kept in a 
common bookcase [armariolum], and the other preserved m 
the inner room [a sub-division of the Splendement]. 

" The next considerable portion of the books of the Monks 
of Durham was preserved in the north aisle of the Cloister ; 
and of this library we have the following minute description :— 
4 In the north side of the Cloisters, from the corner over against 
the church door to the corner opposite the dorter door, was 
from the height of the sole, within a little of the ground, unto 
the Cloister-garth, all finely glazed ; and in every window, 
three pews or carrels, where every one of the old Monks had 
his carrel several by himself, to which, after having dined, 
they did resort, and there study their books, everyone in his 
Carrel, all the after-noon, till even-song time ; and this was 
their exercise every day. Their Pews or Carrels were finely 
wainscotted, and very close, the foreside having carved work 
of wainscot to let in light to their Carrels ; in every Carrel 
was a desk to lay their books on ; and the Carrels were no 
greater than from one stanchel to another of the window. 
Opposite to the Carrels, against the church wall, stood certain 
great Ambries of wainscot, full of books, as well the ancient 
written Doctors of the Church, as other profane Authors, with 
divers other holy men's works; so that everyone studied 

1 See " Catalogues of the Library of Durham Cathedral " (Surtees 
Soc., 1837, p. 5)- 



212 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

what doctor he pleased, having the Library at all times open 
to go and study in, besides their Carrels.' 

" Other books were placed within the doorway leading to 
the Infirmary (near the corner in the south end of the west alley 
of the Cloister). These were the books used by the reader in 
the Refectory during: the time of dinner, and they were de- 
posited here as in the nearest place of safety. Why they were 
not placed in the Refectory itself, it would now be in vain to 
inquire. 

" One case or chest of books was appropriated to the 
novices, whose place of study is known to have been that 
part of the Cloister which fronts the door of the treasury." 

At Wells, until the building of the library over the east 
cloister, Canon Church conjectures that the books were kept 
in the western aisle of the north transept. 

In the south cloister at Gloucester there is a splendid series 
of twenty stone carrels built between 1370 and 1412. Each 
carrel is 4 ft. wide, 19 in. deep, and 6 ft. 9 in. high, lighted by 
a small window of two lights. There is no trace of any wood- 
work appertaining to these carrels, or of any book-press having 
ever stood near them. The easternmost carrel, however, 
differs a good deal from the others, and it may have been 
used as a book-closet. There is a bench-table along the wall 
of the church opposite to the carrels ; but it does not appear 
to have been cut away to make room for book-presses, as at 
Westminster. The south alley appears to have been shut off 
at the east end and also at the west end by a screen. 

Each carre] must have closely resembled a sentry-box, 
with this difference, that one side was formed by a light of 
the window looking into the cloister-garth, opposite to which 
was the door of entrance. This would be of no great height, 
and moreover was made of open work, partly that the work 
of the occupant might be supervised, partly to let as much 
light as possible pass through into the cloister library, the 
seat being placed so that the light would enter on the reader's 
left hand. 




Page 212 

A CARRELL IN THE CLOISTERS OF 
GLOUCESTER CATHEDRAL. 




JEAN M I E LOT. A.D. 1456. 



Early and Mediaeval Libraries. 



213 



Carrels were in use at Westminster between 1258 and 1283 ; 
at Bury St. Edmunds they were destroyed in a riot in 1327 ; 
they occur at Evesham between 1367 and 1379 > a ^ Abingdon, 
in 1383-4 ; some were put up at Christ Church, Canterbury, 
between 1472 and 1494. They were devices to provide a certain 
amount of privacy for literary work in houses where there was 
no scriptorium or insufficient room. They seem to have been 
usual in monasteries from very early times, not to have been 
introduced at a comparatively late date in order to ensure 
greater comfort. At Durham they were used exclusively for 
reading. In houses where there was a scriptorium, it is 
probable that books were kept in presses or chests there while 
they were being copied. 

The scriptorium of an ordinary Benedictine monastery 
was a large room usually "over the chapter-house ; the work 
carried on in the scriptorium was properly considered of the 
greatest importance. 

A saying of Gregory, sub-prior of St. Barbara in Normandy 
in about the year 1170, was much quoted in the Middle Ages : 
" Claustrum sine armario castrum sine armamentario." This 
being accepted, and the reading of books being enjoined by 
St, Benedict and other founders of monastic orders, it was 
almost a necessity for the monks to make copies of books for 
themselves, and I propose to give a tew details of the process. 

We must not forget that at certain times and places the 
scribe was held in quite conspicuous honour. In Ireland, for 
instance, in the seventh and eighth centuries the penalty for 
shedding his blood was as great as that for killing a bishop 
or abbot ; and in Scotland '• scriba " was regarded as an 
honourable addition to a bishop's name. Adamnan's Life of 
St. Columba is full of allusions to the art of writing, in which 
the saint himself excelled ; and it is owing to its prominence 
that such stories are permanently recorded, as of the monks 
who dropped a manuscript into a vessel of water and upset 
the saint's own inkhorn. So too St. Dunstan was noted and 
honoured for his skill. The scribe was an honoured and 



214 Transactions for the Year 1906. 



important functionary at such great centres of writing and 
illumination as Winchester, St. Albans, Durham, and Glaston- 
bury, where as at some other great monasteries, was generally 
an historiographus, who kept an official record of the general 
and local history of his times. 

The scriptoria or carrels were under the general discipline 
of their house, but had special superadded rules of their own. 
These rules, as preserved to us in certain Benedictine statutes, 
are as stringent as can well be imagined. Artificial light was 
entirely forbidden for fear of injuring the manuscripts ; and 
to prevent idleness and interruption, no one was allowed to 
enter the room besides the scribes, except certain of the higher 
officers of the abbey. The Armarius was a special officer who 
had charge of the scriptorium ; but even he had no power to 
give out work to be done without the abbot's leave. He had 
to provide all that was necessary for the work — desks, ink, 
parchment, pens, penknives, pumice stone for smoothing the 
surface of the parchment, awls to give guiding marks for 
ruling lines, reading frames to hold the books to be copied, 
rulers and weights to keep down the pages. The scribe him- 
self was forbidden to make any alteration in the text, even 
when the original which he was copying was obviously wrong. 
Absolute silence was enjoined ; and as, nevertheless, some 
method of communication was necessary, there was a great 
variety of signs in use. If a scribe needed a book, he extended 
his hands, and made a movement as if turning over leaves. 
If it was a missal that was wanted, he superadded the sign 
of a cross ; if a psalter, he placed his hands on his head in the 
shape of a crown (a reference to King David) ; if a lectionary, 
he pretended to wipe away the grease (which might easily 
have fallen upon it from a candle) ; if a small work was needed, 
not a Bible or a service book, but some inferior tractate, he 
placed one hand on his stomach and the other before his 
mouth ! Finally, if a pagan work was required, after the 
general sign he scratched his ear in the manner of a dog. 

Besides the monks who acted as scribes and illuminators, 



Early and Medleval Libraries. 215 



there were three classes of secular scribes, who would only 
come to the monastery when their services were needed — 
illuminator es, when the abbey could not itself provide men 
capable of finishing off the manuscript by rubrication and 
painting ; librarii, a common kind of hack scribe ; and notarii, 
who would be required for legal purposes, such as drawing up 
■a deed or will. 

We find the first tendencies to form national handwritings 
in the seventh and eight centuries, resulting in the Merovingian 
or Frankish hand, the Lombardic of Italy and the Visigothic 
of Spain. And in the seventh century, when our earliest 
-existing Irish manuscripts were written, we find not only a 
style of writing (or indeed two) distinctively national and of 
a high type of excellence, but also a school of illumination, 
which in the combined lines of mechanical accuracy and in- 
tricacy, of fertile invention of form and figure, and of striking 
arrangements of colour, has never been surpassed. Sir E. 
Maunde Thompson 1 says : " The development of the border 
is extremely interesting to follow ; and so regular is its growth, 
and so marked are the national characteristics which it assumes, 
that the period and place of origin of an illuminated manuscript 
may be accurately determined from the details of its borders 
alone." 

Let us now observe how a scribe would act at the beginning 
of his six-hour daily task. A section of parchment is brought 
to him to be written on, each sheet still separate from the 
•others, though loosely put in the order and form in which it 
will be subsequently bound ; generally four pieces were taken, 
each roughly about 10 in. high and 18 in. broad, and were 
folded once across, so that each piece formed four pages (two 
leaves) of what we should call a quarto volume. These pieces 
were fixed one inside another, so that the first piece formed 
the first and eighth leaves, the second the second and seventh, 
the third the third and sixth, and the fourth the two middle 
leaves of a complete section of eight leaves or sixteen pages, 
1 English Illuminated MSS., p. 37. 



216 



Transactions for the Year 1906 



termed technically in Latin a quaternio, because made of four 
(quatuor) pieces. A sufficient number of quaternions were put 
together to form the projected book, and this was brought to 
.the scribe. Then the size and general style of the writing had 
to be fixed (this would be a matter of custom), the largest 
style being reserved for psalters and other books to be used 
for public services on a desk or lectern ; this determined, the 
sheets have to be ruled. When the scribe has the ruled sheets 
before him, his pen and ink in readiness, and the volume to be 
copied on a desk beside him, he may begin to transcribe. How 
simple this seems ! He is forbidden to correct, but must 
simply copy down letter for letter ; no responsibility except 
for power of reading and for accuracy is laid on him. Yet all 
who know human nature, or who have studied palaeography, 
or even had to examine engrossments of deeds in a solicitor's, 
office, will acknowledge that the probability against two con- 
secutive leaves being really correctly transcribed is about one 
hundred to one. 

The frequent use of the word " dictate " in connection with 
writing has led some to think that scribes did much of their 
work from dictation. The evidence on the question in classical 
times is so scanty that we are driven to conclude that scribes 
almost invariably copied from a volume in front of them in 
silence, as was certainly the case in the scriptoria of monas- 
teries. Alcuin, who describes the copying work at York, 
seems to know nothing of it, and the word " dictate ," used 
in connection with writing, means " to compose " and not 
" to dictate." The only dictation which was common was 
when a letter or a message was dictated by its composer to 
swift-penned notarii. 

Theodori, Abbot of Evroul, 1 in Normandy, in the middle of 
the eleventh century used, we are told, to lecture his monks 
against idleness, and " also he was wont to tell them this 
story " : . 

There was a monk in a certain monastery who was guilty 
1 Maitland, Dark Ages, p. 268. 



Early and Medlevai. Libraries. 



217 



of many transgressions against its rules, but he was a writer, 
and being devoted to writing, he of his own accord wrote out 
an enormous volume of the divine law. After his death his 
soul was brought before the tribunal of the just judge for 
judgment, and when the evil spirits sharply accused him, and 
brought forward his innumerable crimes, the holy angels, on the 
other hand, shewed the book which that monk had written in 
the house of God, and counted up all the letters of that enor- 
mous volume, as a set-off against the like number of sins. At 
length the letters had a majority of only one, against which, 
however, the demons in vain attempted to object any sin. 
The clemency of the Judge, therefore, spared the monk, and 
commanded his soul to return to his body, and mercifully 
granted him space for the reformation of his life." 

When the writing is finished, the illuminator does what 
rubrication may be required, 1 colours the initial letters, and 
does the illuminations, on which I must not touch now. The 
colours used — which were made with great care, as the numerous 
treatises on their preparation evince — were primarily gold, 
red and blue, less commonly green, purple, yellow, white and 
black. 

The book now written, rubricated and illuminated, is 
taken to the binder. The common binding in the Middle Ages 
for books of some size and interest was leather, plain or orna- 
mented, white or brown, fastened over solid wooden boards, 
with raised bands four or five in number across the back. 
The sewing of the sheets and passing of the threads over these 
bands usually results in a firmness and permanence which no 
ordinary modern book possesses. Not infrequently the solid 
oak sides may have given way under violent treatment, while 
the sewing remains perfectly sound. In general, however, the 
oak sides are as permanent as the back, and the solid pegging, 
by which the parchment strings projecting from the thread- 
sewn back are wedged into the small square holes and grooves 
cut in the oak sides is a sight worth seeing for workmanship 
1 Madan, Books in Manuscript, p. 49. 



2i8 Transactions for the Year 1906. 



and indestructibility. But for appearance sake in mediaeval 
times the finest books received an ivory, silver or even gold 
binding, and the sides were carved or worked into embossed 
figures and set with jewels ; and sometimes even wooden sides, 
were highly ornamented. Thus the Latin Gospel of St. John, 
taken from the tomb of St. Cuthbert and now at Stonyhurst,. 
is described as bound (in the tenth or eleventh centuries) in 
boards of thin wood covered with red leather. 1 Leo III., in the 
beginning of the ninth century, gave a copy of the Gospels'- 
so ornamented with gold and precious stones that it weighed 
17 lb. 4 oz. ; Benedict III. gave one to the church of St. 
Calistus adorned with gold and silver of nearly the same 
weight. In Ireland, but rarely elsewhere, we find a " theca " 
or " cumdach," a case in which a volume was kept ; and on 
this, instead of the volume itself, the richest work was lavished. 
It is pleasant to read that in the twelfth century England was 
before all foreign nations in binding — London, Winchester, 
and Durham having distinctive styles. 

The great value of the bindings of some mediaeval books 
subjected them to a peculiar danger — that of excrustation, 
the stripping off of the binding, the loss of which was 
extremely likely to cause the destruction of the manuscript 
itself. This risk, of course, various things — charity and need, 
as well as cupidity — were likely to produce. William de 
Longchamp, who became Bishop of Ely in 1190, contributed 
160 marks towards the redemption of King Richard, and to 
raise the money, pawned thirteen copies of the Gospels, 
including one of great value which had belonged to King 
Edgar. Again, Nigel, Bishop of Ely in the reign of King 
Stephen, pledged for his own purpose a " textus aureus," 
belonging to the church of Ely, to the Jews at Cambridge. 
So too Henry, Bishop of Winchester from 1129-74, got the 
Abbey of Hide into his hands, and amongst other evil deeds, 
stripped ten copies of the Gospels. 

The great increase of books during the fourteenth and 
1 Madan, loc. cit., p. 41. 2 Maitland, loc. cit., p. 72. 



LIBRARY, MERTON COLLEGE, OXFORD. 



Early and Medieval Libraries. 219 



fifteenth centuries necessitated better arrangements for 
storing them. It should be noted that the erection of a library 
proper was an afterthought in many of the older colleges,, 
as it had been in the monasteries. 

For instance, at Merton College, Oxford, founded 1264, 
the library was not begun till 1377 ; at University College, 
founded 1280, in 1440 ; at Balliol, founded 1282, in 1431 ; 
at Oriel College, founded 1324, in 1444 ; at Pembroke College, 
Cambridge, founded 1347, in x 452. The beautiful library at 
Wells Cathedral, over the east cloisters, was built by Bishop 
Bubwith's executors out of funds provided by his will, dated 
nth October, 1424: the library at Durham Cathedral by 
Prior Wessington, between the years 1416-46. William of 
Wykeham, who founded New College, Oxford, in 1380, was 
the first to include a library in his quadrangle ; and after the 
example had been set by him, the plan of every subsequent 
college includes a library of sufficient dimensions to last till 
the Reformation, if not till the present day. There can be 
little doubt that the internal fittings of collegiate and 
monastic libraries would be identical. 

The library which a monastery or a college built in the 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries was a long, narrow room, 
lighted by rows of equidistant windows. Occasionally, if 
neighbouring buildings allowed, there was a window at the 
end of the room also. If an old room was adapted or new one 
built, it was generally over existing buildings, as at Bury and 
Wells over the cloisters. The fittings were lecterns of wood. 
On these the books were laid, each volume being fastened by 
a chain to a bar, usually placed over the desk, but occasionally, 
in all probability, in front of or beneath it. The readers sat 
on benches immovably fixed opposite to each window. This 
system was in use at Bury, and at Pembroke and Queen's 
Colleges, Cambridge. 

Such a system was very wasteful of space, for when books 
accumulated, some other piece of furniture had to be devised 
to contain them. The desk could not be dispensed with so 



220 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

long as books were chained, and it therefore occurred to an 
ingenious carpenter that the required conditions would be 
fulfilled if the two halves of the desk were separated, not by 
a few inches, but by a considerable interval or broad shelf, 
with one or more shelves fixed above it. Thus a case was 
arrived at containing four shelves at least, two to each side 
of the case, which could be made as long as the width of the 
library permitted. Mr. J. W. Clark calls this system " the 
stall system," from the word staulum, which is frequently 
applied to a case for books in a mediaeval library. 

There are five fine examples of this system (which was 
probably monastic in its origin) at Oxford ; none at Cam- 
bridge, where it is to be noted that monastic influence was 
never extensively exercised. There was a set at Clare College, 
supplied to the old library about 1627, but they have since 
been altered by the removal of the desks. Those at Oxford 
are at Corpus Christi College (1517), St. John's College (1596), 
Sir T. Bodley's Library (1598), Merton College (1623), Jesus 
College (1677-9), Magdalen College (of uncertain date). 

While the stall system was being generally adopted in 
England and in France, a different plan was being adopted 
in Italy. It consisted in a return to the " lectern system," 
with the addition of a shelf below the lectern, on which the 
books lay on their sides when not wanted, and an ingenious 
combination of a seat for the reader with the desk and shelf. 

The earliest library fitted up in this manner appears to be 
at Cesena, a city of north Italy, between Forli and Ravenna. 
Built in 1452, it is practically in its original condition. 

The Medicean Library, Florence (designed by Michel- 
angelo, and completed in 1571), is of this type ; for conveni- 
ence and for appropriate decoration it stands alone among 
libraries. 

Mr. J. W. Clark says that the first library with the book- 
shelves arranged against the wall instead of at right angles 
to them is that of the Escorial, the cases being made in 1584 ; 
the first instance in England being that of the Bodleian 




MEDICEAN LIBRARY, FLORENCE. 




Page -2-20 



LIBRARY OF THE ESCORIAL 



Early and Medieval Libraries. 221 



Library, where the first stone of the eastern wing was laid in 
1610, and completed with the fittings in 1612. 

The arrangement of the library at Titchfield Abbey in 
Hants, described in the register of the monastery itself in 
a.d. 1400, is against this view of Mr. Clark's, who thinks, 
however, they were merely put as they were for security only, 
and not for study. 1 The description in the register, trans- 
lated, runs : " There are in the library of Tychefeld four cases 
in which to place books, of which two, the first and second, 
are on the eastern face ; on the southern face is the third, and 
on the northern face the fourth, and each of them has eight 
shelves, marked with a letter and number affixed on the front 
of each shelf : then follow full details of the lettering and 
numbering, and of the classes of the book and their order." 

Sir Christopher Wren, in the fine libraries built by him, 
was the first English architect who ventured to make windows 
which, as he said himself when building the library of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, " rise high and give place for the desks 
against the walls." 

We have small materials for ascertaining the numbers of 
volumes in mediaeval libraries ; we read of a copiosissimus 
numerus, and an ingens Ubliotheca, but numbers are wanting 
for the most part. We have some clues, however, in cata- 
logues and other notices of libraries. 

When the Abbey of Peterborough was burned by the 
Danes in the year 870, 2 there was a large collection of books 
destroyed — sanctorum librorum ingens bibliotheca — so Ingulph 
of Croyland says. What his idea of a great library was it is 
not easy to say ; but he uses no such expression in speaking 
of the library of 700 volumes belonging to his own monastery, 
which was burned in his own time, that is in a.d. 1091. 

Dr. James 3 estimates the number at Bury as about 2,000 ; 
at Syon there were 1,461 volumes ; at Peterborough 1,700 ; 
at Durham, St. Albans, Winchester, Glastonbury, and perhaps 

3 Madan, loc. cit., p. 78. 2 Maitland, loc. cit., p. 229. 

3 On the Abbey of St. Edmund at Bury, p. 3. 
16 

Vol. XXIX. 



222 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



one or two more great abbeys, the number was probably 
larger. 

Titchfield Abbey was a Praemonstratensian house founded in 
the thirteenth century, and never specially rich or prominent ; 
yet we find it with a good library of 68 volumes in Theology, 
39 in Canon and Civil Law, 29 in Medicine, 37 in Arts, in all 
326 volumes, many containing several treatises, so that the 
total number of works was considerably over one thousand. 

At Christ Church, Canterbury, the catalogue made between 
1285 and 1331 enumerates about 1,850 books or treatises. 
The catalogue of Llantony Priory in 1380 shows 500 volumes, 
that of Flaxley Abbey (undated) about 80. 

The catalogue appended to Bishop Bateman's statutes for 
Trinity Hall, dated 1350, enumerates 84 volumes classed under 
subjects in two divisions, viz. those presented to the College 
for the immediate use of the Fellows, and those reserved for 
the Bishop's use during his own life. 

King's Hall Catalogue, dated 1394, shows 87 vols. 
Peterhouse ,, .. 1418 ,, 380 vols. 



Univ. Library 
King's College 
Queen's College 
Univ. Library 



1424 

1453 
1472 

1473 



122 vols. 
174 vols. 
199 vols. 
300 vols. 



St. Catharine's Hall Catalogue (end of fifteenth century) 
shows 104 volumes, of which 85 were given by the 
founder. 

Some of the regulations as to the use of books in 
mediaeval times are of great interest. The Canons of ^lfric, 
written between the years 992 and 1001, were addressed to 
Wulfin,i Bishop of Sherborne, and were in such a form that 
he might communicate them to his clergy as a kind of 
episcopal charge. The 21st canon orders : " Every priest 
also before he is ordained, must have the arms belonging to 
his spiritual work— namely the Psalter, the Book of Epistles 
1 Maitland, loc. cit., p. 28. 



Early and Medleval Libraries. 223 



and the Book of Gospels, the Missal, the Book of Hymns, 
the Manual, the Calendar, the Passional, the Pcenitential and 
the Lectionary. These books a priest requires and cannot 
do without, if he would properly fulfil his office, and desires 
to teach the law to the people belonging to him. And let him 
carefully see that they are well written." 

In the 48th chapter of the Rule of St. Benedict, 1 of daily 
manual labour we read : " Idleness is the enemy of the soul ; 
hence brethren ought at certain seasons, to occupy themselves 
with manual labour, and again at certain hours, with holy 
reading. . . . Between Easter and the calends of October 
let them apply themselves to reading from the fourth hour 
till near the sixth hour. After the sixth hour, when they rise 
from table, let them rest on their beds in complete silence ; 
or if any should wish to read to himself, let him do so irt such 
a way as not to disturb anyone else. . . . From the calends 
of October to the beginning of Lent let them apply themselves 
to reading until the second hour. . . . During Lent, let them 
apply themselves to reading from morning until the end of 
the third hour . . . and in these days of Lent, let them 
receive a book apiece from the library, and read it straight 
through. These books are to be given out at the beginning 
of Lent. It is important that one or two seniors should be 
appointed to go round the monastery at the hours when 
brethren are engaged in reading, in case some ill-conditioned 
brother should be giving himself up to sloth or idle talk, instead 
of reading steadily, so that not only is he useless to himself, 
but incites others to do wrong." 

To this Archbishop Lanfranc's statute for English Bene- 
dictines, 2 dated 1070, is supplementary; it was based, as 
he himself tells us, on the general monastic practice of his 
time : — 

" On the Monday before the first Sunday in Lent, before 
brethren come into the Chapter House, the Librarian shall 
have a carpet laid down, and all the books got together jipon 
1 Clark, he. tit., p. 14. 2 Ibid., p. 35. 



224 Transactions for the Year 1906. 



it, except those which a year previously had been assigned 
for reading. These brethren are to bring with them when 
they come into the Chapter House, each his book in his hand. 
„ . . Then the librarian shall read a statement as to the 
manner in which brethren have had books during the past 
year. As each brother hears his name pronounced he is to 
give back the book which has been entrusted to him for 
reading ; and he whose conscience accuses him of not having 
read the book through which he has received, is to fall on his 
face, confess his fault and entreat forgiveness. 

" The librarian shall then make a fresh distribution of 
books, namely, a different volume to each brother for his 
reading." 

We find Wm. Curteys, Abbot of Bury in 1429-45, setting 
forth in a mandate that books so given out as- above had been 
lent, pledged, and even sold by the brethren, and prescribing 
punishment for the offenders ; and by a further monition, he 
orders that within fifteen days of the notice 1 all library books 
in the possession of the monks are to be produced before the 
abbot, under pain of suspension from divine offices. In this 
instance the abbot recovered some of the books himself by 
paying a fine for them. 

Both the Augustinians and the Praemonstratensians permit 
their books to be lent on the receipt of a pledge of sufficient 
value. Happily the terms of some loans have been set out 
in deeds which (or copies of which), being extant, have 
preserved for us the names of books in many libraries, e.g. 
Durham, Wells and Hinton. 

To a request for a loan of books, an abbot replies : 
Although you desire to have the books of Tully, 2 I know 
that you are Christian, and not a Ciceronian. But you go 
over to the camp of the enemy, not as a deserter, but as a 
spy. I should, therefore, have sent you the books of Tully 
which we have— De Re Agraria, Phillipics and Epistles— but 
that it is not our custom that any books should be lent to any 
1 James, loc. at., p. no. 2 Maitland, loc. cit., p. 175. 



Early and Medleval Libraries. 



225 



person without good pledges. Send us, therefore, the Nodes 
Attica of Aulus Gellius, and Origen On the Canticles. 

The customs of St. Augustine's, Canterbury, written 
between 1310 and 1344, give a valuable contemporary picture 
of the organisation of one of the more important cloister 
libraries. The care of the presses is to be entrusted to the 
Precentor and his subordinate, called the Succentor. The former 
is to have a seat in front of the press— which doubtless stood 
against the wall— and his carrel is to stand at no great distance, 
on the stone between the piers of the arches next the cloister- 
garth. The Succentor is to have his seat and his carrel on 
the bench near the press, by which the bench which commonly 
ran along the cloister wall is obviously meant. These arrange- 
ments are made in order that these two officers, or at least one 
of them, may always be at hand to satisfy brethren who make 
any demand upon their time. In other words, they were the 
librarian and sub-librarian, who were to be always ready to 
answer questions. It is clear that brethren were not allowed 
to handle books as they pleased. 

The advantages of a library were never set out to any age 
more clearly than by Richard de Bury (Dean of Wells in 1333, 
afterwards Bishop of Durham) in his -Philobiblon (written in 
1344), in the chapter on the " Complaint of Books against the 
Clergy already promoted. / " Having given you Grammar to 
suckle you, next we clad you with the goodly garments of 
philosophy, rhetoric and dialectic, of which we had and have 
a store, while ye were naked as a tablet to be painted on. 
For all the household of philosophy are clothed with garments, 
that the nakedness and rawness of the intellect may be 
covered. After this, providing you with the fourfold wings 
of the quadrivials that ye might be winged like the seraphs, 
and so mount above the cherubim, we sent you to a friend 
at whose door, if only ye importunately knocked, ye might 
borrow the three loaves of the knowledge of the Trinity, in 
which consists the final felicity of every sojourner below." 
Who could refuse to follow so charming a leader into the 



226 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

thorny ways of mediaeval learning, the course of which, as 
hinted above, was twain, or rather sevenfold : the trivium 
including grammar, dialectic and rhetoric — the introductory 
arts; the quadrivium, the four sciences of music, arithmetic, 
geometry and astronomy. 

You must bear with me while I make a further and some- 
what long quotation from this book ; but it throws such a vivid 
light on the student of the time, that I cannot resist it. In 
his chapter " Of showing due Propriety in the custody of 
Books," the Bishop, after adducing reasons why books should 
be well treated, goes on : — 

" Wherefore we deem it expedient to warn our students 
of various negligences, which might always be easily avoided, 
and do wonderful harm to books. 

" And in the first place, as to the opening and closing of 
books, let there be due moderation, that they be not unclasped 
in precipitate haste, nor when we have finished our inspection 
be put away without being duly closed. For it behoves us 
to guard a book much more carefully than a boot. 

" But the race of scholars is commonly badly brought up, 
and unless they are bridled in by the rules of their elders, 
they indulge in infinite puerilities. They behave with petu- 
lance, and are puffed up with presumption, judging of 
everything as if they were certain, though they are altogether 
inexperienced. 

" You may happen to see some head-strong youth lazily 
lounging over his studies ... he distributes a multitude of 
straws, which he inserts to stick out in different places, so 
that the palm may remind him of what his memory cannot 
retain. These straws, because the book has no stomach to 
digest them, and no one takes them out, first distend the 
book from its wonted closing, and at length, being carelessly 
abandoned to oblivion, go to decay. He does not fear to eat 
fruit or cheese over an open book, or carelessly to carry a cup 
to and from his mouth ; and because he has no wallet at hand 
he drops into books the fragments that are left. Continually 



Early and Mediaeval Libraries. 



227 



shattering, he is never weary of disputing with his companions, 
and while he alleges a crowd of senseless arguments, he wets 
the book lying half open in his lap with sputtering showers. 
Aye, and then hastily folding his arms he leans forward on 
the book, and by a brief spell of study invites a prolonged 
nap ; and then by way of mending the wrinkles, he folds back 
the margin of the leaves, to the no small injury of the book. 
Now the rain is over and gone, and the flowers have appeared 
in our land. Then the scholar we are speaking of, a neglector 
rather than an inspector of books, will stuff his volume with 
violets and primroses, with roses and quatrefoil. Then he 
will use his wet and perspiring hands to turn over the volumes ; 
then he will thump the white vellum with gloves covered with 
all kinds of dust, and with his finger clad in long-used leather 
will hunt line by line through the page ; then at the sting of 
the biting flea the sacred book is flung aside, and is hardly 
shut for another month, until it is so fully of the dust that has 
iound its way within, that it resists the effort to close it. . . . 
Let not a crying child admire the pictures in the capital letters, 
lest he soil the parchment with wet fingers : for a child 
instantly touches whatever he sees. Moreover the laity who 
look at a book turned upside down just as if it were open in 
the right way, are utterly unworthy of any communion with 
books." 

And so delightfully on and on, that it is hard to part from 
the good Bishop. 

Of the terrible sacrifice of books at the dissolution of the 
monasteries, there is, perhaps, no better statement than that 
of Bale in his preface to Leland's New Year's Gift : " Never 
had we bene offended for the losse of our lybraryes, beynge so 
many in nombre, and in so desolate places for the more parte, 
yf the chief e monumentes and most notable workes of our 
excellent wryters, had bene reserved. If there had bene in 
every shyre of England, but one solemne lybrary, to the 
preservacyon of those noble workes, and preferrement of good 
lernynges in our posteryte, it had bene yet sumwhat. But to 



228 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



destroye all without consyderacyon, is and wyll be unto 
England e for ever, a most horryble infamy, among the grave 
senyours of other nacyons. A great nombre of them whych 
purchased those superstycyouse mansyons, reserved of those 
lybrarye bokes, some to serve theyr jakes, some to scour theyr 
candelstyckes, and some to rubbe their bootes. Some they 
solde to the grossers and sope sellers, and some they sent over 
see to ye bokebynders, not in smal nombre, but at tymes 
whole shyppes full, to the wonderynge of the foren nacyons. 
Yea, the unyversytees of thys realme, are not all clere in this 
detestable fact. ... I knowe a merchant man, whych shall 
at thys tyme be namelesse, that bought the contents of two 
noble lybraryes for XL shyllyngs pryce, a shame it is to be 
spoken. Thys stuffe hath he occupyed in the stede of graye 
paper by the space of these more than X yeares, and yet he 
hath store ynough for as many yeares to come. A prodygyouse 
example is this, and to be abhorred of all men whych love 
their nacyon as they should do." 

The universities, though untouched by the suppression, 
were not allowed to remain long at peace. In 1549 com " 
missioners were sent by Edward VI. to Oxford and Cambridge. 
They considered that it fell within their province to reform 
the libraries as well as those who used them, and they did 
their work with a thoroughness that under other circumstances 
would have been worthy of commendation. Anthony Wood 
has told us in eloquent periods, where sorrow struggles with 
indignation, how the college libraries were treated; how 
manuscripts, which had nothing superstitious about them 
except a few rubricated initials, were carried through the city 
on biers to the market-place, and there consumed. Of the 
treatment meted out to the public library of the university he 
gives an almost identical account. This library— now the 
central portion of the Bodleian— had been completed about 
1480. It was well stocked with manuscripts of value, the 
most important of which, in number about 600, had been 
given by Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, between 1439 and 



Early and Medieval Libraries. 



229 



1446. His collection was that of a cultivated layman, and was 
comparatively poor in theological literature. Yet in this home 
of all that was noble in literature and splendid in art (for the 
Duke's copies are said to have been the finest that could be 
bought) did this crew of ignorant fanatics cry havoc, with such 
fatal success that only three manuscripts now survive ; 1 and 
on January 25th, 1555-6, certain members of Convocation 
were appointed " to sell, in the name of the university, the 
book-desks in the public library. The books had all disap- 
peared. What need then to retain the shelves and stalls, when 
no one thought of replacing their contents, and when the 
university could turn an honest penny by their sale ? " 

As an illustration of the number of manuscripts changing 
hands by some means or other, we read that Stephen 
Batman, on page 400 of his book The Doom, asserted that he 
collected 6,700 books for the Archbishop of Canterbury in a 
term of four years. We should gladly have known whence 
these came and what they were ; it is something that they 
were saved at all. 

1 Sufficient has been said above, I think, to show the eagerness and 
anxiety of the monks to obtain books, whether by gift, purchase or 
copying ; to show also the loving care they took of such books as they 
had. Mr. Augustine Birrell says in his book, In the name of the Bodleian. 
in reference to this very atrocity : " True it is that, for the most part, 
the contents of the library had been rescued from miserable ill-usage 
in the monasteries and chapter-houses, where they had their first 
habitation." Is it too much to say that this is as untrue as it is wanton 
and ungenerous. 

The statement seems the more unhappy here, as it is as certain 
as it can be that few, if any, of the books came from monasteries, many 
having come from the library of the King of France. And where and 
when were books stored in a chapter-house ? 



MONUMENTAL EFFIGIES. 

By IDA M. ROPER. 



RURAL DEANERY OF WINCHCOMBE. 
ASHCHURCH CHURCH— Dedicated to St. Nicholas. 
William Ferrers, a.d. 1625. 

1. Civilian. 

2. Half length of upright effigy, 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size. 

5. The figure is dressed as a citizen of London in a short 
pointed doublet, fastened down the centre by twenty-two 
buttons, and finished off below the waist by points, tied in 
bows with aiglets, the tight sleeves ending in plain narrow 
muslin cuffs. Much of the figure is covered by a cloak or 
livery gown falling straight down the front with wide bands of 
fur. The full loose sleeves, high at the shoulders and edged 
with narrow fur, reach to the elbow, pendent ones being 
visible at the back. Round the neck is a turned-down ruff 
of three folds. The hair is worn short, the beard, whiskers 
and moustache are closely cropped, and the features are those 
of an old man. The right hand clasps a pair of gloves richly 
fringed round the top, and the left rests on a skull. 

8. A mural monument, with the half-length figure looking 
out from within a very shallow arched recess, surmounted by 
a coat of arms and crest, and beneath the figure a square 
inscribed tablet, resting on a cherub's head, and scrollwork. 

The arms are: "Argent on a bend gules, cotised azure 
three horseshoes or, a crescent for difference," Ferrers. 



Monumental Effigies. 



231 



Crest : On esquire's helmet and wreath an ostrich, in the 
l>eak a horseshoe. 

The shield rests on drapery, caught up on either side and 
tied in a bow and end. 

9. Inscription round the arch of the canopy : " Live well 
«& dye never : Dye well & live ever." 

On an arch above this : " All must dye." 
Inscription on panel : 

"Memorise sacrum. 
" William Ferrers citizen of London, second son of Roger 
Ferrers of Fiddington gent : had 3 wives w th whom 
hee lived 50 yeares most lovingly : and by whom hee 
saw himself a happy Father & Grandfather. All his 
children dyed before him. Hee preferred many of 
his brothers of his kindred & of his countrymen & left 
behinde him severall workes of Piety ; as to ye Poore 
of this place wheare he was borne £10 per annum to a 
Preacher in this Parish & to ye mendinge of ye high- 
wayes about Fiddington to every one £5 yearly for 
ever. Moreover hee gave £30 yearly for ever to- 
wardes a Free schoole in Tewxbury & £5 per annum 
to ye poore of y f place w h severall guif tes to ye poore 
& other pius uses in & about London. Hee likewise 
gave large legacyes both in landes & monyes to his 
3 grandchildren, brothers & kindred. Hee departed 
this life ye 26th day of September 1625 & lyes 
buryed in Allhallows Church in Lumbard Street 
London. 

" Thomas Ferrers his brother & part Executor w th love 
& care built this small monument." 
William Ferrers, died 1625. 

10. The features are painted flesh colour, the doublet and 
cloak black, the fur and gloves gold, and the ruff and cuffs 
white. The monument and skull are not painted. 

11. The nose is chipped. 

12. Built into the south wall of the nave. 



232 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

13. No illustration is known. Inscription given in Rudder , 
Gloucestershire, page 236. 

14. The figure is in good condition. 

15. William Ferrers belonged to a family that had lived 
in Wiltshire for at least three generations, and removed before 
his birth from Corsham to Fiddington, a hamlet in the parish 
of Ashchurch, Gloucestershire. His parents were Roger 
Ferrers, died 1579, and Margaret, a daughter of Giles Badger 
of Fiddington. 

William was the second son of the family, and apparently 
settled in London, and became a merchant and liveryman, 
and was buried there in 1625. 1 Amongst the benefactions in 
St. Nicholas, Ashchurch, it is recorded that in 1625 Mr. Wm. 
Ferrers gave ten pounds a year to the poor chargeable out of 
the Manor of Skellingthorpe in the count} 7 of Lincoln. This 
refers to the sum of £5 per annum mentioned in the inscription. 

BISHOP'S CLEEVE CHURCH— Dedicated to St. Michael 
and All Angels. 

A Knight, about a.d. 1270. 

1. Military. Knight in armour cross-legged below the 
knee, right leg over left. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Freestone. 

4. Life-size, 6 ft. 4 in. long. 

5. The knight is enveloped in a complete suit of chain 
mail. The hauberk, which covers the body from the neck to 
the middle of the thighs, where it is slightly cut up, has long 
sleeves covering the hands, and a hood of mail protects the 
head and shoulders. Over the hauberk is worn a loose flowing 
surcoat, sleeveless and reaching nearly to the feet behind. It 
is shorter in front, cut open to above the knee, and probably 
girdled, but the position of the arm hides the cingulum. 

The chausses of mail extend over the feet, and the prick 
1 Glouc. Visitation, 1623, p. 60, note. 



Monumental Effigies. 



233 



spurs (gone) were held in position by straps passing over the 
instep. A wide sword-belt is loosely buckled in front support- 
ing a long cross-hilted sword, and the details of the support are 
suggested by a small knot visible on the scabbard below. The 
method of keeping the sword in place was by fastening the long 
strap by a loop to the mouth of the scabbard, thence round 
the body and through the buckle in front ; the loose end again 
passed over the scabbard with a loop, and was split into two 
parts. These parts, turned upwards, were laced through the 
first loop, and terminated from behind in a knot half-ways 
down the scabbard. 1 

Upon the left arm is borne upright a plain heater shield 
fastened by a broad guige, which passes towards the right 
shoulder and disappears beneath the hood of mail. The 
knight is in the act of drawing the sword, the right hand on 
the hilt, whilst the left, appearing from under the shield, 
steadies the scabbard. 

6. The head rests on two pillows, the top one set diagonally. 

7. The feet rest on a dog lying down. 

8. The effigy, on a plain slab, is placed within a low-arched 
and cusped recess of the early fourteenth century, decorated 
with floriated crockets without a finial, and a border of ball 
flowers. At each side is a moulded pillar ending in a taber- 
nacled pinnacle. The effigy is of an earlier date. 

9. There is no inscription. 

A knight of the time of Henry III. 

Tradition has long assigned this effigy to Gilbert the Bold, 
Earl of Clare and Hertford, but it is on record that this earl 
died in 1295 and was buried at Tewkesbury. 2 

10. The whole of the mail was at one time stamped in 
gesso upon the plain stone surface, but all traces have now 
completely disappeared. The figure has been subjected to 
many coats of paint and scrapings. 

it. The features are much worn. The right foot, the 

1 Trans. B. &- G. Arch. Soc, vol. iv. p. 243. 
2 Bigland, Gloucestershire, p. 376, note. 



2.34 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



spurs and the dog's head are gone. The recess has been 
restored in part. 

12. Placed in a recess on the south side of the south 
transept, now used as the priests' vestry. 

13. Described and illustrated by Mr. Albert Hartshorne, 
Trans. B. & G. Arch. Soc, vol. iv., page 243. ; and Lyson, 
Coll. of Gloucestershire Antiq., plate lviii. 

14. The general condition is good, although much restored.. 

15. The knight represented by the effigy is unknown. 

A Lady, about a.d. 1500. 

1. Lady. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Freestone. 

4. Life-size. 

5. The effigy shows the costume of a lady of rank in the 
reign of Henry VII. The dress consists of the surcote or side- 
less gown tight-fitting to the hips, below which it falls in 
graceful folds to the feet. It is hollowed out at the sides and 
bordered with a narrow band of embroidery. Beneath is 
visible the tight-fitting cote-hardie with long tight sleeves, 
ending in plain turned-back cuffs. From the shoulders hangs 
a long loose mantle edged with embroidery, and fastened 
across the breast by a long cordon, passing through decorated 
eyelet holes placed in front of each shoulder ; the tasselled 
ends join beneath the hands by a slide. The mantle is tucked 
under the arms and falls in graceful folds nearly to the feet. 
A deep gorget is loosely arranged round the neck, and on the 
head is the diamond-shaped hood, with wide, ungainly lappets 
reaching nearly to the elbow. Beneath is visible the braided 
hair on the forehead. The feet, in broad-toed shoes, are under 
the folds of the surcote, and the hands are in the attitude of 
prayer. 

A similar head-dress is shown in the portrait of Margaret, 
Countess of Richmond, mother of Henry VII., now in the 
National Portrait Gallery. 



Monumental Effigies. 



235 



6. The head rests on two large tasselled pillows, supported 
on either side by an angel sitting down, and curiously feathered 
to the feet. A third pillow, also tasselled, is placed under the 
shoulders. 

7. The feet rest on a dog lying down. 

8. The effigy, on a deep slab, is placed on the top step on 
the north side of the Delabere monument, and the feet enter 
a small recess made in the wall. 

9. There is no inscription. Bigland, page 380, states that 
some Gothic characters, scarcely legible, are on the slab. They 
are now hidden. 

An unknown lady, about 1500. 

10. The figure is not painted, but there are traces of red 
paint on the head-dress, the pillows and the angels. 

11. The features are worn. The fingers of both hands 
are broken off, and the mantle is chipped. 

12. Placed in the north-east corner of the south chapel 
within the rails of the Delabere monument. Rudder, page 
373, describes it in the same place, and Bigland, page 380, note, 
states that it was removed from Southam Chapel. 

13. No illustration known. Mentioned in Trans. B. & G. 
Arch. Soc, vol. iv., pp. 24, 244 and 264. 

14. It is in fair condition, but rather worn. It must have 
been originally a tasteful and dainty figure. 

15. The person represented is not known. 

Richard Delabere and Wife, a.d. 1636. 

1. Civilian and lady. 

2. Recumbent effigies. 

3. Alabaster, with pillars of black marble. 

4. Life-size. Man 6 ft. long, lady 5 ft. 9 in. long. 

5. The man wears a pointed doublet buttoned down the 
centre and tight at the waist, to which is fastened by six points 
and aiglets a separate short skirt. The sleeves are tight-fitting, 
are fastened at the wrist by five buttons, and end in small 



236 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

ruffles. The waist is encircled by a jewelled belt, hooked in 
front. He wears full breeches gathered into a straight band 
above the knees, continued by tight hose fastened below by a 
garter of folded silk, edged with narrow lace. The feet have 
thick-soled shoes tied with a large bow of ribbon on the instep. 
Over all is a cloak to the feet thrown open on each side ; it 
has plain sleeves to the elbow and long pendent ones, elabo- 
rately slashed with ribbons and rosettes ; at the throat is a 
big falling ruff of four folds. The hair is long and curly, and 
the beard and moustache worn short. The hands are raised 
in the attitude of prayer. 

The lady wears a full gown to the feet, girdled and fastened 
by a rosette, and open in front to show a plain but full kirtle. 
The tight-fitting bodice with a pointed stomacher is cut square 
with a pleated partlet ab6ve. The sleeves are very large and 
open to show the full under-sleeves, tight at the wrist with 
large ruffles. Round the neck is a deep falling ruff of two 
folds, and below a large jewelled fermail in the form of a rose. 
The hair is long and curly over the ears, and confined by a 
tight-fitting cap with a large coverchief, edged with vandyked 
lace, which falls down the back, and is brought forward on 
the hips like a mantle. The feet are in thick-soled shoes, and 
the hands are raised in prayer. The features of both effigies 
are very good, and probably would be portraits. 

6. The head and shoulders of the figures rest on two large 
tasselled cushions edged with narrow fancy cording. 

7. The man's feet rest on the crest : A plume of five 
feathers issuing from a ducal coronet and wreath. 

The lady's feet rest on a filigree basket of roses and foliage. 

8. The monument is a large and costly example of seven- 
teenth-century work, and was erected by the widow at a cost 
of £400. The effigies recline on a high altar tomb, raised on 
two steps within a shallow semi-circular arcade, supported by 
four Corinthian pillars on tall plinths, each decorated with a 
winged hour-glass on a skull. Between the pillars there are 
four medallions, each with a figure in bas-relief twelve inches 



Berkeley Church. Pa S e *&• 

Thomas III, 8th Lord Berkeley, and Katherine his Wife. 




Berkeley Church. 
James I, 1 1th Lord Berkeley, and his son James, 



Page 153, 




Berkeley Church. Page 157. 

Henry I, 17th Lord Berkeley, and Katherine his Wife. 



Pi ' 



Frampton-on-Severn Church. Page 169. 




Frampton-on-Severn Church. 



Page 166. 



Pa S e T 7°- Page 230. 

North Nibley Church. Ashchurch Church. 

Grace Smith. William Ferrers. 




Bishop's Cleeve Church. 



Page 232. 



Page 241. 
Tewkesbury Abbey. 

Hugh, 5th Baron Despenser, 
and his Wife, Elizabeth. 



Page 235. 

Bishop's Cleeve Church. 

Richard Delabere and Margaret, 
his Wife. 




Tewkesbury Abbey. 



Page 244. 




Tewkesbury Abbey. 
Guy de Brien, Lord Welwyn. 



Page 249. 




Tewkesbury Abbey. 



Page 252 



Monumental Effigies. 



237 



high. On the right, Faith holding a book, and Hope with an 
anchor and dove ; on the left, Charity with two children, and 
Peace holding an olive branch. Above the architrave is a 
large panel containing the escutcheon and crest, with two 
figures two feet high, beautifully sculptured and standing on 
pedestals between slender pillars. Above again is a plain 
oval panel, topped by the crest on a larger scale. The figure 
on the right is Justice, in flowing drapery, holding a pair of 
scales in the left hand ; and on the left Strength, in loose 
drapery with a quiver of arrows slung across the shoulder, and 
the left hand resting on a column. The back of the arcade 
contains a rectangular tablet with no inscription, and sur- 
rounded by fourteen small shields bearing arms ; on the upper 
part are festoons of pears, supporting one of the shields, and 
below it two clasped hands, holding a tasselled ribbon, on 
which are threaded two wedding rings. 

The front and side of the tomb are divided into panels by 
plain pilasters, and the whole is enclosed within a high iron 
grille. 

The heraldry is as follows : — 

On the escutcheon : Quarterly of 8 (Bigland reads 9). 

(1) " Azure a bend argent cotised or between six martlets 
of the last," Delabere. 

(2) "Gules a bend argent a chief chequy azure and or," 
? Hunsted. 

(3) " Azure semee of eight crosses crosslet a lion rampant 
argent langued gules," De Kynardisley. 

(4) "Gules on a chief argent three martlets sable,"CHAB- 
benore. 

(5) "Gules three compony and paly argent and sable," 
Barre. 

(6) " Barry of six or and azure a bend gules," Penbruge. 

(7) "Azure a fess wavy between six dolphins naiant 
embowed argent," Newman. 

(8) " Argent two bendlets gules and a cinquefoil in sinister 
chief sable," ? Ireton. 

I? 

Vol. XXIX. 



2 3 8 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



Crest : On esquire's helmet and wreath with heavy mantling, 
out of a ducal coronet or, a plume of five feathers per pale of 
the first and azure. 

On a shield hanging from festoons (number 4) : Delabere 
impaling Newman and ? Ireton. 

On the thirteen small shields, starting above on the left in 
rows : (1) De la Bere. (2) ? Hunsted. (3) De la Bere. 
(5) Newman. (6) De Kynardisley. (7) Chabbenore. (8) 
"Gules fretty argent," Huddleston. (9) Barre. (10) De la 
Bere impaling "Gules a bend ermine," Walwyn. (ii) De 
la Bere impaling Huddleston. (12) ? Ireton. (13) 
Newman. (14) Penbruge. 1 

9. There is no inscription. 

Known to be Richard Delabere, died February 25th, 
1636, and Margaret, his wife. 2 

10. There is no painting, but the ornamentations are 
gilded. 

11. The buttons of the man's doublet are worn away, 
except three at the waist, and the crest at his feet is chipped.' 
The legs have been repaired. The lady's hands are restored. 

One of the panels on the front of the tomb is inscribed : 
"Repaired in the year 1803 by Thomas Baghott de la 
Bere Esq:" 

12. Placed at the east end of the south chapel against 
the wall. 

13. No illustration is known. 

14. The monument is in very good condition. 

15. About 1550 there was living at Kvnersley Kenard 
Delabere, a younger son of the family, who had a son Richard. 
This Richard is the person commemorated bv the effigy He 
was a barrister-at-law of Lincoln's Inn, and married Margaret 
daughter and heiress of John Newman of Billington, Worcester- 
shire. In 1607 he bought Southam, Gloucestershire, and took 
up the rights of lord of the manor in that year. This manor 

> Trans. B. &. G. Arch. Soc, vol. xxviii. pp. QO , 91. 
2 Atkyns, Gloucestershire, p. 185. 



Monumental Effigies. 



239 



was adjacent to Southam House, which was owned by Richard's 
first cousin, Kenard Delabere, through his marriage about 
1550 with Eleanor Huddlestone, heiress of that estate. 
Richard died in 1636 without issue, and the Manor of Southam 
then passed to his nephew of Southam House as next heir 
male, the two estates thus becoming merged. Richard 
Delabere was never a knight because he was fined £25 for 
refusing that honour at the coronation of Charles I. 1 

GROUNDS OF FORTHAMPTON COURT, near 
TEWKESBURY. 

A member of the De la Zouch family, about a.d. 1300. 

1. Military. Knight, cross-legged below the knee. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. More than life-size, 7 ft. 10 in. long. 

5. The knight wears a suit of chain mail. The hauberk 
has long sleeves and extends over the head, which is further 
protected by a helmet with the visor raised. A loose flowing 
surcoat reaches below the knees, and is cut up nearly to the 
waist. The chausses of mail cover the legs and feet, and the 
prick spurs (gone) were held in position by straps. A large 
heater shield is borne upright on the left arm, and is suspended 
by a guige passing over the right shoulder. There are traces 
of a coat of arms, " Bezanty," De la Zouch. A wide sword- 
belt is loosely buckled in front and is attached to the middle 
of a scabbard, which lies on the body in the same direction, 
and steadied by the left hand from beneath the shield. With 
his right hand the knight is probably sheathing the sword, but 
the pommel and crosshilt are broken off. 

6. The head rests on a block of stone. 

7. The feet rest on a lion lying down and facing the knight. 

8. The effigy is placed on a high altar tomb raised on three 

steps. On the upper row of the front are five cusped panels, 

1 Trans. B. & G. Arch. Soc, vol. xxviii. p. 56 ; Gloucestershire Visita- 
tion, p. 49, note. 



240 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

the three central ones containing shields with arms, and the 
others a raised cinquefoil. In the lower plain row are four 
angels on stone blocks holding shields without arms. On 
either side of the tomb is a large grotesque head or gargoyle. 

The arms on the three shields are : (a) "Three chevrons," 
Clare ; (b and c) "Three piles meeting in base," Brien. 

9. There is no inscription. Supposed to be a member of 
the De la Zouch family about 1300. The arms on the shield 
of the knight are those of the De la Zouch family, whilst those 
on the front of the tomb point to a connection with the Clare 
and Brien families. 

The De la Zouches and the Clares were both descended 
from families from Brittany, and the Briens are known to 
have been connections of the Clares. 1 

10. The rings of mail were stamped with gesso, but have 
quite disappeared. 

11. The figure is in a very weather-worn condition, and 
is overgrown with moss and lichen. It is not damaged, except 
that the top of the sword and the spurs are gone. The angels 
on the front of the tomb and the grotesque figures at the sides 
are not part of the original tomb. 

12. Erected in the grounds of Forthampton Court. The 
effigy is supposed to have been taken from the Lady Chapel of 
the Abbey Church of Tewkesbury. 2 

13. No illustration is known. 

14. The effigy is in a very bad condition, and the details 
of the costume are difficult to trace. 

15. It is not known which member of the De la Zouch 
family is here represented. 

THE ABBEY CHURCH, TEWKESBURY-Dedicated to 
St. Mary the Virgin. 

A Priest, about a.d. 1250. 

1. Ecclesiastical. Priest in choral vestments. 

2. Remains of a recumbent effigy in high relief. 

1 Blunt, History of Tewkesbury Abbey, p. 66, note. * Ibid., p. 67, note. 



Monumental Effigies. 



241 



3. Stone. 

4. Life-size, but only 20 inches of the middle of the figure 
remain. 

5. The figure evidently wore a surplice, the wide sleeves 
falling over the arms and showing beneath them the tight 
sleeves of the cassock. The hands are placed over a book 
resting on the breast. 

8. The figure is carved on a piece of a rectangular slab, 
now built into the wall. 

9. There are the remains of some lettering on the right- 
hand border, but they form no inscription. 

A Priest, about 1250. 

10. There are no signs of painting. 

11. Only the middle of the body remains. 

12. Built into the east wall of St. Nicholas Chapel, now 
used as the choir vestry. 

13. Mentioned in Trans. B. & G. Arch. Soc, vol. ix., 
page 70. 

14. It is in good condition. 

Hugh, 5th Baron Despenser, a.d. 1349, an d Lady. 

1. Military. Knight in armour. 
Lady. 

2. Recumbent effigies. 

3. White alabaster. 

4. Life-size. Man, 6 ft. 4 in. long ; lady, 6 ft. 2 in. long. 

5. The knight is encased in a mixed suit of chain and 
plate as worn about 1350. On the head is a round bascinet, 
an early example, with a camail of chain, attached by a lace, 
passing through long staples. A hauberk reaches to the 
middle of the thighs, with sleeves which show at the armpits 
beneath the tight-fitting jupon. This garment is plain, and 
no longer charged with a coat of arms. The shoulders are 
further protected by epaulieres of three plates, the arms by 
hinged brassarts and vambraces with small coudes. The 
hands are covered with gauntlets, with small cuffs of three 



242 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



plates. The legs are cased in cuisses, and jambs of plate over 
the chausses of mail, which are visible at the instep ; the 
genouilleres are rounded, and the feet have articulated solerets 
with straps for the spurs. A plain sword-belt round the waist 
is fastened by a large buckle, and through it a much mutilated 
sword is slung by a loop, with remains of a single locket 
attached to the top of the scabbard. The hands are in the 
attitude of prayer. The knight is represented as a youthful 
and beardless man, and it is probably a portrait. 

The lady wears a sideless gown to the feet, fastened down 
the centre by seven large round buttons. Beneath is visible 
the tight-fitting cote-hardie, low at the neck, with long tight 
sleeves fastened from the wrist to above the elbow by a row 
of tiny buttons. From the shoulders hangs a loose mantle, 
reaching nearly to the feet, but with no sign of fastening. 
The head-dress is the nebule, square at the top, and with folds 
intended to represent frills. The hair is confined in a caul 
or close cap, and forms a kind of frame to the face, reaching 
far below the chin. Resting on the shoulders are shown two 
balls or cushions, probably confining escaped tresses, between 
which and the upper part of the head-dress a folded veil 
appears at the sides. The feet are covered with very pointed 
shoes, visible beneath the folds of the gown. The arms are 
mutilated, but they were probably in the attitude of prayer. 
This is also a portrait, and both figures are delicately carved, 
producing a simple and pleasing effect. 

A similar head-dress is shown on the brass of Joan de la 
Pole, 1370, Creshall, Essex. 

6. The knight's head rests on a tilting helm with crest : 
A winged griffin's head rising from a coronet. 

The lady's head rests on two tasselled pillows, the top one 
set diagonally. 

7. The knight's feet rest on a lion lying down and facing 
the figure, and the lady's on a hound lying down. 

8. The effigies are placed on a high altar tomb under a 
canopy of choice late Decorated work. It consists of four tiers 



Monumental Effigies. 



243 



of open arches, each diminishing upwards till -the last termin- 
ates in a point. All are richly decorated with crockets, finials 
and high pinnacles, and the whole forms a very elegant and 
beautiful structure of the middle of the fourteenth century. 
The roof over the figures is a fan vault of the simplest kind, 
each fan having only four ribs, and together forming arches 
whose slender shafts are brought down to divide the two figures. 
The front of the tomb is divided, by small cusped panels, into 
six narrow arched niches, with pedestals for statuettes. Round 
the top of the edge is a soffit of billets. The monument, 
including the effigies, was erected by the widow, Lady 
Elizabeth. 

9. There is no inscription. 

Known to be Hugh, 5TH Baron Despenser, died 1349, 
and Elizabeth Montacute, his wife, died 1359. 1 

10. The canopy and front of tomb were formerly painted ; 
traces of blue and red are still visible, especially on the vaulting. 
The coat of arms on the jupon was tinctured as late as 1789. 

11. The male figure has the nose, the left genouillere, and 
most of the sword broken off. The edge of the hauberk is 
chipped. 

The lady has the right arm broken off from the shoulder, 
and the left hand. The edge of the mantle is chipped. Some 
of the delicate tracery of the canopy is broken off, and the 
shafts of the fan- vaulting are strengthened by iron ties. The 
monument was restored in 1828, when it was in a very 
dilapidated condition. 2 

12. Placed in the third, and most eastern bay of the north 
arcade of the ambulatory. 

13. Male effigy illustrated in Gough, Sepulchral Monu- 
ments of Great Britain, part ii., page 256 ; by Mr. Albert 
Hartshorne in T rans. B. & G. Arch. Soc, vol. iv., page 237. 

Tomb illustrated in Dingley, History from Marble (Camden 
Society), vol. ii., page cccxl. ; plates by S. Wale (1745), and 
in the county histories. 

1 Blunt, History of Tewkesbury Abbey, p. 68, note. 2 Ibid., p. 123. 



244 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



14. The monument is in good condition and well cared 

for. 

15. Hugh, Lord Despenser, was the 5th Baron and 3rd 
le Despenser of the Tewkesbury Chronicle, and was born about 
1322. His father, Hugh Despenser the younger, was executed 
on 29th October, 1326, and on the death of his mother, 
Eleanor de Clare, about 1337, ne became Lord of Tewkesbury. 
He died in February, 1348-9, and in those few years was dis- 
tinguished in naval warfare. He married Elizabeth Montacute, 
daughter of the Earl of Salisbury, who was already the widow, 
since 1337, of Giles, the last Lord Badlesmere, and left no 
children. The widow retained the lordship of Tewkesbury 
until her death, in 1359, and meanwhile married Guy de 
Brien, Lord Welwyn. She died at Ashley, in Hampshire, 
and, according to her directions, was buried alongside her 
second husband as above. 1 

A Knight, about a.d. 1350. 

1. Military. Knight in armour. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Freestone. 

4. More than life-size, 7 ft. 3 in" in length. 

5. The knight wears a mixed suit of chain and plate, as 
worn at the middle of the fourteenth century, and is one of 
the five known figures dressed in " banded mail." A hauberk 
reaches to the middle of the thighs, and below is visible the 
gambeson ; over is worn a jupon, full on the hips, and fastened 
on the right side by four square clasps. The fulness marks 
the transition from the skirted to the tight-fitting jupon. It is 
charged with the arms, "A chevron between three leopards' 
faces, langued." On the head is a pointed bascinet of an early 
form, with the sides made low, and decorated with a narrow 
jewelled orle. A camail of " banded mail " is attached to it 
by a cord running through staples on the bascinet and the 
engrailed edging of the camail. 

1 Blunt, History of Tewkesbury Abbey, pp. 67, 68. 



Monumental Effigies. 



245 



The "banded mail" was made by sewing in successive 
rows rings of metal upon linen or fustian, the rings overlapping 
each other, so as to prevent the penetration of the sword-point. 
In the present effigy the lower edge of the camail is shown 
overlapping the jupon by a row of rings only. This kind of 
mail is only found represented in four other effigies in England, 
although common on brasses and in manuscripts. 

Over the long sleeves of the hauberk are apparently extra 
sleeves of fine leather, thick linen or fustian, fastened in places 
by ribbons, and probably forming part of the jupon. On the 
forearm is a tight-fitting covering, perhaps of the same mate- 
rial, with deep gauntlets of leather and strips of plate. The 
thighs are protected by studded armour or jazerant. This 
light armour in this effigy appears to represent a covering of 
silk or velvet over a padded garment of cloth, strengthened 
by longitudinal strips or splints of metal, the whole fastened 
by studs to a backing of canvas. There are plain genouilleres 
of plate, and the legs now appear smooth, perhaps having 
jambes of cuir bouilli. The feet are plain, being the remains 
of the mail cuisses, and show straps for the spurs. Round 
the waist is a narrow belt of square ornaments, fastened on 
the left side by a larger one. The sword-belt, wider and 
decorated at intervals with quatrefoils, passes obliquely over 
the jupon and is buckled on the left side, the end, with its 
ornamental scape, being looped under it. On the left, passing 
through the belt, is a long sword with cross-hilt and wheel- 
shaped pommel. Held upright on the left arm is a heater 
shield, charged like the jupon, and fastened to a narrow 
decorated guige which passes over the right shoulder. The 
hands are in the attitude of prayer, and the moustache is worn 
long. 

6. The head rests on a tilting helm, surmounted by the 
crest : Out of a ducal coronet a lion's head langued. 

7. The feet rest on a lion lying down facing the figure. 

8. The effigy, on its slab, is placed on an altar tomb 
within a shallow recess, with a plain background and vaulting, 



246 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



and surmounted by an ogee-shaped crocketed arch with a 
quatrefoil in the centre, and ending in a handsome finial of 
four sets of foliage. 

The front of the tomb has a row of ten narrow cusped 
panels. The canopy is of a later date than the effigy. 

9. There is no inscription. 

An unknown knight, about 1350. 

The effigy has long been ascribed in error to Lord Wenlock, 
died 1471, as was clear to Stothard in 1813. Mr. A. Hartshorne 
discusses its identity, and puts forward, on the suggestion of 
Mr. St. Clair Baddeley, that it represents a member of a family 
of Burley, of the time of Edward III. Its author, however, is 
satisfied on further investigation that this idea is untenable, 
and is unable to offer any other identification. He has kindly 
pointed out that about the right date there was a William 
de Farington, whose arms on a seal are said to be " a chevron 
between three leopards' heads bearded, langued also," and that 
a Robert de Farington held a quarter of a fee in Dorsetshire 
in 1346, in the Hundred of Calvardestre. There is, however, 
no connection known between this family and Tewkesbury. 

10. There are neither painting nor whitewash on the figure 
now. In 1813 Charles Stothard spent a whole day in clearing 
away the whitewash before he drew the figure for his great 
work. 1 

11. The features are defaced, and the fingers, edge of 
shield, and the sword are damaged. The canopy has been 
mended in places, and the tracery of the quatrefoils in the 
centre of the arch is destroyed. 

12. Placed in a recess at the east end of the north aisle 
of the nave. This is not the original position, but it has been 
removed from elsewhere, as shown by the date of the recess, 
and the position of the effigy with the shield nearest the wall. 

13. Illustrated in Stothard, Monumental Effigies, plates 
73 and 74 ; Gough, Sepulchral Monuments of Great Britain, 
vol. ii., plate lxxxvii. ; Bigland, History of Gloucestershire; 

1 Trans. B. £> G. Arch. Soc, vol. xxv., p. 49. 



Monumental Effigies. 



247 



Lyson, Magna Britannia, vol. L, page ill ; Dingley, History 
from Marble, vol. ii., page cccl. 

14. The effigy is well-cared for. 

15. The identity of the effigy has not been recognised. 

Edward, 6th Baron Despenser, a.d. 1375. 

1. Military. Knight in armour. 

2. Kneeling effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size. 

5 The knight wears a mixed suit of chain and plate. A 
hauberk, pointed in front, reaches to the middle of the thighs, 
with sleeves which show at the armpits beneath the tight- 
fitting jupon. This garment is charged in front and behind 
with the Despencer arms-quarterly; the second and thud 
quarters frettv over all a bend," the field of the quarters being 
diapered. On the head is a pointed bascinet, with a camail 
of chain attached by a lace passing through staples and ending 
in tassels The shoulders are further protected by epauheres 
of three plates, the arms by hinged brassarts and vambraces 
with small coudes, and the hands by cuffed gauntlets. Hinged 
cuisses and jambs, with small genouilleres, meet painted 
solerets with straps for the spurs. Round the hips is a hand- 
some baudric of square medallions, fastened in front by a 
large one, no weapons being attached. The hands are m the 
attitude of prayer. 

This figure is of unique interest because it shows the front 
and back view of a knight in armour, and the original colouring 
and diaper work being still in existence, it gives a good idea 
of the appearance of military effigies towards the end of the 

reign of Edward III. 

7. The figure is kneeling on a square tasselled cushion, 

set diagonally. 

8 The kneeling figure facing the high altar is placed on 
-the roof of the chantry chapel of the Holy Trinity, under a 



248 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



small open canopy of late Decorated work in two tiers, dimin- 
ishing upwards into a point. In the chapel below, on the east 
wall, above where the altar stood, are the remains of a painted 
fresco. In the centre is a representation of the Blessed 
Trinity, with an angel on either side swinging a censer, and 
behind them are figures of Edward Despenser and his wife, 
kneeling in adoration. They are in civil dress, with the details 
shown in colour. Below are traces of Christ crowning the 
Church, but this is now nearly obliterated. 

9. There is no inscription. 

Known to be Edward, 6th Baron Despencer, died 1375. 1 

10. The figure is placed so high that details of the painting 
cannot be examined, but they have faded into the appearance 
of a dull black and red. 

11. There are no mutilations visible. 

The canopy over the figure was not there in Lyson's time, 
but was restored in 1827.- 

12. On the roof of the Trinity Chapel, situated on the 
south side of the Presbytery. 

13. Effigy, described and illustrated by Mr. Albert 
Hartshorne, Trans. B. & G. Arch. Soc, vol. iv., p. 240, and 
Arch. Journal, vol. xlvii., p. 297, and by Carter, Ancient 
Sculpture and Painting, plate xxii. The fresco figures are 
illustrated in Lyson, Coll. of Glo. Antiq., plate Ixxix., and 
Gentleman's Magazine, November, 1849. 

14. The general condition is very good. 

15. Edward, 6th Lord de Despencer, succeeded to the 
lordship of Tewkesbury on the death of his aunt, the widow 
of Hugh, 5th Lord Despencer, whose monument is described 
on page 241. He constantly fought in France with the Black 
Prince, and was one of the set of nobles to be first created 
Knights of the Garter. He married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Bartholomew, Lord de Burghersh, who survived him with 
their third son Thomas. He died at Cardiff Castle in 1375,. 

1 Blunt, History of Tewkesbury Abbey, p. 70. 
- Dingley, History from Marble, vol. ii. p. 121, Editor's note. 



Monumental Effigies. 



249 



aged about 38, and was buried at Tewkesbury, in the Chapel 
of the Holy Trinity, which was specially built in the abbey 
by his widow as a monument to him. 1 

Guy de Brien, Lord Welwyn, a.d. 1390. 

1. Military. Knight in armour. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Freestone. 

4. Life-size, 6 ft. 3 in. in length. 

5. The knight wears a mixed suit of chain and plate 
armour. A hauberk reaches to the middle of the thighs, with 
long sleeves, and over it is worn a plain jupon with an edging 
of leaves. In 1813 it was shown charged with the Brien arms, 
and the field stamped in gesso with a diaper pattern. 2 All 
traces of these have disappeared except a small portion of 
the diaper, visible at the back. On the head is a pointed 
bascinet, with a camail of chain, attached by a lace, passing 
through small staples. The right arm is quite smooth, but 
has a cup-shaped coude at the elbow. In Stothard's time 
the forearm showed longitudinal strips of plate or cuir bouilli, 
worn over the hauberk. The hand is broken off, but the cuff 
of the gauntlet remains ; the left arm is missing. The legs 
are cased in chausses of mail, with added defences of longitu- 
dinal strips of plate above and below the knees. The small 
genouilleres are strapped under the knee, and the spur straps, 
decorated with roses, are buckled across the instep with 
another strap hooked on and passing under the foot. A 
handsome baudric of square medallions is on the hips and 
knotted in front, the end hanging straight down to the edge 
of the hauberk. Both the sword and dagger are broken off, 
but the cord that held the dagger is still fixed to the baudric. 
The right arm seems to have been in the act of sheathing the 
sword. The figure could not have been intended as a portrait, 
because the knight died at the age of 90, and the effigy shows, 

1 Blunt, History of Tewkesbury Abbey, p. 7°- 
2 Stothard, Monumental Effigies, (Hewitt's edition) p. 133. 



2.50 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

conventionally, a middle-aged man with a moustache. The 
diaper work of the jupon, and the long strips of plate on the 
legs suggest that the effigy was carved by Flemish workmen, 
as shown on brasses of the reign of Edward III. 

Similar diaper work is shown on the effigy to Edward 
Lord Despenser, in the same abbey, and as this was erected 
between 1375 and* 1380, it may be surmised the present effigy 
came from the same school at about the same date, because 
the Chapel of St. Margaret had been recently completed before 
the death of Guy de Brien. ' 

6. The head rests on a tilting helm surmounted by a 
crest — The mutilated head of an animal. Stothard suggests 
a griffin. 

7. The feet rest on a lion lying down and turned away 
from the figure. 

8. The effigy is placed on a high altar tomb beneath a 
canopy of choice late Decorated work, a copy of the Despenser 
monument opposite, but less beautiful in detail. It consists 
of four tiers of tri-cusped arches, each diminishing upwards, 
till the last terminates in a point. All are decorated with 
crockets, finials, and high pinnacles of delicate tracery, but 
the effect is somewhat broken up by three disjointed stalks 
of finials rising from the upper stages. The arching of the roof 
is unusual, and consists of a cross vault, formed by the inter- 
section of trefoil-arched, instead of plain-arched, cells. The 
front of the tomb is divided by clustered pillars into three 
square panels, foliated and bearing shields. 

The arms on the central shield are : " Three piles meeting 
in base," Brien. On the other two : Brien impaling " three 
fusils in fess," Montacute. The sides of the tomb are divided 
into two narrow, tricusped panels. 

9. There is no inscription. 

Known to be Guy de Brien, Lord Welwyn, died 1390, 
aged 90. 2 

1 Druitt, Costume on Brasses, p. 43 ; Blunt, History of Tewkesbury 
Abbey, p. 69. 

1 Blunt, History of Tewkesbury Abbey, p. 69. 



Monumental Effigies. 



251 



10. The mail was represented in gesso, and is a late 
example of that work. The rings were originally stamped in 
three sizes, but all traces have disappeared except at the back 
of the camail (the largest links) and under the right arm, left 
leg and feet. In Stothard's time the gesso was covered with 
gilt and silver leaf (one of the chief reasons for using gesso), 
but that has long since disappeared. Traces of it are to be 
found on the back of the jupon, under the legs, right arm and 
camail, and on the hauberk under the left shoulder. Red 
paint is visible on the tilting helm and the baudrie. A 
beautiful blue colour still remains on the vaulting of the canopy, 
the intersections being gilded. It is suggested that the blue 
colour does not represent the sky, as in later canopies, but 
refers to the blue ribbon of the Order of the Garter. 

11. The left arm and the right hand are missing, also the 
sword 4nd dagger. The lower half of the left foot, and the 
toes of the right are mutilated, and the baudrie is broken in 
several places. The crest on the tilting helm is very worn. 
The monument was greatly dilapidated, and was restored in 
1828, and has been cleaned since 1890. At the beginning of 
the seventeenth century the monument and chapel were kept 
in repair at the expense of E. Alye, Bailiff of Tewkesbury. 1 

Certain pegs on the arms and legs, mentioned in other 
descriptions, do not now exist. 2 

12. Placed in the centre of the screen dividing the chapel 
of St. Margaret from the north ambulatory. 

13. Tomb illustrated in Gough, Sepulchral Monuments of 
Great Britain, vol. i., plate liii. ; Dingley, History from Marble, 
vol. ii., p. cccxlv. ; plate by S. Wale, 1745. Effigy engraved in 
Stothard, Monumental Effigies, plates 96 and 97, with vignette 
of tomb. Described by Mr. Albert Hartshorn e in Bristol 
and Glo. Arch. Soc, vol. iv., p. 238. 

14. The interesting details of the armour have been lost 

1 Blunt, History of Tewkesbury Abbey, p. 123 ; Dingley, History from 
Marble, vol. ii., p. cccxlv. 

2 Stothard, Monumental Effigies (Hewitt's edition), p. 133; Arch- 
Journal, vol. xl-vii. p. 299. 



252 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

through numerous restorations, but the figure is now well 
preserved, and the canopy in excellent condition. 

15. Guy de Brien was lord of Castle .Welwyn in Pem- 
brokeshire, and a connection of the Clares of Tewkesbury. 
He took part in the French and Irish wars of Edward III., 
being standard bearer to that monarch, and later was made 
a Knight of the Garter on its first institution. He held many 
important posts at Court and in the county, and must have 
been more than a fighter, as his name appears several times 
as executor to other barons, and he attended Parliament till 
within two years of his death. About 1350 he married 
Elizabeth Montacute, widow of Hugh, 5th Baron Despenser. 
There was a son, Guy, by this marriage, and there is mention 
of a William, son of Guy de Brien, who was buried at Seale 
Church, Kent, but the family became extinct. It is uncertain 
if Guy de Brien were buried in the tomb he had prepared. 1 

Cadaver, Fifteenth Century. 

1. Male. Cadaver. 

2. Recumbent. 

3. Freestone. 

4. Life-size, 5 ft. 8 in. long. 

5. The figure lies in the open shroud, tied at the ends, 
placed on a rush mat with rounded ends. It is represented 
shrunken, as it would appear a little time after death, with 
the muscles well marked. The head is shown with the broad 
tonsure and straight hair ; the left arm hangs at the side, 
and the right rests on the thigh. The body is crawled over 
by vermin, a mouse gnaws at the bowels, a snail is on the left 
arm, a lizard crawls up the left leg, and another, with a frog, 
is in the shroud. 

6. The head rests on the knotted end of the shroud. 

7. The feet rest on the slab against a similar knotted end. 

8. The cadaver rests on an altar tomb in two stages, 

1 Blunt, History of Tewkesbury Abbey, p. 69 ; Stothard, Monumental 
Effigies (Hewitt's edition), p. 133. 



Monumental Effigies 



253 



under a canopy of the latest style of Gothic architecture, 
decorated with a profusion of tabernacle work. The canopy 
consists of a rounded and tri-cusped arch with open quatrefoils, 
and small shields within the spandrels. Rising from the 
centre of the tomb is an ogee arch, richly foliated with arches, 
cusps and quatrefoils, and above the whole are three projecting 
canopies of beautiful and rich tabernacle work. The piers, 
which support the canopy on either side, are faced with light 
buttresses, with octagonal pedestals between them surmounted 
by niches. 

The altar part of the tomb, instead of being solid, is hollow, 
one side being open and formed into a flat arch with foliated 
spandrels, and with no second effigy within ; the other side 
has a fine screen of perforated tracery forming three stars. 

Between some of the rays are plain squares bearing carvings 
of the emblems of the Passion— the crown of thorns, three 
nails, the ladder and scourge, and the bag of money held in 
a hand. 

A cast of the monument is placed in the Crystal Palace, 
London, and the canopy was copied for the throne in the 
House of Lords. 

9. There is no inscription. 
An Ecclesiastic. 

The architecture of the monument belongs to about the 
middle of the fifteenth century, but in the opinion of Mr. 
Albert Hartshorne the cadaver has been brought from else- 
where, and he points out that in other tombs it is always found 
on the lower stage, and the upper slab reserved for the life-like 
effigy. 1 

It has often been attributed to Abbot Wakeman, of 
Tewkesbury, who died 1549, a century after the monument 
was designed. 

10. There are no traces of painting. 

11. The right arm is broken from the shoulder to near 
the wrist, and the hand is gone. The fingers of the left hand 

1 Trans. B. & G. Arch. Soc, vol. xxv., p. 52. 
18 

Vol. XXIX, 



254 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



are mutilated, also the vermin. The canopy is in good preser- 
vation except some of the small squares in the openwork of 
the front which are gone. 

12. Placed in the north-east corner of the ambulatory, 
in the eastern side of the entrance to St. Edmund's Chapel. 

13. Tomb illustrated in Lyson, Coll. of Glo. Antiq. y 
plate xlv., and Trans. B. & G. Arch. Soc, xxv., page 43. 

14. The general condition is good. 

John Roberts, a.d. 1631. 

1. Civilian. 

2. Half length of upright effigy. 

3. Stone ; the canopy of white marble. 

4. Life-size. 

5. The figure is dressed in a doublet, closely buttoned 
down the centre, with a short skirt fastened below the waist 
by five points. The sleeves are tight-fitting, and end in full 
ruffles. Round the waist is an ornamental belt, hooked in 
front and buckled on the right side, where a drooping sword- 
belt is hooked, but only a small portion is visible. Over the 
shoulders and arms there is a plain cloak, surmounted by a 
big falling ruff of many folds, tied in front with narrow cord 
and tassels. The hair is short and curly, and the beard and 
moustache small. The left hand rests on a skull placed on 
a book, and the right hand holds a pair of gloves with fringed 
tops. 

8. A mural monument with a shallow recess, in which is 
placed the effigy, facing outwards. Above is a square canopy, 
decorated with four cherubs' heads, and supported by two 
Corinthian pillars, the whole surmounted by an emblazoned 
shield and wreath, but no crest. 

Below the figure is an oblong inscribed tablet within a 
plain frame. Arms on shield: "Per pale argent and gules, 
over all a lion rampant sable langued gules," Roberts. 

9. Inscription beneath the figure (nearly obliterated) :— 
" Here resteth what was mortal of John Roberts of 



Monumental Effigies. 



255 



Fiddington Gent carefull he was to maintaine 
Tillage, the maintenance of mankind. He feared 
God, was faithfull to his Country and Friends, Good 
to the Poor and Commonwealth, Just to all Men, 
who left us Jany. 1631 aged 77." 

Round the edge of recess : "For Christ is to me both in 
life and in death, advantage." Philippians i. 21. 

John Roberts, died 1631, aged 77. 

10. The doublet and cloak are painted black, the belts 
and fringed tops of gloves gold, the ruff and ruffles white. 
The pillars of the canopy and the inscribed tablet are painted 
black, the cherubs' wings gold and the book red. 

11. An angel formerly stood on either side of the shield, 
but they are destroyed, and the cherubs' heads are gone, 
the wings alone remaining. The canopy is badly chipped. 

12. Placed against the north wall of the north transept. 

13. The coat of arms is illustrated and the inscription 
given in Dingley, History from Marble, vol. ii., p. cccxxxviii. 

14. It is in fair condition. 

15. John Roberts appears to have left three daughters, 
as shown by coats of arms existing in churches in the 
neighbourhood. Margaret married James Powell (Deerhurst), 
died 1656; Mary married John Freeman (Hasfield), died 
1658 ; Alice married Richard Baugh (Twyning), died 1670. 
He left by will, in 1631, the interest on £20 for ever to buy coal 
for the poor. 1 

TWYNING CHURCH— Dedicated to St. Mary Magdalen. 
Sybil Clare, a.d. 1575. 

1. Lady and babe. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Alabaster ; pillars of the canopy black marble. 

4. Life-size. Lady, 5 ft. 4 i n - lon g > babe > 3 9 in - lon g- 

5. The lady wears a plain kirtle, and a full long gown 

1 Trans. B. & G. Arch. Soc, vol. xxviii. p. 404. 



256 Transactions for the Year iqo6. 

thrown open from the waist downwards, and edged with a 
narrow bordering of fur. The bodice is tight-fitting, open in 
front, with a small stomacher, and a high upstanding collar 
at the back. Beneath is a gathered partlet, surmounted by 
a small one-fold ruff. The tight-fitting sleeves have small 
epaulets, are cut open on the outside to show the full under- 
sleeves, and are tied in seven places by knotted laces. At the 
wrists are small full ruffles, and round the waist is a folded 
scarf, tied in a knot with short ends ; on the right side is a 
pocket hole. There is an unusual display of embroidery work 
on the costume ; single rows decorate the sleeves, round the 
armpits, bodice and pocket, whilst double rows border the 
gown and kirtle. A long chain of narrow links is passed twice 
round the neck over the partlet, but the pendant, which was 
probably a small cross, is gone. The hair is worn very curly 
in front, and confined by a French hood, with a veil falling 
behind nearly to the shoulders, and a coronal of raised medal- 
lions. The left arm encircles the babe, and the right hand holds 
at the waist the remains of a small book. On the feet are 
square-toed shoes. 

The babe is dressed in swaddling clothes, with broad bands 
wound round and round, and a close-fitting cap. 

6. The head and shoulders rest on a square cushion, 
tasselled and adorned with scrollwork. 

7. The feet are not covered by the gown, and are shown 
amidst the folds of the garment. 

8. A raised tomb, with an effigy beneath a shallow oblong 
canopy, supported by two small black marble columns with 
Corinthian capitals. The vaulting is panelled, enclosing alter- 
nate squares and circles, and at the back is a brass plate with 
inscription. Shields were probably fixed on either side, but 
only the holes remain. The pointed testoon is surmounted 
by a coat of arms and crest : — 

Quarterly and grand quarters. 1st and 4th: "Or three 
chevrons ermines," Clare. 2nd and 3rd, Quarterly 1st and 
4th : " Sable on a chevron between three escollops argent, 



Monumental Effigies. 



257 



three pellets on a chief of the second, three blackbirds of the 
first," Ryce. 2nd and 3rd : " Gules two lions passant argent," 
Strange (in error). Should be, "Or two lions passant, 
guardant in pale, the one in chief gules, the other azure," 
D'Abitot. 1 

Crest: On esquire's helmet, and wreath with mantling, 

a buck's head cabossed proper. 

The front of the tomb is divided by three plain columns 

into two panels with framed tablets, which probably at one 

time bore shields. 

9. Inscription on brass at the back of canopy : — 
" Heare lyeth buried the bodyes of Sybill Clare wyffe to 
Ffrances Clare esquier, and Anne their daughter, 
which Sybill was only daughter and heire apparante 
unto Gabriell Blycke esquier and Margaret his wyffe 
whoe in ye 18 yeare of her age gave her in marriage 
to the saved Ffrances. a gentleman bothe worsfhipfull 
in parentage and comendable in good qualities be- 
tween whom such was the affection and good lykinge 
as was seldom seen in their age, for as yf they had not 
ben prevented by deathe they had continewed a rare 
example but when they moste rejoyced their matche 
they weare sonest devided ; for the sayed Sybill 
beinge conceaved wyth child and after a dewe time 
delivered of a daughter wyth in one forthnight fell 
sycke and after she had languished certain dayes she 
willinglye yelded her innocente soule into the handes 
of God the XIII daye of Februarye in the yeare of 
our Lord 1575 to the unspeakable losse and sorowe of 
her deare parentes, ffrendes and of all that knewe her, 
but most especiallye of her lovinge husband beinge 
departed ffrom so deare a wyffe well endewed wyth 
sundrye rare gyftes, both of bodye and minde in 
whose remembrance as an eternall pledge of good 
will the sayed Fraunces caused this monument to be 
1 Trans. B. & G. Arch. Soc, vol. xxviii. p. 446. 



258 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

erected at his proper costes and charges the 12 of 
Auguste in the yeare of our Lord 1577 to whose soule 
God graunte a joy full resurrection. Amen." 
Inscription on testoon : — 
»►& " Feare not the sentence of deathe remember what thinges 
have hapned the and what (s)hall after befall unto 
the it is the judgemente of God to all ffieashe." 
Sybil Clare died 1575, and infant Anne. 

10. The effigy is not painted, but there are traces of gild- 
ing and red paint on the coronal. The tinctures on the coat 
of arms are nearly obliterated. 

11. The noses of the lady and babe are defaced, the left 
hand, the fingers of the right hand, and the book within them 
are mutilated ; the edge of the bodice and stand-up collar are 
chipped. The pendant is missing, and a tassel from the cushion. 
A portion of the dress at the feet is sawn away. The canopy 
is cracked in places and portions broken off. 

12. Placed against the south wall of the chancel, the 
figure facing the west. The monument formerly stood on the 
opposite side of the chancel, but was removed at the last 
restoration in 1868. 

13. No illustration is known. 

14. The effigy is in very good condition. 

15. The record of this lady's life, as far as it is known, is 
shown in the inscription. 

William Hancock and two Sons, a.d. 1676. 

1. Civilians. Father and two sons. 

2. Half-length upright effigies. 

3. Stone ; pillars and inscribed panels of black marble. 

4. Life-size. 

5. The central figure represents the father, and he is 
dressed in a loose coat open in front, with full sleeves and 
turned-back cuffs. Beneath is a vest closely buttoned down 
the centre, with tight sleeves ending in very narrow turned- 
back cuffs, and round the neck is a deep square falling band 



Monumental Effigies. 



259 



■decorated with a wide edging of embroidery. He has bushy 
hair at the sides, covered by a close-fitting coif, and a mous- 
tache. The left hand, holding a handkerchief, rests on the 
breast, and the right is placed on a skull. The figure on the 
right represents the eldest son, dressed in a similar coat, vest 
and falling band, but the sleeves of the coat are larger at the 
wrist, and are turned back to show the undersleeves, which do 
not end in cuffs. He is clean-shaven, and wears the hair long 
.and flowing to the shoulders. The right hand, holding a 
handkerchief, rests on the breast, and the left is on a skull. 
The figure on the left represents the son by the second wife. 
He is dressed like his brother, except the falling band is re- 
placed by a lace cravat knotted at the throat. In the left 
hand he holds a scroll. It is probable that all three are 
portraits. 

8. A wide and lofty mural monument adorned with 
debased ornamentation. The three figures, facing outwards, 
are placed within a shallow arched recess, decorated with 
festoons of drapery, and supported by two twisted columns 
with Corinthian capitals. The pointed testoon with two cornu- 
copias of grapes is surmounted by an oval shield with coat of 
arms, and on either side is reclining a nude figure of a boy 
blowing a trumpet draped, the right hand holding a crown 
and the feet resting on a skull. 

Below the effigies there are three narrow panels, with 
inscriptions and a narrow straight painting of a seascape, 
representing four ships or tenders in full sail with a boat under 
the stern. In the centre is the coat of arms, also painted. 
Underneath are three oval inscribed panels framed in wreaths 
of bay leaves, and divided by knotted drapery, and below that 
again a small panel with two sculptured greyhounds caressing. 
Coat of arms at top of canopy : 

« Gules a dexter hand couped at the wrist argent on a chief 
of the second three fighting cocks of the first," Hancock. 
Arms at foot : 

Hancock impaling -Argent on a chevron sable three 



260 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



quatrefoils of the first, in a canton a martlet of the second," 
? Eyre. 

9. Inscription on narrow panel above the head of central 
figure : — 

" You that now view this Tombe 
To death ere long must come 
Live so as not to be afraide to dye 
Rest once in hopes to live eternally." 
Inscription on three narrow panels beneath the figures : 

(1) "I have run the race y was sett before mee." 

(2) "I sleepe in peace and rest from my labours." 

(3) " There is laid up for me a crown of life." 
Inscription on three oval panels : — 

(1) " To the memory of William Hancock of this parish 
Gent. (Eldest sonne of the here mentioned William 
Hancock Esq: by his wife) who departed ys life the 
15th day of December 1674 aged 49 years." 

(2) " To the memory of William Hancock senior of Norton 
in the Parish of Bredon in the county of Worcester 
Esq: who was borne in this parish & departed this life 
the sixth day of August 1676 aged 82 years." 

(3) " To the memory of Charles Hancock of this Parish 
Esq: (only son of William Hancock senior Esq: by his 
last wife) who departed this life ye 29th day of March 
A d 1717 aged 73." 

William Hancock senior died 1676, aged 82 years. 
William Hancock junior died 1674, aged 49 years. 
Charles Hancock died 1717, aged 73 years. 

10. The figures are not painted, but the ornamentations 
of the canopy, such as the boys' heads, instruments, cornuco- 
pias, etc., are gilded. The seascape is painted in natural 
colours on the stone. 

11. The colours of the seascape and the coats of arms in 
the centre are becoming obliterated. 

12. Placed against the south wall of the belfry tower, now 
used as a vestry. The monument was formerly affixed to the 



Monumental Effigies. 



261 



north wall of the chancel, and was probably removed when 
the organ chamber was built before 1880. 
12. There is no illustration known. 

14. The monument is in good condition. 

15. No personal details are known of William Hancock, 
senior, and his eldest son William. 

Charles Hancock lived at Church End, an adjoining hamlet, 
for many years after his father's death, and in 1715 gave £5 
for a sermon to be preached annually on Marriage, on Lady 
Day (April 6th) ; the congregation to receive £3 10s. for attend- 
ing to listen to it, the parson £1, and the clerk 5s. the remaining 
5s. the bellringers on 5th November. He also gave two silver 
flagons to the church of Twyning for the use of the communion 
for ever. 1 

WINCHCOMBE CHURCH— Dedicated to St. Peter. 
Thomas Williams, Esq., a.d. 1636. 

1. Military. Esquire in armour. 

2. Kneeling effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size. 

5. The figure wears a short buff coat beneath a metal 
cuirass with tapul. The arms are covered with laminated 
brassarts, plain coudes and vambraces, beyond which are the 
sleeves of the buff coat fastened by four buttons. A deep 
falling band, simply embroidered at the back, is round the 
neck ; a wide scarf passes over the right shoulder and crosses 
beneath the left arm, with embroidered and stolelike ends ; 
and a narrow belt, divided in squares, encircles the waist. 
Tassets of five plates to the knee are worn over thin loose 
breeches ; below are buff leather boots with small vandycked 
tops, and large heart-shaped spur leathers strapped over the 
instep. The studs of the Almayne rivets are clearly shown on 
the armour, and the cuirass is engraved in front. The hair 

1 Bigland, Gloucestershire. 



262 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

is worn moderately long, straight on the top with a band of 
regular curls at the ends, and a carefully-cut beard and pointed 
moustache. The hands are raised in prayer. 

7. The figure kneels on a square cushion, tasselled and 
fringed, in front of a small pillared desk with an open book on it. 

8. A mural monument with a canopy of two shallow 
arched recesses, supported by two Corinthian pillars on plinths 
and corbels, bearing a moulded architrave. Above is an 
escutcheon and crest with a skull and two pyramidal finials. 
The man kneels in the right recess, and the other is not rilled, 
his widow having married again. 

The arms are : 

" Argent, a chevron between three cocks gules on a chief 
sable three spearheads of the first, the points embrued of the 
second," Williams. 

" Impaling per pale and per chevron argent and sable 
between three martlets counterchanged 1 and 2" ? Renshaw 
or Hawkins. 

Crest : On esquire's helmet with wreath and mantling a 
cock as in the arms. 

These arms do not correspond with those of the Hawkins 
family, but it may be that Thomas Williams married a second 
time a Renshaw, because the death of Hester, wife of a Thomas 
Williams, is recorded in 1674 ; or the grandson, who died in 
1669, may have married a Renshaw, and her coat of arms may 
be impaled here in error on the repainting of the monument 
at a later date than its erection, when the description of Sir 
David Williams as a Baronet (an honour which belonged to 
his grandson) may have also crept in. 1 

9. Inscription on a shield beneath the monument : — 

" This is the Effigies of Thomas Williams Esq: of Cornden, 
. the second son of Sr David Williams, Baronet of 
Gwernewett in Brecknockshire, on(e) of his Majesties 
Judges in Westminster, who was buried here the 28th 
day of May in the year 1636." 
1 1 Trans. B. 6- G. Arch. Soc, vol. xxviii. p. 400. 



Monumental Effigies. 



263 



Thomas Williams died 1636, aged 54. 

10. The details of the armour, scarf and cushion are 
gilded, as well as those of the architrave ; the canopy was 
painted black, but is now nearly free except the columns. 

11. Some of the moulding of the monument is broken 
away. 

12. Placed against the north wall of the chancel. 

13. No illustration is known. 

14. The general condition is good. 

15. Thomas Williams was the second son of Sir David 
Williams of Gwernewett, Breconshire. The latter was a Judge 
of the King's Bench from 1604 to his death in January, 1613, 
and was a knight, and not a baronet, as stated in the inscription 
above. 

Nothing is known of the occupation of Thomas Williams, 
but he is described as being of Cockthrop, Oxfordshire, and 
.appears to have bought Cornden, by Winchcombe, which manor 
passed to his son and grandson, and thence to the elder branch 
of the family. Descendants of the family still live at Gwerne- 
wett in Breconshire. He married Hester, daughter of James 
Hawkins, Esq., of Washbourne, co. Worcester, and had several 
children. He may have married a second time. 1 

WOOLSTONE CHURCH.— Dedicated to St. Martin. 
A Priest, about a.d. 1425. 

1. Ecclesiastical. Priest in Eucharistic vestments. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Freestone. 

4. Life-size, 6 ft. 6 ins. long. 

5. The figure is attired in the vestments for the celebration 
<y{ the Mass. He wears a full alb to the feet, with long, 
tight sleeves, and over it a long rounded chasuble. The 
ends of the plain stole are visible, but he does not appear 
to bear the maniple on the left arm. Round the neck is a plain 

1 Burke, Extinct Baronetage, p. 568. 



264 Transactions for the Year 1906. 



amice. The head is tonsured, with bushy hair at the sides, and 
he is represented with big features and of strong build. On 
the feet are square-toed shoes, and the Hands, uncovered, are 
raised in prayer. 

6. The head rests on two pillows, the lower one oblong, 
the upper square and set diagonally. 

7. The feet come out of the folds of the alb. 

8. There is no tomb. The slab with effigy rests on the 
floor. 

9. There is no inscription. 
A Priest, about 1425. 

He probably lived in the first half of the fifteenth century, 
to judge by the arrangement of the hair, the stiff folds of the 
chasuble, and the absence of any decoration on the vestments. 
The church of Woolstone was attached to Deerhurst Priory 
as early as 1271, and this may represent an important priest 
who held the advowson. As the church was rebuilt in 1499, 
the effigy was probably removed from the old building. 1 

10. The figure is covered with whitewash. 

11. The features are very worn, and the right foot is broken 
off., 

12. Placed on the floor within the chancel rails on the 
north side, facing the east. 

13. There is no illustration known. 

14. The figure is clean and well taken care of. 

15. The priest is not identified. 



1 Atkyns, Gloucestershire, p. 445. 



BRISTOL ARCHAEOLOGICAL NOTES FOR 1905. 1 

VI. 



By JOHN E. PRITCHARD, RS.A. 
Honorary Secretary for Bristol. 



" What is local is often national." 
" A closer study of the antiquities of domestic life will not 
lessen, but rather heighten our interest in the grander and more 
imposing episodes of our national history." 



I wish in these notes to again specially refer to the fact of the 
rapidly diminishing relics of our ancient 

DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE. 

And though most of us at some time or another have doubtless 
asked the question, " What will happen next ? " whilst know- 
ing that the subject of the Dutch House might come up at 
any time for discussion in our Council Chamber, none of us, 
I imagine, were prepared for the rumour, which was current 
at the beginning of the year, that the exquisite chimney-piece 
at " Langton's House," on the Welsh Back, had been sold and 
would be leaving Bristol ! 

And if this statement was not absolutely correct, I 
found upon inquiry that the owner had resolved to remove 
not only that example of almost priceless carving, but the 
whole of the architectural details still existing in the old house 
to a new place 2 in Hampshire, now being erected to receive 

1 Read at the Bristol evening meeting, February 21st, 1906. 
2 Designed by Mr. Edwin L. Lutyens. 



2 66 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



these Jacobian remains, which I may remind you arc repre- 
sentative of early seventeenth -century interior work of which 
there is no equal in the city. 1 

This great loss to historic Bristol, which will be an accom- 
plished fact during 1906, emphasises our inability as a city 
to accept and erect specimens of this character ; and just as 
it is true in the commercial sense that we cannot expect shipping 
unless we possess adequate dock accommodation, so until we 
provide an 

ARCHITECTURAL COURT 

for the display of such examples as these, we shall assuredly 
lose one by one the very few vestiges of ancient buildings now 
left to us in the old city. 

I know I am correct in saying that fully twenty most 
interesting stone and wood chimney-pieces, as well as much 
carved woodwork, removed from old residences in our midst 
during the past few years, have been sold to London architects 
and antique dealers, who have been only too glad to procure 
our specimens. 

Quite recently, be it remembered, the interior work of the 
" Elton Mansion " was taken down ; in which case the two 
chimney-pieces were carefully preserved and re-erected by 
the Bristol Water W orks Company at their new offices,- though 
unfortunately the wood panelling and the fine plaster ceiling 
and frieze of the principal room were allowed to go out of the 
city. 3 I cannot help feeling that had we possessed such facilities 
as I have indicated, the wealthy company — in which we are 
individually much interested — would have gladly presented 
the whole of these specimens to the city. 

People ask, What about the Art Gallery ? Well, much 
boast is made of this building as if it could swallow all that 
comes along ! And it certainly takes in a very great deal, though 

1 An illustrated descriptive account will be given in a later volume. 
2 See Trans, xxvii., p. 339. 
3 These were acquired by Sir E. H. Elton, Bart., of Clevedon 
Court. 



Bristol Archaeological Notes for 1905. 267- 

it does not gauge its appetite according to any specific 
menu. 

We, of course, must admit its great value to the city, and 
its wonderful proportions, its massive appearance and its 
solidity of build ; but it is a fact that most of us are greatly 
disappointed at the totally inadequate space assigned to local 
antiquities. 

We have been told in one of the recently issued catalogues 1 
of this institution that "Room No. IV. supplies what was 
for a long period a pressing want, namely a place of deposit 
for all that can appropriately be placed in a ' Bristol Room.' 
In carrying out this object, the room becomes an epitome of 
the history, past manufactures and social life of the city." 

I venture to think that the history of Bristol will be most 
incomplete without the " story of our buildings," and I am 
sure members will agree with me that such a court as suggested 
ought to be provided as early as possible, similar to those to 
be found at South Kensington and elsewhere. Then should we 
be ready to receive and adequately exhibit gifts of architectural 
specimens, and doubtless should become more zealous to 
retain, acquiring by purchase if necessary, what other Museums 
and private collectors at a distance would be only too glad 
to buy from us. 

For nearly thirteen years the beautiful fourteenth-century 
doorway* with its carved panelled spandrels and side posts, 
which had formed the entrance to Spicer's Hall on the Welsh 
Back (only a few yards off Langton's House), secured for the 
city in 1893, has been lying in the Guildhall Yard, where I 
inspected it a few days ago. 

1 See Catalogue of Permanent Collection ; the italics are the 
writer's. 

2 It was demolished in 1885, when the frontage was rebuilt, and 
remained in the possession of the jefferies family until 1893, when 
that estate was realised by auction. It was then that the Museum 
Committee purchased it by request. 

Many inquiries as to this doorway have been made by architec- 
tural visitors to the city during recent years. 



268 Transactions for the Year 1906. 



This typical specimen of early domestic woodwork would 
form a most suitable entrance to an architectural court, but 
rather than retain it longer under present conditions it would 
be far better to present it to our national collection, where it 
would be readily welcomed and properly exhibited. 

Doomed to destruction was the ancient hostelry known 
as the 

lamb inn, 

West Street, when the Corporation sold the site in April last, 
under the powers of streets improvements. 

This building was a typical inn of the seventeenth century ; 
it carried three gables over a frontage of 45 feet, and had an 
" old world " entrance enclosed by unusually interesting wood 
gates, with shell-pattern carving in the upper panels. 

The principal interior feature was its massive staircase 
erected in the Commonwealth period, the " Newel " still 
retaining the original date of erection in 165 1, and this massive 
post well supported the approach to the numerous rooms on 
the floors above, until the day the " wreckers " had their way. 

Though the first noor windows were modern insertions, the 
upper ones in the overhanging frontage possessed the original 
wood mullions, the middle window containing a circular head 
with a keystone bearing an ornamental shield. The latter 
window was not dissimilar to those in the old " Dutch House " 
and the recently destroyed house in Mary-le-port Street, 
though those examples were evidently later in date than the 
one here. 

Unfortunately the Museum authorities failed to look after 
the relics in this case, which were evidently claimed by the 
purchaser of the site, for they were sold as soon as the place t 
was demolished. The doors left Bristol, and the staircase 
passed into private hands locally ; the " sign " of the inn — a 
lamb lying down — though not the original one, has, I under- 
stand, also gone from the city, and so, too, has an excellent 
chimney-piece : 





Lamb Inn, Bristol. 

Demolished 1905. 



Page 268 



Hokton, Photo. 



Staircase. Lamb Inn, Bristol. 

Demolished 1905. 



Bristol Archaeological Notes for 1905. 269 



Surely the Museum Committee ought to be in a position to 
ascertain from the Estate Department particulars of what 
ancient properties are to be dealt with year by year, so that 
arrangements could be made to secure any relics attached 
thereto, which are considered sufficiently interesting for ex- 
hibition purposes, before the properties pass into other hands. 
It is so essential for a city to protect its history. 

Of the old inns still remaining, there are now only a few of 
any importance left, and it is to be hoped they will be zealously 
guarded as far as practicable from wanton injury or destruc- 
tion. The principal ones are : — 

The Hatchet Inn, Frogmore Street, possessing an interest- 
ing exterior. 

The Landoger, King Street, a corner tenement of a block 
of seventeenth-century houses — already doomed. 1 

The Shakespeare, Temple Street, an old house much 
renovated. 

The Stag and Hounds, Old Market Street, the site of the 
ancient Pie Poudre Court. 2 

The Rising Sun, at the corner of Ellbroad Street, con- 
taining quaint interior work. 

Beyond the city boundary, on the north side of the River 
Froom, a row of gabled timber and plaster houses was built at 
the close of the seventeenth century in the thoroughfare now 
known as Old King Street. 

Millerd clearly shows this block in his large plan, published 
in 1673, and those small but quaint dwellings have stood ever 
since, until recently, when an extension of business necessitated 
the site occupied by two of them, Nos. 3 and 5. These houses, 
with low shops underneath, were pulled down in August, and 
a modern brick building now exists to tell the tale. The over- 
hanging frontages, with the original oak windows on the upper 

1 The Corporation has been advertising the site since 1899, upon 
ease for " building purposes." 

2 See Trans, xxviii., p. in, and illustration. 

19 

"Vol. XXIX. 



272 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

At the Council Meeting 1 on December 12th the question of 
the retention of the old house was happily referred back to the 
New Streets and Estates and General Purposes Committees, 
and is now sub judice. The dual sub-committee comprises 
gentlemen who are able to grapple with this delicate question 
from all points ; and with the knowledge that other great 
cities are straining every nerve to retain what is of historic 
value, will doubtless protect the character of Bristol in this 
respect. 

As some members of our Society have more than once 
shown anxiety as to the origin of the name of the Dutch House, 
let me again say, that though there is no definite information 
upon this subject, no one has been able to disprove the state- 
ment mentioned in Evans's Chronological History of Bristol 
under the date 1733 (p. 262). 

But what 's in a name ? Surely all great advertisers state 
boldly that everything is in a name. If then the house really 
is not of Dutch origin it must be English, and therefore Bristol. 
Shall it not then be saved ? 

During the month of March the Bristol Water Company 
carried fresh pipes across the Observatory Camp, cutting 
through the ramparts and ditch on the east side ; but beyond 
traces of animal bones and charcoal, no antiquities were found. 

ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE 

claims several matters of considerable interest. 

On March nth, in excavating for a burial on the south side 
of the Cathedral, a short fragment of a quatrefoil Norman 
column and its base were cut into. Fortunately, Mr. Hay- 
ward, the sub-sacrist, was present at the digging, and made the 
rescue, and this relic, which is considered to be of the same date 
as the chapter room, is now preserved in the cloister. 

With regard to the work in progress in the south aisle of 

1 See Bristol newspapers, December 13th, 1905, for report of 
Bristol Council Meeting. 




All Saints, Bristol. 

August, 1905. 



Bristol Archaeological Notes for 1905. 273 

All Saints' Church (City), there is really little to add to what 
was said by our member, Mr. Oatley, the architect to the vestry, 
on the occasion of our visit on Saturday, the 4th of November. 1 

But I may point out that this edifice is unique, as it actually 
possesses two houses within its walls. Both are at the west 
end — that of the Kalendars on the north, and on the south 
the Manse, which was built in the early part of the fifteenth 
century by its vicar, Sir Thomas Marshall. 

As I hope Mr. Oatley will give a detailed paper in our Trans- 
actions in due time, T will simply state that the views now 
given are from photographs kindly taken by Mr. Guy Chilton 
immediately after these interesting features had been opened 
up, with the sanction of the Wardens 2 : 

A view of the fifteenth-century roof, showing one of the 
corbels representing an angel's head (see illustration). 

The small interior east window of the vicar's house, and 
the foliated opening below that window, from which the 
altar was visible — both discovered during the work (see 
illustration) . 

Below this opening again are to be seen some portions of 
inscriptions, which unfortunately were too much mutilated 
in past times to allow of their now being deciphered. 

Mr. Oatley is still carrying on the work of reparation, the 
existing Norman columns and their foundations being under 
careful examination. 

COTHAM. 
THE GALLOWS AND BE WELL' S CROSS. ] 

During the early spring the work of demolishing the red 
brick house at the corner of Cotham New Road and Hampton 
Road, where Mr. Exley conducted a boys' school for many 
years, was duly accomplished ; and this was followed by 
excavations upon that site, and upon the garden ground 

1 See Bristol newspapers, November 6th, 1905. 
2 Mr. John Curtis and Mr. R. H. Carpenter. 



274 Transactions for the Year 1906. 



adjoining, for the erection of the important new buildings, now 
nearly completed, to be known as the Western College. 

In the middle of April, in digging for the foundations, the 
workmen came upon some old walls, to the west of the resi- 
dence referred to, and from six to eight feet deep, which by 
the courtesy of Professor Chapman and our member, Mr. Dare 
Bryan, the architect, I was permitted to examine. 

The traces of this early walling were but fragmentary, and 
varied in thickness, and owing to the rapid progress necessary 
with the new buildings, no extended excavations were possible. 

The remains comprised part of a stone enclosure or kind of 
cellar, with indications of a stone roof, besides massive masonry 
running in several directions. 

It was, of course, unfortunate that there could be no special 
digging, as the discovery of a number of fragments of late 
seventeenth and early eighteenth century pottery made the 
question as to the utility of these walls bristle with interest ; 
but it leaves yet another problem for Bristol members to solve, 
for the gallows once stood close by. 

It may not be uninteresting to go back to the earliest plan 
of Bristol that takes in the outskirts of the city, which is the 
large one by John Rocque, published in 1742. 

This gives a most interesting picture of 

GOTHAM 1 

at that time, which was all open pasture, for there is no building 
marked upon the plan between this corner and old Cotham 
Lodge — except the Snuff Mill midway in the track, now known 
to us as Fry's Tower — but the 

gallows 

is most clearly indicated (see section of 1742 plan illustrated). 

1 The late Francis Fry says that in an old deed the district was 
formerly styled " Codde Downes." In later documents it was changed 
to Codd or Cod Down, Coat Down, Coat Ham, and Cod Ham. Finally 
it became Cotham, as we know it. 



Bristol Archaeological Notes for 1905. 275 



It is quite evident from Rocque's plan that this instrument 
of execution stood on what may be correctly described as the 
waste ground or common land at the side of the road, and this 
was doubtless eventually taken in with the adjoining field and 
fenced round — thereafter called the " gallows field." 

The four smaller plans of Rocque, issued between 1750 and 
1759, both show this erection, and you will also find it marked 
in Benning's plan, dated 1780, but not after that, as no other 
large plans of importance were issued until Benjamin Donne's 
came forth in 1826, by which time public hanging was dispensed 
with. 

The date of erection is uncertain, and so also is the date of 
its removal, though we know it was used for an execution in 
1805 ; but most probably this was the last occasion. 

And with regard to the road at this spot (now known as 
Cotham New Road), it is fortunate that we have chronicled in 
the Bristol Mirror an account of the transformation of the 
neighbourhood, in the year 1829, from the pen of Mr. William 
Tyson, F.S.A., 2 a well-known Bristol antiquary, whose letter 
to the newspaper of that day referred to the " laying out of the 
new road, now forming from the top of St. Michael's Hill, 
through the gallows field to Cotham. " 

In that same account we find it noted that the remains of 
bewell's cross 
were cut into, Mr. Tyson recording the fact that " it stood in 
the field appropriated to the execution of criminals " ; and in his 
Annals Mr. Latimer tells us that the stone was imbedded in 
the south wall of the road now enclosing Highbury Chapel. 3 

What this cross was we know not. The first mention of 
it was in the charter of Edward III. in 1373, which defined the 
boundaries of the city, 4 but it was undoubtedly destroyed at 

1 October 3 rd, 1829. 
4 Author of the Bristol Memorialist, Bristol, 1823. 
3 Latimer's Annals in the Nineteenth Century, p. 134. It may be 
-well to add that the MS. therein named by him was copied from Tyson's 
letter above referred to. 

4 Seyer's Charters of Bristol, published in 18 12, p. 76. 



276 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

the time when all others were demolished by order of the 
Commons, in 1643. It appears that pedestals and steps were 
often allowed to remain, and it was the base which was left in 
this instance, that the workmen came across in making Cotham 
New Road. 

The line of the civic boundary came up from Jacob's Wells 
through what is now known as Tyndall's Park, to the most 
northerly point at Bewell's Cross, near the site of the gallows. 

This position is confirmed by a reference in Ricart's Kalen- 



Srj^TCJTAXCS 




1905. 



Bristol Archaeological Notes for 1905. 277 



dar, under date 1525, 1 where it is said " The Maister Maire . . 
.... commaunded that the heddes of the crosses at the 
galowes and markett place shuld be made of the newe " ; and 
Evans, in his Chronological History, published in 1824, referred 
to it as the " stone in the late gallows field." 

Mr. Latimer, however, in his Annals sa3^s : " Rocque's 
large map of the city, dated 1742, shows the cross to have stood 
nearly one hundred yards farther to the north-west." 2 

This is a curious slip for our great annalist to have made, 
for what Mr. Latimer evidently referred to was Be well's Croft? 
which, of course/meant " Bewell's field." 

After a most careful examination of all existing plans, and 
taking into consideration the descriptions and measurements 
left to us, I think it is safe to assume that the exact site of the 
gallows was just outside the present doorway of the old house 
of Mr. Exley (see plan), and that Bewell's Cross stood close by, 
though it is impossible to mark the definite spot, for there are 
unfortunately no precise records, neither is there any marked 
working plan used at the time of making the road, in 1829, 
preserved in the office of the City Engineer. 

The question that I now wish to put is this : Have the 
remains of the old walls, which I have tried to describe, any 
connection with either the gallows or the cross ? and, if not, 
of what other building ? The presence of the very interesting 
fragments of pottery would seem to indicate the earlier exis- 
tence of a dwelling, though the plan of the walls contradicts 
that theory. 

It will be seen from the plan that the greater part of 
the old walling was discovered almost on the line of the eleva- 
tion of the " common room " of the new college. 

There have been fewer small finds of the 

MEDIEVAL AND LATER PERIODS 

from excavations in Bristol during 1905 than in previous years. 

1 Ricart's Kalendar (Camden Edition, 1872), p. 51. 
2 Latimer's Annals in the Nineteenth Century, p. 134. 
3 Rocque does not mark the cross. 



278 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



In the process of drainage work, however, in one of the 
main streets of the city in July, two pewter spoons, the 
bowl of a third, and a small paten were discovered, 1 

By far the most interesting object is the small 

PEWTER PATEN, 

which is in excellent preservation (see illustration). This vessel 
is almost flat, quite plain, and measures a fraction over 3I 
inches in diameter ; but it does not bear any maker's mark. 
The rim is -§ of an inch in width, having a definite square edge 
slightly thicker than the thickness of the metal. The sunken 




part is three inches across, and though only f of an inch deep, 
it is slightly raised in the centre on the reverse side, where the 
four final turns of the lathe can be seen. 

It was customary in early mediaeval times to place a chalice 
and paten with the body of a priest for burial, and these sepul- 
tural vessels, which were of base metal and unconsecrated, 
have been found at various places in this country and on the 
Continent. The Rev. J. T. Evans, who is just editing the 
Church Plate of Gloucestershire for the Society, says: "The 
custom of burying a chalice and paten with a priest or bishop 

1 My thanks are due to Mr. Drane, of Cardiff, for kindly expressing 
his opinion on these specimens. 



Bristol Archaeological Notes for 1905. 279 

began about the twelfth century, and the constitutions of 
William' de Blois, Bishop of Worcester, expressly direct that 
amongst the ornamenta of churches there must be two chalices 
—one of silver, for use at mass ; the other of pewter, not con- 
secrated, to be buried with the priest. The earliest is of pewter, 
and was found with its paten at Chichester; these were 
probably the private vessels of Bishop Godefridus, who died 
in 1088." 

The specimen now described was found in Corn Street, 
almost opposite the Commercial Rooms, at a depth of nearly 
twelve feet, and it is possible that it came from an early burial 
of probably thirteenth or fourteenth century, in connection 
with old St. Werburgh's Church, which was taken down and 
removed in 1878. 1 

In the same trench was also found a portion of a lady's 
head-dress comb, of wood and of openwork design, probably 
of twelfth to fourteenth century period. 

The base metal spoons referred to were discovered in 
drainage excavations in Corn Street, about ten feet below the 
level of the roadway, and are as follows : — 

Spoon No. 2 has a somewhat gibbous bowl, with a flat 
hexagonal stem with slip end, and measures 6J inches long ; 
it may be assigned to about 1650 (see illustration). 



The perfect pear-shaped bowl, No. 4, came from the same 
-trench. It is much more shapely, and has traces of a triangular 
stem, indications of late sixteenth-century date. 

Spoon No. 3 may be considered of late Cromwellian type. 

1 See Latimer's Annals of the Nineteenth Century, p. 461. 



280 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

It has an egg-shaped bowl with a flat stem, is slightly broken 
at the top, and is 7! inches long ; probably about 1700 (see 
illustration). 




There were found during the same work, at a lesser depth : 
Several fragments of delft pottery, 
A small glass phial, 
A bone spoon, 
A silver tea-spoon, 
all of apparently eighteenth-century period. 

At the Welsh Back, where excavations were also being, 
carried on during the year, .a small and almost unique 

PEWTER MEDAL, 

which was struck to commemorate the 

Imprisonment of the Seven Bishops in 1688, 

was found. It has on one side a view of a Jesuit and Monk 
endeavouring to undermine a church, and around : " The Gates 
of Hell shall not prevaile against it." On the other side are the 
busts of the seven bishops, with Sancroft in the middle, and 
around the edge is inscribed : " Upon this rock have I built 
my church" 

A somewhat similar silver medal, though slightly larger, 
was issued in Holland about that date, but this type in pewter 
—-measuring about ij inches in diameter— though formerly 
thought to be Dutch, is now considered to have been struck 
in England, and Mr. H. A. Grueber, F.S.A., writing from the 
British Museum, says it is very rare. 



Bristol Archaeological Notes for 1905. 281 

It is a most interesting coincidence that this medal should 
have been found here, as two of the seven bishops committed 
to the tower were connected with the city : Sir Jonathan 
Trelawney was Bishop at the time, and John Lake (of 
•Chichester) had held the See in 1684. 

PRE-HISTORIC. 

Now I must go back to pre-historic times, of which little 
is to be recorded from our district during the year. 

The rinding of some early burials in the course of widen- 
ing Church Road, at Winterbourne, near Bristol, in the month 
of March, was particularly interesting. One cist— formed of 
rough stone slabs, and measuring about seven feet long by two 
feet wide at the head, and four feet deep— had a heavy slab 
for its covering, but it contained no remains. There were 
other burials near, which seemed to indicate that the site was 
that of a cemetery, though there was, unfortunately, no pottery 
found or anything else to assist in forming an opinion as to 
what period the burials could be assigned, but they lay from 
north to south. 

The rector, the Rev. G. T. S. Goodrich, did all he could 
concerning the find at the time, but the graves had to be 
closed up very quickly ; further excavations, however, would 
doubtless reveal some interesting features. 

The other discovery was that of a tanged dagger of the 
bronze age. Though the find occurred about two years ago, 
it was not heard of until quite recently. 1 



V It appears that Mr. B. A. Baker, of Bristol, was visiting a friend 
on the Cotswolds, and was shown this weapon, which he secured, and 
it is by his kind permission now illustrated. 



282 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



It is a very fine specimen of the bronze period, and measures, 
about 8 J inches in length, of which the blade is over 5 inches. 
A prominent midrib runs down on both sides, the outer sides 
of which are ornamented with four fine parallel lines, all 
joining at the point. The strong tang measures over 3 inches., 
and the weapon was cast in one piece. The handle was 
unfortunately gone, and only one rivet was attached when 
this formidable weapon was discovered on blackenbury 
camp, between Nibley and Wotton, by a keeper when 
stopping rabbit holes. 

A fragment of a bronze saw was also picked up at the 
same time, but was not thought worth keeping. 

In the last guide to the Bronze Age, published by the 
British Museum, Mr. Charles H. Read, F.S.A., illustrates a 
similar dagger of the same dimensions, which was found 
in Suffolk ; and he also says that " several examples have 
been discovered, chiefly in the south of England, and one is 
said to have come from Italy." The same type has also been 
found in Ireland. 

From Sea Mills a few relics of the romano-british period 
have to be recorded, including several interesting bronze 
fibulae and tweezers, more fragments of pottery, and various 
coins. Of the latter, the most important specimen was one 
examined by Mr. Grueber, which he describes as an imitation 
(probably British) of a dupondius of Claudius I., considered a 
contemporary fabrication, or nearly so. The legend is illegible, 



but the reverse type only occurs on coins of that Emperor, 
and of the size as the one found. 




Bristol Archaeological Notes for 1905. 283. 

Many things found at this Roman Station have gone from 
our midst, and it is a singular coincidence that the last anti- 
quarian report presented to the Cambridge Senate 1 contains 
amongst its recent gifts : A large carved bronze needle, with 
flattened pointed head and oblong eye (length 5.1 inches 
across arc) from the Roman camp at Sea Mills in 1864. 
Found by the donor, F. T. Mullett. 



1 Dated May, 1905. 



GILBERT DE LACI (? 1 108-1 163) AND 
PAIN FITZJOHN (-113 7). 

THE DE LACI PEDIGREE. 

(GLOUCESTERSHIRE AND HEREFORDSHIRE BRANCH.) 



Walter de Laci = i , 
( i ) Lord of Ewyas Ludlow, 
i st Baron, friend of 
William I. ; d. 1085, 27 
March, Hereford. 



Emma 

(Vol. i„ H. &> G., "St. Petri, Glouc," 
p. 15) " Matre sua Emma " of Walter 
de Laci, Abbot of Gloucester. 
Ermelina 

Owning Duntisbourne 1086. Vol. i., 
P- 35i. 



<i) Roger, 1086, 2nd Baron A sister, Emma (de Laci) 

Banished 1088 ; living 11 08. 

(2) Hugh, 3rd Baron = Adeliza (?) 
Founder of Llantony 
prima; d. 1121 (?)"; 
buried at Ewyas, co. 
Hereford. 



(?) 



Sybil : 
Lady of Painswick. 



Pain Fitzjohn. 



{3) Walter, Abbot of Gloucester, 
1 1 30— 1 1 39 (d.) 



(1) Cecilia = Roger FitzMilo, 

Earl of Hereford. 

(2) Agnes == William de Monchensi. 



I I I 

William John Hubert. 



{4) AdeHna (?) Eloise = William D'Evreux. 

(Living between 11 13— 11 29; had lands at Brookthorpe. 



Gilbert, 4th Baron 
d. 1 163. 



I 

Hugh, 5 th Baron 
Killed 1 186 ; buried at 
Durrow, but removed 
to Cistercian Abbey of 
Bective. Head to' St. 
Thomas, Dublin, 1195. 



(?) Agnes. 



Roesia de Monmouth. 

(1) Walter (d. 1241), 6th Baron. 

(2) Hugh, Earl of Ulster = Emmelina, 



(b. 29 May, 1205 I 
d. 1242.) " 

(3) Elayne = Ric. de Beaufoi. J 

(4) Gilbert. 

(5) • • • • — Geof. de Marisco. 

(6) .... = Will. FitzAlan. 
Rose O'Connor. 

(1) William = d. of Llewelyn, 

(2) Thomas. Prince of N. Wales. 

(3) Henry. 



d. of Walter de 
Revelsford. 



I 

(1) Walter. 

(2) Roger. 

(3) Roesia. 



Walter, 6th Baron (1241) 
benefactor of the two 
Llantony 's ; founder of 
Cresswell Priory, co. 
Hereford ; founder of 
Beaubec Abbey, co. 
Meath. 



Margaret de Braose (before 1200). 

(1) Gilbert — Isabel, d. of Ralph Bigod. 

d. 1234. (1) Walter == — d. of Theob. de 

(2) Egidia. Boteler. 

(3) Katharine. (2) Matilda = r. Peter of Geneva. 

2. Geoff, de Joinville. 
(3) Margaret = John de Verdon. 



Gilbert de Laci and Pain Fitzjohn. 



285 



•Charter No. 20 of the Duchy of Lancaster consists of a con- 
firmation by King Stephen to Roger, son of Milo, Earl of 
Hereford, and to Cecilia, his wife, of all the land which the 
latter's father, Pain Fitzjohn, had inherited, or acquired, 
together with her own marriage-portion. 

" Et omne maritagium quod predictum Paganus dedit 
filise suce de Honore Hugonis de Laceio in terris et militibus. 
Et omne illud juris quod ipse Paganus habebat in toto Honore 
Hugonis de Laceio, sicut ipse Paganus dedit et concessit ilium 
ipsi Rogerio cum filia sua de acatis suis hac subscripta maneria." 

From this it appears (1) that Pain Fitzjohn, at the time 
-of his death (July 10th, 1137) and for some undetermined time 
prior to that event, possessed certain rights over the Honour 
of the late Hugh de Laci, who has been proved to have been 
his wife's maternal uncle ; and that (2) he had given to his 
daughter Cecilia, Countess of Hereford, on her marriage with 
Roger (FitzMilo), certain lands in her dower from her great- 
uncle's Honour, including the Manor of Wyke (Painswick), 
Edgworth and Alwynton ; finally (3) that King Stephen 
confirmed all these rights to Cecilia upon her father's decease. 
The date of the Charter is judged by Mr. J. H. Round to lie 
between December, 1137, and May, 1138. 

At that date Hugh de Laci had been dead several years 
(? 1121), and having left no son to succeed him, King Henry, 
after that event, had conferred upon Pain Fitzjohn, who had 
married Hugh's niece, Sybil, the whole of the family Honour, 
some 115 manors, of which twenty-seven were situated in 
Gloucestershire. This Pain had enjoyed, in addition to his 
own acquired wealth of lands, for some years, until the arrow 
of a Welsh rebel put an end to him, and the monks of Gloucester 
received his body into their chapter house. 

But it must not be forgotten that when Hugh de Laci's 
brother, Roger, had been banished and deprived, he had been 
permitted to retain one manor, namely Halhagun cum Brad- 
wasse, in Worcestershire. The family fief in France, at Lasci, 

20 

Vol. XXIX. 



286 Transactions for the Year 1906. 



in the Diocese of Bayeux, had been granted to the king's natural 
son, Robert, Duke of Gloucester. The former (Worcester- 
shire) manor was still his in 1108, and at no time does it appear 
to have passed to Hugh de Laci, his brother, or to Pain Fitz- 
John. We do not know the date of Roger's decease. 

The fief at Lasci is mentioned in the list of knights holding 
fiefs of the Bishop of Bayeux in 1133 (Cf. Lib. Rubens, p. 646, 
Rolls Series). " Feodum De Lasci il milites." That is to say, 
each of the two branches possessed a fee there, one of which 
• was at Lasci, whence their name ; the other at Campeaux, 
and both these had been forfeited and both bestowed upon 
Robert, Duke of Gloucester. For the representatives of both 
branches, Roger de Laci and Robert de Laci, Lord of Ponte- 
fract, had been concerned in Robert, Duke of Normandy's 
rebellion. The claims to these, their respective possessions in 
the Diocese of Bayeux, were retained by the Duke of Gloucester 
until 1146, when by reference to the Calendar of Documents 
of France (Ed. j. H. Round) it is seen that he surrendered 
" tota feoda Ilberti 1 et Gilberti de Laceio quse tenebant apud 
Laceium et Campels [sic]:' That is to say, King Stephen 
restored to the two representatives of Roger and Robert de 
Laci, Ilbert and Gilbert, their family lands above-mentioned, 
and the Duke of Gloucester acknowledged the Bishop of 
Bayeux to be once more their over-lord. 

As Ilbert de Laci (of the Yorkshire branch) appears in 1136 
as a witness to Stephen's Charter of Liberties, it is clear that he 
had then returned to England. His name also occurs as 
witness to two other charters of that year, ^lred of Rivaulx 
records that he had been in banishment throughout the reign 
of Henry (d. 1135)—' ' tempore Regis Henrici exulans." From 
Richard of Hexham we learn that by the Charter of Liberties 
whatever Henry had taken from Robert de Laci his son Ilbert 
regained. Henry had indeed granted the Honour of Pontefract 
to William de Maltravers, and apparently one of Ilbert's own 
retainers, named Pain, promptly slew de Maltravers ; and 
1 This Ilbert was the son of Robert de Laci. 



Gilbert de Laci and Pain Fitzjohn. 



287 



a charter (Class 25, 9 Duchy of Lancaster) lets us know that 
Stephen pardons the men of Ilbert de Laci for this murder. 

But with regard to Gilbert de Laci, no mention of his restor- 
ation occurs, nor does his name appear among those of the 
witnesses to the Charter of Liberties given at Oxford in 1136. 
On the other hand, at the opening of the Civil War, within two 
years later (1137-8), he and his kinsman, Geoffrey de Talbot,, 
appear fighting in Herefordshire, at Bristol (May), and at Bath, 
under command of Robert, Duke of Gloucester, on behalf of 
the Empress Maud against the new king. The south-west of 
England, with the exception of Gloucester, in fact, had become 
solid against Stephen. Milo of Gloucester welcomed the king 
to the castle of that city in May, 1138 ; and at this time, or but 
little before it, Stephen confirmed to Milo's son and Cecilia the 
inheritances both of Hugh de Laci and Fitzjohn. 

That being so, any hope of recovery of the de Laci Honour 
by Gilbert de Laci from Stephen was put beyond all present 
possibility. Moreover, it sealed him to the side of the Empress, 
from whose possible successes much might some day be won. 
By the summer of 1139, however, Milo and Roger had so 
effectually cooled off from Stephen, that they were preparing 
to receive and welcome the Empress herself upon her arrival 
in September of that year. She was later invited from Bristol 
to Gloucester by Milo himself, and there she conferred upon him 
the reward of his conversion by giving him the Constableship 
of St. Briavels and the Forest of Dean. Stephen deprived him, 
on the other hand, of the Constableship of England. From 
this, further, by charter of July 5th, 1141 (Cf. Feeder a, 1, 8), 
Maud advanced him to the Earldom of Hereford ; and one 
of the witnesses to her charter is Gilbert de Laci. His hopes 
must have seemed fair. 

This proves at once both his fidelity to her cause and his 
prominence ; but we do not gather what, if any, rewards were 
granted him for his own services. That he would endeavour 
to recover his family possessions we may be sure, and indeed 
finally he became repossessed of these. But he was now 



2S8 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



brought into unpleasantly close contact with Milo's son, who 
was actually enjoying them with Pain Fitzjohn's daughter. 
We shall find later on that dangerous differences did indeed 
arise between them, and we shall see Roger conspiring to dis- 
inherit Gilbert de Laci. It is manifest that the Empress, 
having gained so important a champion as Milo, dared not 
advance de Laci's claims against those of Milo's son. Who de 
Laci was will be presently considered. 

During the next two years the cause of the Empress suffered 
gravely, in spite of Milo's wealth and influence. His accidental 
death on Christmas Day, 1143, at Gloucester, only accentuated 
its downfall. She found herself besieged at Oxford by Stephen 
himself. There is neither evidence to prove that Gilbert de 
Laci forsook her cause for that of Stephen, nor that the Empress 
ever recompensed him for his services. The only notice of him 
in 1 146 is contained in a document which says that her brother, 
Robert, Earl of Gloucester, surrendered all his claims over the 
fiefs of Ilbert and Gilbert de Laci (in France) to the Bishop of 
Bayeux. In this year the Empress withdrew to Normandy. 
In the following year, 1147, Robert, Earl of Gloucester, also died. 

No sooner does Henry II, succeed to Stephen's throne than 
a strange gleam of light is thrown upon Gilbert de Laci, namely 
a treaty of alliance between Roger, now Earl of Hereford, and 
William, Earl of Gloucester (neither of them in favour with the 
new king), directed especially to the disinheriting of Gilbert 
(Duchy of Lancaster, Box A, No. 24). This is called, curiously, 
a " Treaty of Love." From it we cannot but conclude that 
Gilbert de Laci had already successfully pressed some portion 
at least of his claims to the forfeited inheritance of his forebears 
in the de Laci Honour, at the expense certainly of Earl Roger. 
Other sources discover the ill-favour accorded by the new king 
to Roger, Earl of Hereford, and the other sons of Milo. In the 
following year, for instance, when Earl Roger died childless, 1 
the king refused to allow any of them to succeed, and seques- 
trated the earldom. His ground for doing so was no doubt in 
J October, 1 155. 



Gilbert de Lact and Pain Fitzjohn. 289 



part that it had been illegally conferred upon Earl Roger's 
father by the Empress Maud eleven years before. But how 
had Gilbert de Laci recovered his family lands ? Is it probable 
that the Empress restored them ? It is at least possible. 

Immediately following this we find proof of the king's full 
favour to Gilbert de Laci. The Pipe Roll (p. 144) of IX 57 
(4 Hen. II.) shows him under new pleas and agreements, in 
possession of fiefs in the three counties of Herefordshire, 
Gloucestershire and Salop. 1 In the same year we find him 
excused the " Donum " to the king ; and a little later occurs 
the said king's " confirmatio " to him of the possession of 
Stanton, Ludlow and Ewyas. In fact, he has recovered the 
lordship of Ludlow and Ewyas, and all the family fees in the 
other counties, excepting, of course, Wyke or Painswick, and 
certain others, the marriage-portions of Cecilia, widow of Roger,. 
Earl of Hereford, and his own kinswoman (probably sister), 
her mother, Sybilla (Fitzjohn). It is clear, therefore, that 
Henry II., on coming to the throne, had at least refused to 
confirm these hereditaments of de Laci to Earl Roger. 
Hence his unsuccessful conspiracy against Gilbert de Laci. 

The widow of Fitzjohn still survived, and the cartulary 
of Ewyas Harold affords convenient proofs of Gilbert's position. 
In it he confirms, by a charter, Sybilla's former grant of Leghe 
to the Abbey of St. Peter (Gloucester), made before 1139 (under 
her uncle Walter de Laci's abbacy), and later he increases 
that grant by an addition of pasture situated in the forest of 
Mascoit. 2 The same cartulary shows Sybilla giving this to the 

1 (1) Herefordshire.—" Et in pdofi p brevia Regis. Gilberto de 

Lasci. IX. li. et III. sol." 

(2) Gloucestershire. — " Nova Placita et novae Conventiones et 

Gilberto de Lasci. XXVI. sol. et VIII. den." 

(3) Shropshire.—" Et Gilberto de Lasci. IIII. li. et iiii. sol. et 

IX. den." 

" Et Willelmo fratri Roberto, VI. sol. et ix. den." 

2 " Confirmatio Gilberti de Laceio, testibus Hugo de Eschet, Fratre 
Roberti, et aliis — de pastura in forestia. de Maschoit " — confirming and 
adding to Sybilla de Laci's grant of wood and stone for building and 
pasture for cattle.— Cartul. Ewyas. [I owe this valuable evidence to 
the kindness of the Rev. A. T. Bannister, M.A., Vicar of Ewyas Harold.] 



290 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

monks for support of Masses to be said for the soul of her late 
husband, Pain Fitzjohn, and for that of her father, Hugh de 
Laci. 

A tried warrior with important possessions in the Welsh 
border was a personage of peculiar value to the Crown in those 
violent days. There were to be combated not merely the 
Welsh themselves, but rebellious Norman barons, whose con- 
duct brought about sieges of Wigmore, Cleobury and Bridg- 
north, undertaken by the king himself. A second royal 
expedition to Wales took place in 1158. We need not question 
that on these occasions Gilbert de Laci greatly distinguished 
himself, as also did his son Hugh, afterwards the invader of 
Ireland and founder of Killeen Castle. 1 The latter, eight years 
later, is found to be the holder of sixty fees in Herefordshire 
alone. (Liber Rubeus, vol. i., p. 281, Rolls Series.) 

We do not know as yet to whom Gilbert de Laci was married. 
But on the other hand, while Gilbert is found giving houses 
and lands to the support of a preceptory for the Templars at 
Quenington,' 2 including land at Temple Guiting and Winch- 
combe, we discover an Agnes de Laci in 1166 (or three years 
after Gilbert's decease while fighting against Noureddin, 
Sultan of Aleppo for the release of Bertrand, the captive 
Grand Master of the Temple 3 ) , giving the benefice of Quenington, 
with all its appurtenances, to the Hospital of St. John of 
Jerusalem in England. This was done in conjunction with 
Cecilia, Countess of Hereford, who had taken to herself a second 
husband, William of Poitou. We may venture to take this 
Agnes to have been Gilbert's wife, for his son Hugh's wife at 
this time was Roesia de Monmouth, while later he married the 
daughter of Roderick, King of Connaught, Rose O'Connor 
(alive in 1224), by each of whom he had several sons. Neither 
was an Agnes. 

The question naturally now arises, who was the father of 
Gilbert de Laci ? Giraldus, who lived and wrote in the days of 
1 Co. Meath. 2 Dugdale, Monasticon, pp. 548-9. 

a The expedition was made under Guy de Lusignan's command. 



Gilbert de Laci and Pain Fitzjohn. 291 

Gilbert's grandson, says that Gilbert was son of a sister to Roger, 
Hugh and Walter de Laci, and he names her Emma. Further, 
he states that he took the name of de Laci in order to inherit 
the estates. This, in default of other more direct evidence, has 
been hitherto accepted as his origin, and Giraldus was a writer, 
if not impeccably accurate, likely to have known. One Emma 
de Laci had been the mother of Roger and his brothers : ; so 
the name of Emma was easily to be connected with the name 
of de Laci. Mr. A. S. Ellis has conjectured that Emmelina de 
Hesding, wife of Arnulf de Hesding, was a sister of the above 
three brothers, but I am aware of no close evidence to support 
the conjecture. Emmelina is, moreover, not the same as Emma, 
though cases of confusion may have occurred between these. 
As to Gilbert's having changed his name (?) (and we are not 
told what that was) in order to inherit de Laci lands, he may 
have done so ; nevertheless, he appears upon the scene as 
Gilbert de Laci in the year following Pain Fitzjohn's death, 
namely in 1138, and he did not actually inherit the said lands, 
it has been shown, until fifteen years later. That he was 
closely related to the banished Roger de Laci, on the other 
hand, seems not a little probable, especially for two reasons. 
Firstly, he does not appear until after the death of Henry I. 
who had confirmed the banishment of Roger. Secondly, in 
1146 the fief of Roger in the Diocese of Bayeux is mentioned 
with that of his kinsman Robert, under the names of Gilbert 
and Ilbert de Laci. " Tota feoda Ilberti et Gilberti de Laceio 
quae jure tenebant apud Lacium et Campels (Campeaux)." 
To these, which had been granted to Robert, Earl of Gloucester, 
by Henry I. in 1101, upon their confiscation, that earl (we saw) 
still laid claim. The tense of tenebant looks as though both 
these barons had been allowed to hold their respective fiefs 
in France by Henry I. as from his natural son, and that 
accounts satisfactorily for Gilbert being found fighting 
for the Empress under the banner of Earl Robert himself 
at the sieges of Bristol and Bath. We cannot doubt 
1 Cf. Cart. Mon. Glouc, vol. i., p. 15. 



292 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

that the de Laci fiefs of two knights mentioned in 1133 1 
as being held from the Church of Bayeux were entirely being 
held by Robert, Earl of Gloucester, and that soon after 
the two representatives of the two de Laci families, Ilbert 
and Gilbert, were respectively permitted to enjoy them 
by him. As we have seen, Ilbert, soon after King Henry's 
death, appeared as a partisan of Stephen. With him was a 
younger brother, Henry, J who fell in 1138 at the Battle of the 
Standard (August 22nd). On the whole, we shall be inclined 
to believe that Gilbert de Laci was not a son of the banished 
Roger, but was, as Giraldus said, the son of a sister (name as 
yet unknown) ; moreover, that he was brother to Sybil Fitz- 
John. 

1 Lib. Rubeus, p. 646, R. 5. 
2 Their sister married to Robert de Lisours. Cf, G Roll of the Pipe, 
Hen. I. 31 (1130). Their mother's name was Emma. She eventually 
became a nun in the Abbey de St. Amand, to which she gave 22 acres of 
land at Mortmain. (Cf. Cal. Doc. France (Ed. J. H. Round), p. 24.) 



SOME NOTES ON THE PURLIEUS OF THE FOREST 

OF DEAN. 



By EDWARD CONDER, F.S.A.. 

In 1878 the late Sir John Maclean pointed out the importance 
of collecting materials for the earlier history of the Forest of 
Dean, as in his opinion it was " an obscure page of Gloucester- 
shire history that deserved to be cleared up." 1 

I venture, therefore, to contribute the following notes, 
deeming them worthy of the attention of future writers on 
the subject. 

It is well known that during the thirteenth century the 
perambulations of the northern bounds of the Forest were 
altered from time to time, and the area enclosed consequently 
considerably enlarged. Under Henry II., Richard I and 
Tohn the boundary was gradually extended, until at length 
it practically included all the manors south of the modern 
high road from Gloucester, passing through Newent, Kilcott, 
and Gorsley, to Bollitree, in the parish of Weston-under- 
Penyard, Herefordshire ; from there to Walford, south of 
Ross and thence to the River Wye at Goodrich Ferry. 

According to Rudder, 2 these bounds were set forth at 
Gloucester in 1282 in consequence of certain disputes respect- 
ing the ancient Forest boundary.. The effect of this was the 
appointment of a commission to inquire and report on the 
grievance. 

In 1300 a perambulation was made, denning the boundary 
as advised by the commissioners. It was then made clear to 
the tenants that all lands taken in after the coronation of 

1 Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. iii., p. 367, and vol. xiv., p. 35^ 
2 Rudder, Hist., Appendix, Nos. 1 and 2. 



294 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



Henry II. should be disafforested, but the woods to be con- 
sidered as purlieus of the Forest. 1 This latter consideration 
was due to the fact that such woods might harbour the deer, 
and where no rights of free warren existed the Verderers 
would be free to control the cutting of the underwood. 

There was, however, a charter of Henry III., dated 1225, 2 
—much earlier than the date given by Rudder— which dis- 
afforested all lands taken in since the coronation of Henry II. 
(1154), excepting such lands as were in the king's demesne. 

This charter is quoted by Mr. Wood in a paper on Penyard 
Chace, read before the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club in 
I90i. <; Mr. Wood also quotes the verdict of the jury, given 
on 18th April, 1228* when the following boundary was 
defined as the ancient bounds of the Forest before the corona- 
tion of Henry II. That is to say :— 

" From Gloucester Bridge, along the great road to Newent, 
and thence by the same road as far as Gorstley Brook ; thence 
ascending the same brook to its head, and then by road to 
Brooms Ash ; and thence going down by the same road to 
Alton ; and thence by the same road to the Wye." The 
Jurors also said that " the Bishop of Hereford has his chace 
by ancient title in a certain wood called Lax Penyard, within 
the Forest aforesaid. 4 

The perambulation of the Forest in 1300 is given in detail,- 
and shows the following boundary line. From Gloucester 
Bridge to Newent, and on to Ell Bridge, and thence by the 
brook to " Gorstelyeforde ; " and thence " following the metes 
and bounds between the counties of Gloucester and Hereford, 
to a place where is a stream called the Bishop's Brook, which 
falls into the Wye." From this it will be seen that Hereford- 
shire was entirely disafforested, but the old northern boundary 
m Gloucestershire remained much the same. 

1 Ibid., p. 28. ' 9 Henry III.. Forest Charter. 

I2 Henry nt^Tad' ^ P ™^> No. xo; also Close Roll, 
4 Trans. Woolhope Field Club, 1 900-1, p. 207 
3 T. R., Forest Proceedings, No. 255, 28 Edward I. 



Notes on the Purlieus of the Forest of Dean. 295 

By the following deeds and charters connected with the 
manor of Kilcott, 1 and the extract from the chartulary of the 
Priory of Newent, it will be apparent that although strictly 
within the Forest bounds, yet the parish of Newent was 
debatable ground, being a long way to the north, and of 
importance only to the Forest so far as its scattered woodlands 
might harbour deer. 

The most northerly point in the perambulation was the 
manor of Kilcott, in the parish of Newent, held at that time 
in part by John Muchgros, in right of his wife, Dulcia or 
Cecilia, heiress of William Avernal of English Bicknor, and 2 
partly by William Waleran, in right of his wife, one of the 
coheiresses of Hugh de Kilpec, ;! a former lord of the manor. 

About the year 1280, Bogo de Knovill, Governor of Dolvo- 
ron Castle, on the Welsh marshes, a former sheriff of 
Shropshire and Staffordshire, 4 one of King Edward's trusty 
supporters during the first Welsh war of 1277, purchased from 
William W T aleran his moiety of Kilcott Manor, and obtained 
-considerable grants of woodland from the king. 

It is probable that Edward I., during his expedition into 
North Wales, had been anxious to secure the loyal co-opera- 
tion of his tenants-in-fee, on the confines of the marches, by 
grants of free warren and coppice rights. Bogo de Knovill 
appears to have taken advantage of this franchise with regard 
to Kilcott Wood. 

A writ, dated 5th December, 1280, 5 was issued to Ralph 
.de Sandwich, steward of the king's demesne, calling upon him 
to inquire into the exact amount of damage and loss, if any, 

1 The manor of Kilcott was formerly part of the royal demesne 
(T. R. E.), and as such, had been excepted by the charter of Henry III. 
(1225) from being disafforested. See Ante, p. 294. 

2 Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. iv., p. 318, Pedigree of this 
family. &c. 

3 Rudder. 

4 Complete Peerage, by G. E. C. De Knovill was Sheriff from 
:127s to 1278. 

5 Chan. Inq. P. M.. 9 Edward I., No. 65. 



296 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

should the king grant Kilcott Wood to Bogo de Knovill, &c, 
&c. A jury of twelve men stated on oath at the inquiry 
which was held in February, 1281, that if the king granted 
to Bogo his great Wood of Killecote — which is within the 
Forest of Dene — to sell and take profit thereof, it would be 
to the damage of the king and the hurt of the said Forest, 
but what damage and hurt they knew not. They said further, 
that if granted to the said Bogo to sell the wood, he (the 
king) would lose all the attachments of the said wood of the 
Verderers, who were wont, and ought, to plead before the 
justices of the pleas of the Forest, and to be there amerced. 
He would also lose the repair of his beasts which came and 
went, &c, &c. 

This inquiry was held on the Tuesday next after the 
Purification of the Virgin Mary, 1281. 

The result of this inquest appears to have been that the 
damage was slight, and Kilcott Wood was granted to Bogo- 
de Knovill. 

Yet it was subject to further inquiries with regard to the 
large timber. 

In 1283 an inquiry was held at Newent before Grimbald 
Pauncefoot, 1 keeper of the Forest, when a jury of twelve 
stated on oath that " if the king granted to Bogo de Knovill 
that he might cut down the large oaks in all his Wood of 
Kyllicote, which is within the metes of the Forest of Dene, and 
take his profit thereof, it would be to the damage and hurt 
of the king yearly of ten shillings, by reason of the attach- 
ments of the sergeants and other ministers of the said forest,, 
and of the repair of the beasts of the king. 

"It is also to the damage of William de Astonene (Aston 
Ingham), who has common when pannage 2 happens of five 

1 Chan. Inq. P. M., 2 Edward I., No. 68. This inquest may have 
been one following upon the writ of 1281. 

2 Pannage = The right of pasturing swine in woods. Also Pannage = 
The money taken by the agistors for the privilege of feeding hogs upon 
the mast of the forest. 



Notes on the Purlieus of the Forest of Dean. 297 

■shillings ; and of Thomas de Bolesdon [Bolesdon Manor joined 
Kilcott], who has common as above of five shillings ; and of 
the Rector of the Church of Aston, for the time being, who has 
■common like the said William of five shillings. There is there 
no repair of beasts, except rarely passing through and 



returning. 

In this document we notice the words " within the metes 
of the Forest," i.e. within the boundaries of the perambula- 
tions. 

Again Bogo de Knovill was successful, and m June, 1284, 
licence was granted to him to fell all the oaks in his Wood of 
Kylcote, within the metes of the Forest, provided that the 
underwood remain equally thick for harbouring of deer.* 

This last clause appears to have troubled de Knovill, as in 
the following year he obtained a charter* of Free Warren over 
his lands at Kilcott. Bogo de Knovill died in 1307, and was 
succeeded by his son Bogo. 3 

In the <=ame vear, soon after the accession of Edward 11., 
a further inquiry was considered necessary concerning the 
woods at Kilcott, held by Bogo, son of the grantee. 

On 19th March, 1307-8, a precept was issued to John 
Hanlowe, Warden of the Forest of Dene, to hold an inquiry 
" whether it be to our loss or prejudice, or of others, or an 
injury to the aforesaid Forest, if we grant permission to our 
beloved and trusty Bogo de Knovill, that in his coppice of 
Kyllecote, which is within the confines* of the aforesaid 
Forest he should be able to cut down his coppice, and sell 
the underwood when cut down, and to make profit therefrom, 
&c &c ' and how much that coppice contains m itself by 
number of acres or perches of the Forest, and if there be a 
well-stocked cover for our wild game, &c, &c. Given at 
Westminster, 19 March, in the first year of our reign." 

' Patent]RolI, 12 Edward I., Mem. 9. 
* Charter Rolls, 13 Edward I., No. 95- 
» Inq. P. M., 35 Edward I. 
* Qui est infra forestam predictam. 



298 Transactions for the Year 1906. 



The answer to this was that at an inquest held at St. Bria- 
vells on Friday, the morrow cf St. Ambrose, 1 in the first year 
of King Edward, son of the illustrious King Edward, in the 
presence of Roger deTydemerch, deputy of Lord John Hanlowe, 
Keeper of the Forest of Dene, &c. 12 Jurors : Hugo de Bray, 
Richard de Malemcrt, Walter de Auste, Richard Edy, Robert 
de Maiemort, Walter de Ketford, Robert Wyther, William Ely, 
John de Aure, William Peressone, William Bleyth de Killicote, 
and John Yuor. Who say on their oath that it is not to the 
loss or prejudice of the king, nor of others, nor to the injury 
of the aforesaid Fcrest if the said Bogo cut down and thereby 
make profit from his coppice aforesaid. They also say that 
there is no cover [place of resort] of the king's wild game, 
because it is a long distance from the covers of the aforesaid 
Forest, and that the coppice contains in itself sixty acres. 2 

The following extract from the chartulary of Newent 
Priory is of considerable interest in showing that the woods 
within the manor, although purlieus, were not subject to the 
Verderer's Court. 

The Priory of Newent was a cell of the Benedictine Abbey 
of St. Mary of Cormeilles, in the diocese of Lisieux, Normandy. 

The Manor of Newent had been given to the abbey by 
William I. at the instance of Roger, second Earl of Hereford. 
The prior at Newent acted as bailiff to the abbot, who in all 
Official documents is spoken of as lord of the manor. 

In consequence of certain reports from the prior on the 
subject of the alteration of the boundaries of the Forest, the 
abbot objected to the visitations, or " viewings " of his lands 
and wood by the Forest officials, and apparently appealed to 
Edward II. for protection against their trespass and orders. 
From the chartulary of the priory^ I take the following :— 
" Hugh le Despenser, Justice of the King's Forest this side 
of Trent, sent the following writ to John Hanlo, Warden of the 

1 St. Ambrose, April 4th. 
2 Inq. ad quod damnum, 1 Edward II., file 66, No. 1. 
3 Brit. Mus. add. MS. 15,668, fol. 4. 



Notes on the Purlieus of the Forest of Dean. 299. 

Forest of Dean or his deputy, 29 January, 1 Edw. II. [i3o|]. 
Edward the King to Hugh le Despenser. It is shown to us on 
behalf of the Abbot of Cormeilles that whereas Henry King of 
England, by his charter which we have inspected, granted to 
the Abbot and Monks of Cormeilles the Manor of Newent and 
Wood of Yarclesdon 1 in the Forest of Dean, to hold according 
as they had held that wood from the time of King Henry 
(grandfather of the said Henry) from which time the Abbot 
there had reasonable estovers 2 in the said wood ; yet now you 
and your servants molest the said Abbot therein : We there- 
fore command you to desist from such molestations. Lange- 
leye, 3 7 Dec, 2 Edw. II. [1308]." 

For some years this warning was attended to, but in 1323 
the Prior of Newent had again to appeal against the conduct 
of the Keeper of the Forest. From the same chartulary I take 
th2 following : — - 

Writ dated at Gloucester, 9 June, 16 Edw. II. 

" William de Cleydone, lieutenant of Lord Adomar [Aymer] 
de Valence Earl of Pembroke, Justice of the Forest this side 
of Trent. Having inspected the Charters of the progenitors 
of the now King, granting to the Prior of Newent estovers 
and all necessaries for house-bo te hey-bote and fuel in his 
Wood of Yarkeldone and hearing that Robert de Sapi, Keeper 
of the Forest of Dene has impeded the said Prior in this matter 
he commands the said Robert or his deputy to leave the said 
Prior and his men unmolested in the taking of estovers and 
other necessaries." 

Even this writ did not prevent the succeeding keeper from 
troubling the prior, as the following entry to the same effect 
occurs in the Newent Chartulary, dated 1325 : — 

1 Now known as Newent Wood, situate on the northern slope of 
May Hill. A farm there is still known as " Yartledon." 

a Estovers — comprehending house, plough, fire, cart and hay or 
hedge botes, i.e. so much of the wood as was necessary for fuel and 
the repairs of buildings and fences. 

3 Langley, in Wychwood Forest, Oxon., four miles from Burford, 
a favourite hunting lodge of our early kings. 



300 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



"Writ of Hugh le Despenser, Earl of Winchester, Justice 
of the Forest this side of Trent, to John de Myners, Keeper ot 
the Forest of Dene, or his deputy," warning the keeper not to 
molest the prior in his taking estovers, &c, &c. (similar to the 
above). Dated at Kennington, 17 Oct., 19 Edw. II. 

As I find no further evidence that this right of estovers was 
questioned, it would appear that the prior at last gained his 
liberty from the control of the Forest keepers on this point. 
With regard to this wood being within the Forest boundary, 
there is an interesting note in the priory chartulary to the 
following effect : — 

" Writ of Hugh le Despenser, Earl of Winchester, 1 Justice of 
the Forest this side of Trent, to John de Myners, Keeper of the 
Forest of Dene or his Deputy. Whereas the King has com- 
manded his Justices of the Peace to enlarge the highways 
according to the Statute of Winchester, 2 that merchants and 
others may pass more safety ; the said Hugh commands the 
said John to suffer the Prior of Newent to enlarge the highway 
in his Wood of Yarkeldone. Dated 1326. Bardesley, 5 Aug., 
20 Edw. II." 

This writ distinctly shows the wood to be within the 
jurisdiction of the Forest Court at that date. 

The Abbot of Gloucester was also interested in the altera- 
tion of the Forest bounds by the perambulation of 1300, so 
far as his lordship over the Manor of Hope Mansel was con- 
cerned. Before that date his woods were within the Forest, 
and in 1278 he had to obtain leave before he could use the 
fallage" or cut any timber. 

In 1324 his manor lying in Herefordshire was without the 
Forest, yet his woods were considered to be purlieus. He was 
nevertheless able to cut wood in Birchwood and Hope Maloy- 
sell without demand or view of the foresters. 4 By a petition 5 

1 Created Earl 1322. 2 13 Edward I. (1285). 

3 Pat., 9 Edward I. Esch., 9 Edward I., No. 57. 
4 Clau. Rot., 17 Edward II., m. 21 — 22. 
5 Pet. Pari., 11 Edward III. 



Notes on the Purlieus of the Forest of Dean. 301 

in parliament 2 Ed. III., the Abbot and Convent of Gloucester 
beg their right to the Wood of Hope Maloysell as heretofore 
(they said) in purlieu, &c, &c. 

In 1807 a private Act was obtained for enclosing " certain 
commonable and waste lands once called the Abbot's Purlieu, 
and since the Reformation, the Bishop's Purlieu," within the 
Manor and Parish of Hope Mansell. 1 

The boundary question was also a subject of interest to 
the Bishop of Hereford. During a tour or visitation of his 
diocese in 1286, the Bishop visited Ross, 2 and on that occasion 
a deer hunt was organised in the Chace of Penyard. which was 
then within the Forest. The register of Bishop Swinfield 
records the following interesting particulars :— 

" A.D. 1286. Be it remembered that when the Lord Bishop 
was at Ross on Monday next before S. Matthew the Apostle, 
his huntsman with some of his men coursed in his Chace of 
Penyard and caught a young stag and there arose a dispute 
between the Huntsman and the Foresters of the King about 
that stag in respect of the place wherein it was caught ; and 
after the departure of the Bishop an inquiry 3 was held at Hull 
Cnole [Howl Hill, near Walford] on Thursday before the feast 
of S. Matthew 14 Ed. I. 12 men out of Walford, Coughton, 
Bicknore, Ruardean, Hope Mansell, Longhope, Eccleswell and 
Dean being Juorors. The witnesses, keepers and other servants, 
were examined on oath by Grimbald Pauncefoot and the 
Verderers whether the stag was killed within the Forest or 
not. All the men examined declared that the stag was caught 
without the Forest where the Chace of the Lord Bishop was 
wont to be ; and the Villagers and the Juorors agreed in all 
things. When Grimbald Pauncefoot enquired of whom the 
hunting party consisted, the Villagers pleaded ignorance, but 

1 Additions to vol. ii. of Duncumb's Hist, of Herefordshire, by 
W. H. Cooke, p. 371. 

2 "Roll of the household expenses of Bishop Swinfield, 1289 and 
1290," Camden Soc., 1854. 

3 Ihquisitio de cervo de Ros Reg. Swinf., fol. 37a. 
21 

Vol. XXIX. 



302 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



the Foresters asserted that William de Clevering the Huntsman 
N. the Carter, John de Herley were the persons. 

After 1300 the bishop's " chace " at Penyard was of course 
free from Forest Law. Mr. Wood mentions in his interesting 
paper on Penyard Chace, already noticed, that there is a record 
of a commission issued in January, 1227-8, to Hugh Nevill to 
proceed to the king's Forest of Penyard, and there set out by 
metes and bounds a division between the king's " fee of 
Penyard" and the bishop's "fee of Ross." Unfortunately 
Mr. Wood was unable to find the return to this writ. There 
are doubtless many other inquisitions concerning the dis- 
afforestation and the purlieus of the Forest still to see the 
light. The foregoing pages will, I trust, assist those interested 
in the history of the Forest of Dene. 



ON A ROMAN ROAD FROM OLD SARUM TO UPHILL, 
AND ITS STRUCTURE AT CHEWTON MENDIP, 
WHERE CUT THROUGH IN 1906. 



By JAMES McMURTRIE, F.G.S. 

In a former communication to this Society on Roman roads 
(in volume xxvi., part 2), and in describing the course of the 
Fosse road to the south of Bath, the writer pointed out that 
" on the summit of the Mendips near Beacon Hill, the Fosse 
road crossed another reputed Roman road leading from Old 
Sarum to Uphill, which, so far as he knew, had never been 
examined." Collinson had made no mention of this road, but 
Sir Richard Colt Hoare, in his great work on Ancient Wiltshire, 
and in the volume on the "Roman ^ra," had described the 
course of the road throughout its entire length. 

COURSE OF THE ROAD. 

Beginning at Old Sarum, he appears to have traced the 
road wherever it was traceable, through the counties of Wilts 
and Somerset to the River Axe at Uphill, and he subsequently 
had it carefully surveyed and engraved on a map which accom- 
panied his book. No description of the road having been 
given in the ancient itineraries, Sir Richard had to investigate 
its course with the help of such landmarks as he could find, 
defining it on the map by a solid line where the evidence was 
satisfactory, and indicating it by a dotted line where there 
was nothing definite to go upon, the dotted portions forming 
a considerable part of the whole. In many places where the 
ancient track had been incorporated with the modern road ; 
or where its course lay through cultivated land and its 
structure had been obliterated, he appears to have been 



304 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



guided by the stations, earthworks and tumuli which are 
generally to be found along the line of such roads or adjacent 
thereto, and in such cases some margin must be allowed for 
error ; but wherever possible he sought out and identified the 
road itself. 

After leaving the fortress of Sorbiodunum at Old Sarum 
and crossing the River Avon, he (Sir Richard Hoare) found it 
difficult to follow for the first three miles, but at a distance of 
3h miles, in Grovelly Wood, he met the first positive trace, 
which he was able to follow by Dinton Beeches to Stockton 
Wood ten miles from Old Sarum, which was so strongly forti- 
fied by earthworks that he supposed it to have been the first 
Roman station along the road, as also probably a former settle- 
ment of the ancient Britons. Proceeding onwards by Chick- 
lade to Pertwood farm, he has noticed an interesting spot 
where the Roman engineer, with praiseworthy consideration, 
had turned aside to avoid the grave mound of an ancient chief ; 
but beyond this spot all traces of the road were lost for a con- 
siderable distance, the materials of which it was composed 
having been presumably carried away. 

Passing onwards by Monckton Deveril and Maiden Bradley, 
the next probable point was found at Gaer Hill near Frome,' 
and after crossing a broad valley by Wanstrow where all trace 
of it was lost, Sir Richard was able to follow it by Long Cross 
to Beacon Hill, one of the highest summits of the Mendips, 
near which it crossed the Fosse road from Bath to Ilchester 
as already stated. 

On leaving the Fosse its course was towards Masbury, one 
of the largest camps in those parts, which it passes on its 
northern flank; but again striking the modern road, it 
followed it to Green Ore on the Wells road. About half a mile 
to the west of Green Ore and thirty-eight from Old Sarum, it 
again leaves the modern road and crosses the Chewton Warren 
to Castle Comfort Inn, a well-known hostelry (which is hardly 
in agreement with its name) . This stretch of the road between 
«Green Ore and Castle Comfort is the only one which the Ord- 



Roman Road from Old Sarum to Uphill. 305 

nance Surveyors have felt justified in naming as they have done, 
" Roman road to Old Sarum," and it is here that the sections 
were cut through last autumn which will presently be described. 

Sir Richard Hoare has pointed out the numerous British 
settlements, earthworks, sepulchral barrows and ancient camps 
met with on each side along its course. Adjoining it near Castle 
Comfort, four large British hut circles have been marked on 
the Ordnance map, although now hardly traceable on the 
ground, and not far distant are numerous barrows, the most, 
conspicuous being the Nine Barrows near the road from 
Chewton to Cheddar. 

After leaving Castle Comfort, the course of the road is by 
Temple Down and Ubley Warren to Charterhouse, where there 
are evidences of an extensive Roman station and settlement 
first noticed by Skinner, of Camerton, abundance of pottery 
from the finest Samian to the coarsest descriptions, Roman 
coins, gold and other ornaments having been found there, a 
collection of which is to be seen in the Bristol Museum. In 
further proof of its importance and antiquity, an amphitheatre 
has been discovered in an adjoining field, and another is said 
to have been levelled by a farmer who had evidently more 
regard to agriculture than archaeology. 

Passing onwards from Charterhouse the road is not very 
traceable, but it is believed to have crossed the lofty summit 
of Black Down to Shipham, and thence under Banwell Hill to 
Old Mixon, where Sir Richard Hoare quaintly says he re- 
covered the scent. A straight line of road leads from here to 
what he considered a Roman station, near Uphill, which he 
named Ad Axium, where a square earthwork and antique 
pottery had been found. 

He had thus been able to trace this previously unexplored 
road for the long distance of fifty-five miles, from the strong 
fortress of Sorbiodunum to its seaport on the River Axe, and 
near which, for its security, the headland of Brean Down had 
been strongly fortified, possibly to guard the passage to another 
Roman station at Tibia Amnis on the Welsh coast near Cardiff. 



306 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

Those who are acquainted with the Mendip country and its 
mineral resources can have little doubt that one great object 
of making this long line of road, for the most part through a 
barren country, was to convey the metals found in those parts 
westward to the sea, or by way of Old Sarum to the south coast 
for shipment to the Continent, there being ample evidence that 
the Romans, like the races which had preceded them, were 
actively engaged in mining, being as skilful in such pursuits as 
they were brave in war. 

STRUCTURE OF THE ROAD. 

Although Sir Richard Colt Hoare made so able and exhaus- 
tive an investigation of the course of this road, he does not 
appear to have cut through it at any point, and it was to supply 
this want that the writer carried out certain excavations during 
the past autumn. Having brought it to the notice of the Earl 
Waldegrave, whose land the road passes through, he readily 
gave permission for it to be explored, and the writer would 
desire to express his obligation to his lordship, not only for this 
permission, but for the help of the estate workmen, and for his 
personal assistance while making the exploration. The portion 
of the road selected for this purpose was between Green Ore 
and Castle Comfort, where it crosses the Chewton Warren and 
adjoining land, and has been little disturbed from the earliest 
times. The accompanying diagram (No. 1) will explain its 
course at this part of the hill, and will show where three sections, 
numbered I., II., and III., were cut through it on the 21st and 
22nd September last. These points were selected because the 
road was better defined there than in the adjoining land, and it 
will be observed that they are in separate fields, the object being 
to obtain fair average tests at places some distance apart. 

No. I. Section was taken in enclosure No. 863, " Middle Hill," 
on the Chewton Tithe Map ; No. II. Section 770 yards to the 
eastwards in enclosure No. 893, "Small Pits"; and No. III. 
Section, which is 390 yards farther to the east, is in enclosure 
No. 895, "Bower Mead, or Clay Pits," the two last-mentioned 




Line of Roman Road at 
- Chewton Mendip - 



Scale 24 Chains to I Inch. 



Pn$r 306. 



Roman Road from Old Sarum to Uphill. 307 

being within Chewton Warren, once the scene of active mining 
operations of which evidence exists on all hands. 

Before commencing operations in each case, careful level- 
lings of the surface were taken, showing its elevation above 
the adjoining land ; a strip of turf, about two feet wide, was 
then removed right across the road and for a foot or two on 
each side of it, the structural formation of the road being 
then cut through layer after layer, the thickness being carefully 
noted, and specimens kept for reference. 

From these measurements sections have been prepared, 
which are shown on Diagram No. II., which will enable the 
members to see at a glance the general result of these explora- 
tions. The following tabular statement shows side by side the 
average thickness of the beds in each section, and will be useful 
for comparison : — 





DESCRIPTION OF LAYERS. 


I. 

Section. 


II. 
Section. 


III. 

Section, 


I 

2 

2 A 

3 


Road metal and ballast 
Reddish brown earth 
Black clay or earth 


Inches. 

3 
6 

Si 
7i 


Inches. 

3+ 
7i 

4 


Inches. 

3 

6i 

2i 


4 


Yellow and brown clay, be- 
lieved to be the original sub- 


22 


15 

l 4i 


12 

6 




Total depth of excavation 


22 


2 9i 


18 




Width of metalled road 
Total width of road formation 


19 feet 
27 


(im- 
■nerfect) 


19ft. 6in. 
27 feet 



From these measurements and the drawings shown on the 
diagram it will be seen that, although not quite alike, the 
principal layers are common to all, viz. the turf, the road 
metal and ballast which lie immediately under, and a 
certain layer of black earth or clay which may be considered 
the bottom bed of the road formation, the yellow clay 
which lies beneath, as proved by certain trial holes, being 



3 o8 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



apparently the original subsoil of the country. They agree 
quite as closely as would be found in modern roads if cut 
through in the same manner, there being only two differences 
to which attention may be called. In the No. I. Section there 
is an extra layer consisting of reddish brown earth, marked 
No. 2A, the road having probably required a little more level- 
ling up at that place. And in the No. II. Section it will be 
observed that both road metal and black earth are wanting on 
the north side of the road. There being a depression in the 
adjoining ground on that side, it is probable that either mining 
operations or a swallet hole may have interfered with the road 
formation at this point, and Nos. I. and III. may therefore be 
regarded as typical sections of the road on this part of 
the hill. 1 

Turning to the materials of the road and the specimens- 
taken therefrom, it may be observed that in each case the road 
metal and ballast seem to have been obtained from the Old Red 
Sandstone of the neighbourhood, the stones of which it is com- 
posed being of all shapes and sizes, from one to eight inches, 
intermixed with fine stone or earth. There is no appearance 
of paving or pitching of any kind, the material having been 
thrown promiscuously together, but, as will be observed, with 
a well-rounded off convex surface, on which there is no apparent 
trace of ruts or tracks of any kind, from which it may be inferred 
that it was formerly used by pack horses. 

Immediately under the ballast in No. I. and II. Sections 
there occurs the bed of black earth or clay to which reference 
has been made. What this bed is it is difficult to say, there 
being nothing to correspond with it in trial holes which were 
put down a few yards away on either side, and there is nothing 
quite like it in the adjoining ground, where the surface in 
places consists of boggy earth which it is difficult to imagine 
can have decayed into the material of which the specimen is 
composed. In Dr. Wright's book on the Celt, the Roman and 
the Saxon, he has stated as follows : — 
1 Section No. II., being imperfect, has been omitted from the diagram. 



Roman Road from Old Sarum to Uphill. 309^ 

" The Romans began the construction of their roads by 
making two parallel furrows the intended width of the road,, 
and then removing all loose earth between them till they came 
to the hard solid ground, and then they filled in this excavation 
with fine earth hard beaten in. This first layer has been called 
the ' pavementum.' " 

The black earth or clay met with in these excavations being,, 
especially in the No. I. Section, clearly below the original sur- 
face level, may it not be the representative of the fine pounded 
earth with which, according to Wright, the Romans were wont 
to begin their road formations ? 

For the purpose of comparison, attention is directed to a 
diagram of the Fosse road at Radstock, where last cut through, 
in the summer of 1904, with which the simple structure now 
described stands out in striking contrast. 1 Instead of the five 
layers met with in the Fosse, which are characteristic of the 
typical Roman road, the Chewton excavations show only two, 
or in one instance three, below the turf, and there is a total 
absence of the elaborate structure commonly associated with 
the great military and trunk roads of that period. 

As the writer pointed out, however, in a former paper, it is 
not to be supposed that all Roman roads, or even any con- 
siderable number of them, conformed to the high standard of 
the Fosse, nothing quite equal to it having been discovered 
in other parts of England. Besides the great trunk roads there 
were others in the nature of cross roads, less perfect in their 
structure, which would appear to have been made entirely for 
commercial purposes, and some of them may have been the 
trade routes of the ancient Britons before the Roman conquest. 
There were also what might be styled country roads as well as 
by-roads, for communication between estates. 

In a recent book on Our Roman Highways, by Urquhart 
Forbes and Arnold Burmeister, when speaking of the second 
class or commercial roads they state that : — 

" A road of this kind is known to have run from Old Sarum, 
1 See a similar section in vol. xxvi., part 2, p. — . 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



(Sorbiodunum) through the mineral districts of Mendip to 
Brean Down, in Somersetshire." 

So that the sections now submitted are only what was to have 
been expected under the circumstances. 

According to Watkins, the Roman roads in Lancashire and 
Cheshire were largely constructed of gravel, and it will be 
remembered that the Roman road across Durdham Down, 
formerly explored by Professor Lloyd Morgan, Mr. A. Trice 
Martin, Mr. Pritchard and Mr. Hudd, was equally simple and 
not very dissimilar in character, although it was one of even 
greater importance, being the great road from Silchester 
through Bath, Bristol and Sea Mills, to South Wales. There 
is nothing, therefore, in the simplicity of construction of the 
Old Sarum road to throw doubt on its antiquity, and if not 
of Roman age, it was possibly an ancient British track 
reconstructed during the Roman occupation. But it should 
be added, that although careful watch was kept during the 
-excavations, no coin, pottery, or other relic was found to fix 
with certainty the period to which it belonged. 



NOTES ON THE IRON ORE MINES OF THE FOREST 
OF DEAN, AND ON THE HISTORY OF THEIR 
WORKING. 



Being the substance of an Address 
By Mr. W. H. FRYER, 
At the Spring Meeting of the Bristol and Gloucestershire 
Archaeological Society on 2 9 th May, 1906. 

The Forest of Dean mineral basin comprises the coal measures, 
-consisting of parallel layers of greystone and shale with inter- 
vening seams of coal, and resting upon the Millstone Grit. 
Below this lies the 'Carboniferous Limestone, which forms an 
•elevated ridge surrounding the before-mentioned measures, 
with the exception of the north-west and south-east portions 
of the rim, where, long before the overlapping coal measures 
were deposited, an ocean current had washed away the lime- 
stone, and deposited its debris in the " Severn Sea." 

The upper portion of the Carboniferous Limestone consists, 
locally, of beds of grey and whitish limestone, varying from six 
inches to as many feet thick. The total thickness of these beds 
is about twenty yards. Between them and the Great Red 
Limestone lies a bed of coarse-grained crystalline limestone, 
varying in thickness from ten to twenty yards. It is locally 
termed the " crease," and contains the iron ore proper of the 

Forest of Dean. 

The ore is dispersed amongst it in the shape of irregular 
pipe veins," consisting of variously ramified strings descend- 
ing from the surface, and frequently opening out into pockets, 
or " churns " as the miners call them, sometimes as large as 
the nave of a church. At other times the ore spreads out in 
beds or runs back in vertical joints far into the underlying Red 



312 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

Limestone, the whole forming a deposit characterised by its 
extreme irregularity. 

We are now standing on the outer edge of the crease, where 
it rests on the Red Limestone ; and the scowles in front of us 
are some of the vertical joints, or fissures, from which the ore 
has been extracted. 

How the ore got into these strings, or " churns," may be 
thus explained. Besides being porous and permeable by water, 
the crease is slowly soluble in water containing carbonic acid. 
As the rain water falls on decaying vegetable matter it picks 
up the resulting carbonic acid, and filtering down through the 
crease the acidulated water would naturally form channels in 
it. The joint action of water and decomposing vegetable 
matter is also capable of carrying away the iron which exists 
as ferric oxide in the Red Sandstones of the adjacent Millstone 
Grit and Old Red Sandstone, and as sulphide of iron in the 
coal measures ; and as the resulting ferrous solutions percolate 
through the porous crease, they would become in turn decom- 
posed by it, and deposit the oxide of iron thus liberated. In 
this way the two processes of excavating and filling the channels 
in the crease will in all probability have been simultaneous. 

The way in which the ore occurs appears to agree with this 
hypothesis. The ore nearest the surface, and consequently 
the earliest deposited, is usually harder than the one found at 
considerable depth, where its deposition would have been more 
recent. Then again, the richest ore is usually found in the 
middle of the churn, whilst the ore at the sides, where it abuts 
on the surrounding crease, usually consists of what is called 
" grey ore," which is composed of particles of pure ore inter- 
mixed with the crease, and in appearance somewhat resembles 
granite. 

Irrespective of physical conditions, there are three varieties 
of ore, all of them containing the iron in the form of peroxide, 
but differing from each other in the respective quantities of. 
water chemically combined with it, viz. : 

1. LimonUe. — Contains, when pure, peroxide of iron,. 



Iron Ore Mines of the Forest of Dean. 313 

-85.56 per cent. ; combined water, 1444 per cent. This is by 
far the most common variety. It has a brownish yellow 
streak, or powder. When hard it is called by the miners 
'" black brush," or " pipy brush," or " flinty brush," according 
to its outward character and appearance. When granular, or 
pulverulent, it is termed " smith ore." The finest and brightest 
portions constitute " yellow ochre." 

2. Gothite (= Goethite). — Contains peroxide of iron, 
89.89 per cent. ; combined water, 10. 11 per cent. This 
variety has a blood-red streak, or powder, and is rarely, 
if ever, found except in a pulverulent form, or else dis- 
persed among the surrounding crease. In the former case it is 
called " red colour," and in the latter case " colour spirt." 
It is chiefly used for paint making. 

3. Turgite. — Contains peroxide of iron, 94.67 per cent. ; 
combined water, 5.33 per cent. This variety is, perhaps, still 
less generally found, but in one part of the district it forms a 
considerable portion of the bulk. The lumps are dark bluish 
purple in colour, with a reddish purple streak, or powder. 
Some of the more pure and softer portions are used for paints ; 
the remainder is sent off with the ordinary furnace ore for 
making iron. 

In ancient times the ore had, in the first instance, to be 
simply dug out at the surface, but as the excavations became 
deeper it had to be carried up. This was done in shallow, oval 
boxes or trays, called " Billies," which were slung over the 
shoulder, held in position by a crooked stick, and carried by 
boys. The same method is followed now in places where trams 
cannot be taken up to the ore. Indeed, the only real difference 
between the ancient and the modern system of working arises 
from the greater depth from which nearly all the ore has now 
to be raised, and from the discovery and use of gunpowder for 
blasting. The primitive way of getting the hard ore was by 
lighting fires against it, and when hot, throwing water over it, 
thus causing it to crack. A later method would seem to have 
been to ram unslaked lime into the crevices, or into holes bored 



314 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



for the purpose, and then plug them up, when the damp would 
gradually slake the lime, and thus break down the ore. Old 
wood ashes and lime, which would appear to have been the 
result of these operations, have sometimes been found mixed 
with refuse ore in the " old men's " workings. Owing also to 
the greater depth of the unworked ore, the pits are now farther 
apart than was formerly the case, and the ore is often conveyed 
for long distances on tramways to the pit's bottom, whence it 
is now usually raised by steam engines. 

When the mines were first worked the iron was made direct 
from the ore, without the intermediate process, since adopted, 
of smelting it and making what is called " pig iron." The ore 
(unless already fine enough) was first of all pounded down to 
the size of small peas. It was then mixed with a small quan- 
tity of suitable marl, or " clod ore " (as some of the softer 
descriptions are called), with the addition in some cases of a 
little lime. The mixture was next made up into lumps, which, 
when dry, were placed in a small furnace and embedded in 
charcoal. When lit, the fire was urged by a blast, produced 
either by bellows or by a fall of water in a machine like a 
" trompe " (still used in some parts of the world), or some- 
times by a current of air induced by the wind blowing through 
a funnel-shaped pipe fixed in an elevated ravine, open (prefer- 
ably) to the strong, dry, north-west winds. When the iron 
was thus reduced to the metallic state the lump was taken out 
of the furnace and hammered down into a small bloom of 
wrought iron. A process essentially the same is still pursued 
in some parts of India and other countries. The iron made 
in this way is usually of very superior quality, being free from 
those damaging impurities which get into it in the process of 
fusion ; but the waste of material involved in it is excessive. 
The Forest of Dean was long celebrated for its manufacture of 
iron in this way. The sites of many of these old furnaces (or 
" forgiae errantes," or " itinerantes " as the old records term 
them) are still indicated by the quantities of half-reduced ore, 
or " cinders," which strew the surface or lie buried just below 



Iron Ore Mines of the Forest of Dean. 



315 



it ; though the best portions of them have long ago been 
carted away to be used again. 

Who were the people that first worked the mines ? is a 
question leading far back into the mists of antiquity. Merely 
to call them " Celts," and without defining the limits of this 
ubiquitous race, would be to say very little. The earliest 
inhabitants of Britain are supposed to have been of Uralian or 
Finnish origin, and some of the old Fins were undoubtedly 
workers in iron. But this also leaves the question unanswered. 
On the other hand, ancient chronicles tell us of a barbaric horde 
which crossed from that part of the Chersonese then called 
Loghlin (now Denmark), and drove before them the former 
inhabitants of Britain. They called themselves " Cimbri," 
but were called by the more lettered Celts the " Tuath de 
Danan," meaning, according to Sir W. Betham, the " North- 
men." Prima facie, therefore, they were a Scandinavian race, 
or, as some ethnologists are inclined to think, they may have 
belonged to a Lithuanic or Slavonic tribe who had migrated 
to the Chersonese from the north-east. It is said of them that 
they brought over to Scotland the " Tiag Fail," or stone of 
destiny, on which our Sovereigns are still crowned. That 
these Cimbri were familiar with the manufacture of iron is more 
than probable from the fact that the descendants of one portion 
of the tribe, who in their victorious march towards Rome were 
eventually exterminated by Marius and Catulus, are described 
as wearing breastplates of that metal. Those of them who had 
remained in Britain were subsequently invaded and subdued 
by Phoenician, or " Milesian " Celts, and were ultimately either 
expelled or reduced to servitude, being compelled, among other 
things, to work in the mines. 1 

1 What may have been the affinity between these earlier settlers 
in Britain and the so-called "Danes," of whose continual inroads 
during the Saxon domination we have heard so much, and the sp-called 
" Normans," who came over with William I., and what light it may 
possibly throw on the bv no means hostile attitude of their descendants 
to these invaders, are questions of more than local interest, and I should 
much like to see them fully dealt with.— W. H. F. 



3x6 Transactions for the Year 1906. 

May it not have been from these Danans, as the original 
workers in its mines, that the Forest of Dean, or " Foresta 
de Dana" as it was anciently called, may have derived 
its name ? 

The mixed population resulting, in part at least, from the 
several immigrations above mentioned, constituted the 
" Britons " subsequently found here by Julius Caesar, and 
popularly spoken of as " Celts." 

The Romans continued the system of working the mines by 
slaves, to whom they added convicted criminals, and, in times 
of persecution, persons convicted of Christianity. During 
their rule the mines appear to have been carried on without 
intermission. After their departure, and after the descendants 
of the former inhabitants had risen against the now Romanised 
and effeminated Celts and compelled them to invoke the aid 
of the Saxons, we hear little of the mines until the time of the 
Plantagenet kings. The miners were then called the " king's 
miners," and were paid for their sustenance at the rate of a 
penny per horse load of ore supplied for the king's use. After 
a time they were allowed to sell any ore not required by the 
king himself. This, according to the old feudal law, eman- 
cipated them. In consequence, as it would appear, of the 
services rendered by them to Edward III. in undermining and 
razing the walls of Berwick, and thus enabling that monarch 
to retake that stronghold from the Scotch, they received from 
him a Charter of Liberties, embodied in the " Book of Dennys," 
and were thenceforth termed " free miners." Their rights and 
privileges— somewhat modified by modern ideas and customs- 
are now regulated and confirmed by Acts of Parliament. 



GRANT BY SIR JOHN BENET OF DOYLY IN THE 
COUNTY OF MIDDLESEX, KNIGHT OF THE BATH 
TO THE MASTER FELLOWS AND SCHOLARS OF 
PEMBROKE COLLEGE IN THE UNIVERSITY OF 
OXFORD, MADE THE 10th NOVEMBER IN THE 
EIGHT AND TWENTIETH YEAR (1676) OF THE 
REIGN OF OUR SOVEREIGN LORD CHARLES II. 

By F. Were. 

In the Derbyshire Arch&ological Journal for 1907, vol. xxix., 
pp. 66-76, this grant is printed in extenso. It principally 
concerns places in Derbyshire, but at the end come several 
places in Bristol and Gloucestershire, which ought to be 
recorded, I think, in our Transactions, as I cannot find these 
grants to Pembroke College mentioned in the histories. G.E.C. 
says of Sir John Bennet, son and heir of Sir John Bennet, of 
Dawley in Harlington or Arlington, co. Middlesex, and Dorothy, 
daughter of Sir John Crofts, co. Suffolk, that he was born 1618, 
and matriculated at Pembroke College on the 24th of April, 
1635, aged seventeen, as a gentleman commoner ; he was 
made a K.B. in 1661 at the coronation of Charles II., he served 
as M.P. for Wallingford 1663-79, and was created in 1682 
Baron Ossulston of Ossulston, Middlesex. Sir John Bennet 
purchased these rents from the Crown only three years previous 
to this grant, and most of them have been redeemed in recent 
years at various times by the freeholders. 

Newniiam Aure and Poulton, £4. 
"Also that annual rent of four pounds of like lawful money 
reserved and issuing out of or for all those the Manors of 
Newnham Aure and Pulton with the appurtenances in the 
County of Gloucester." 

22 

Vol. XXIX. 



318 | Transactions for the Year 1906. 

I suppose this manor is called Newnham Aure from its 
stretching into Newnham Parish, as there appears to be no 
other Aure in the kingdom ; whilst Rudder, p. 247, says, 
" Lands formerly belonging to Flaxley Abbey were granted to 
Sir Anthony Kingston, by the name of the Manor of Newnham, 
Aure, and Poulton." Perhaps the punctuation is wrong. 
Poulton with its Court, which both Rudder and Bigland say 
is a "reputed Manor and House," seems to be by this grant 
a real manor. 

St. John's Hospital, Bristol, £3 is. 

"Also the annual rent or tenth of Three Pounds one shilling 
of like lawful money reserved and issuing out of or for the 
scite and precinct of the late Hospital of Saint John the Baptist 
in the City of Bristol and also for divers Manors Rectories Lands 
tenements & hereditaments to the aforesaid late Hospital in 
the said County of Gloucester/' 

This hospital, according to the Little Red Book of Bristol, 
was founded by John Farceyn, alias Farcey, towards the end 
of the twelfth century, as Barrett, pp. 594-5, says : '1542. 
Richard Bromefield surrendered this House to Henry VHIth's 
Commissioners after above 364 years possession by the friers ; " 
but on the first page he says the hospital consisted of brothers 
and sisters of the Order of St. Augustine, so possibly it may- 
have been founded earlier. At the Dissolution it was granted 
to Dr. G. Owen, and valued at £5 3s. ojd. Its chapel was at 
the west end of St. Mary Redcliffe's Churchyard, but the site 
was on the other side of the street, stretching from Redcliffe 
Pit to the Avon, and it is only recognised now by a lane 
named St. John's, or Jones' Lane. 

Lymington, £3 17s. 4d. 
"Also the annual rent or fee farm of Three Pounds seven- 
teen shillings & four pence of like lawful money reserved and 
issuing out of or for the Manor of Lymington alias Lemington 
in the said County of Gloucester." 



Grant by Sir John Benet of Doyly. 319 

The manor seems to have belonged to Tewkesbury Abbey, 
but after the Dissolution it was granted to Ambrose Smith, 
whose heirs transferred it to Dr. W. Juxon, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, in whose family it seems to have been at the date 
of the grant ; so I imagine this fee farm was a part retained 
by the Crown at the Dissolution. 

Berkeley Chantry, £2 18s. 6d. 

" Also all that annual rent or fee farm of Two Pounds 
eighteen shillings and sixpence of like lawful money reserved 
& issuing out of or for certain lands perteyneing to the Chan- 
trey of the blessed Virgin Mary in Berkeley in the said County 
of Gloucester." 

Bigland, p. 152 : "In this Church also Thomas Lord 
Berkeley temp. Edward III. founded another Chantry, which 
was called St. Mary's or Our Lady's Chantry, endowing the 
same with divers Lands and Tenements, out of which George 
Lord Berkeley that nowe is, receiveth of the King's Receiver 
a Chief Rent of 14s. iod. likewise his Ancestors ever did since 
the foundinge thereof, though the Lands bee long since sold 
away by the Crowne." 

This George Lord Berkeley would be the father of another 
George, afterwards Earl, at the time of the grant ; so the last 
sentence of the Lands being sold away by the Crown looks as 
if the Crown retained some portion in 1673, from whom Sir 
John Benet was able to purchase, and regrant in 1676. 

Perton, £1 6s. 3£d. 

" Also all that annual Rent of Twenty six shillings & three 
pence halfpenny of like lawful money issuing & payable out 
of or for the Manor of Perton with all its rights members and 
appurtenances in the said County of Gloucester." 

There are so many Partons, Pirtons, Purtons, &c, in co. 
Gloucester that I could not decide which was the right one ; 
but through the kindness of Bishop Mitchinson and the Bursar 
of Pembroke College, it has been identified by the latter as 



320 Transactions for the Year 1906. 



Parton or Pirton in Churchdown. But here again we are met 
with an unexpected difficulty. It appears that there are two 
places adjoining, which Mr. Swift in his history of Churchdown, 
pp. 22-3, says are quite distinct. Piriton or Pirton belonged 
to the Berkeleys, and afterwards to the Priory of St. Oswald, 
Gloucester, and thence passed through several families. 
Partone, which Atkyns says is Paston, belonged in the reign 
of Edward III. to Robert de Paston or Parton, but is not 
brought down further. As these rents are stated to have been 
purchased from the Crown, it seems most probable that Parton, 
not Pirton, is the place intended. 

Dryfield, £2 18s. 3d. 
" And also all that annual rent of Two Pounds eighteen 
shillings & three pence of like lawful money of England issuing 
and payable out of & for the Manor of Dryfield in the said 
County of Gloucester aforesaid now or late paid by George 
Hanger Esqr." 

This George Hanger, Esqr., is identified by the monument 
in Driffield Church, who departed this life the 30th of May, 
Anno Dom. 1688, in the 74th year of his age, whose ancestor 
(Bigland, p. 497), John D'Aungier or Hanger, a merchant in 
London in the reign of Charles I., purchased the manorial estate 
extending over the whole parish. 

The whole value of the rents given to the College was 
£62 6s. iM., a sum which agrees well with the belief mentioned 
in the following letter from our late President, the Master of 
the College : — 

Pembroke College, 

Oxford, May 3rd, 1907. 

Dear Mr. Taylor, 

In my undergraduate days Sir John Benet, Lord 
Ossulstone, was duly named in the bidding prayer at St. 
Mary's when a Pembroke man preached as one of our bene- 
factors, and we still commemorate him in Chapel on our annual 
Commemoration or Gaudy. We have his portrait too in hall. 



Grant by Sir John Benet of Doyly. 321 

But we seem now to have tacitly ignored him, I suppose 
because his benefaction was so small. 

In my boyhood here it was believed by us lads that his 
two fellowships were £20 each, and his two scholarships £10 
each. The fellowships were held by the two College tutors 
(they were the only " open " or unrestricted ones in the College), 
who made out with tuition fees. 

Truly yours, 

J. MlTCHINSON. 



Motxm of ihtMtfatinns. 



THE VICTORIA HISTORY OF THE COUNTIES OF ENGLAND- 
SOMERSET. London : Archibald Constable & Co. Volume I. 

This volume consists of twenty-five pages of introduction and 537 pages 
of text, of which some 160 pages are occupied with an account of the 
Natural History of the County, leaving some 370 pages which deal more 
directly with the subjects concerned with the work of our Society. Of 
the Natural History Sections, that on Lepidoptera is interesting to us 
because it is the work of Mr. E. A. Hudd, a member of our Council. The 
article on Geology also concerns us, because on the physical structure 
of the country depends its suitability for habitation, and the distribution 
of its hills and moors determined the course of the history of the races 
which have in turn inhabited it. Somerset is a most interesting county 
to the geologist, not only because it presents an almost complete series 
of formations from the Upper Silurian to the Chalk, but also because it 
was in the district south of Bath that William Smith gathered much of 
his practical knowledge of the lie of the strata, which stood him in good 
stead when he was afterwards engaged in making his earliest geological 
map of England. The Geological Section, which is accompanied by two 
good maps, gives a very full and clear account of the structure of the 
county, though perhaps more guidance might have been expected with 
regard to the least unlikely spots where coal might be looked for west of 
Mendip. It may be said, however, that owing to the fact that the 
mountain limestone lies in a series of ridges, the axes of which run nearly 
east and west, it is not likely that coal would be found in quantities which 
would pay for working to the north of a line running through Wells. 
Very little information is given concerning igneous rocks ; only volcanic 
ashes and lava, and the acidic andesites and felsites are mentioned in 
the list of stratified and igneous rocks, but basalt is certainly found in 
Mendip. With regard to palaeontology, Somerset has afforded the 
earliest known evidence in the British Isles of the existence of mammals. 
The evidence consists of certain teeth found in the Rhcetic strata near 
Frome and at Watchet, which would seem to have belonged to a small 



Notices of Publications. 



323 



marsupial. The limestone caves of Somerset are famous on account of 
the number and variety of the remains of tertiary mammalia which 
have been found in them. 

The articles which especially concern the work of our Society are 
these: "Early Man," by W. Boyd - Dawkins ; "Romano-British 
Somerset," by Professor Haverneld ; " Anglo-Saxon Remains," by 
R. A. Smith ; " Introduction to the Somerset Domesday," by J. H. 
Round; and "Text of the Somerset Exchequer Domesday and Geld 
Inquest," by the Rev. E. H. Bates. It may be truly said that in these 
articles a foundation has been laid broad and deep for the much-needed 
history of Somerset. We do not despise the work of those who have 
gone before. What Collinson would have made of his book if he had 
lived out the threescore years and ten of the life of man we cannot tell. 
As it was, he lived for little more than half that period ; he published 
his proposals for his work when he was twenty-four years of age, and 
completed his task in ten years. Under the circumstances neither 
completeness nor perfect accuracy can be looked for, but at any rate 
no one has done anything better in the century which has elapsed since 
his death Mr. Humphrev's Somersetshire Parishes is a storehouse of 
references and that with the publications of the County Archaeological 
and Record Societies and such works as those of Rutter and Phelps 
about complete the tale of sources available at present. 

Nearly half a century has elapsed since Mr. Boyd-Dawkins began to 
work at Wookey Hole, and in his article on " Early Man " he has given 
the fruits of long experience and wide knowledge brought to bear upon 
complete acquaintance with local conditions. The result is a most 
admirable summary of what is known of the first coming of man into 
the district, and of the progress of civilisation so far as it can be traced. 
The river-drift men came first ; they were hunters poorly equipped for 
the chase, possessing only rough-chipped implements of flint or chert. 
They were 'followed by the cave-men, to whom the weapons found at 
Wooke- Hole belonged ; their implements were much better finished 
than those of their brethren of the river-drift, and altogether they seem 
to have reached a much higher stage of civilisation. A complete table, 
arranged according to localities, is given of the animals whose remains 
have been found in Somerset caverns, divided into those which are now 
found in temperate, hot, and cold climates, together with those which 
are now extinct. Eventually the cave-men retreated to the north with 
the animals characteristic of cold climates, and are very possibly now 
represented bv the Eskimo, while the river-drift men passed to the south 
with the lion and the leopard, and seem to be now quite extinct. The 
forts and barrows, temples and trackways of Somerset are equally well 



32 4 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



described, and the section is illustrated by an excellent map of the 
localities in which prehistoric remains have been found. 

Professor Haverfield takes up the story in his article on " Romano- 
British Somerset," and the county is especially fortunate in the fact that 
he, like Professor Boyd-Dawkins, has known it and been interested in it for 
many years. Few counties afford materials for more complete history of 
man as far as the end of the Roman occupation, and the men of ancient 
Somerset are happy in their historians. Of the 165 pages covered by the 
article, no fewer than seventy are occupied by an account of Roman Bath ; 
and bearing in mind that the Roman was before all things else a citizen,' 
the proportion is not at all too large. Yet Roman Bath was not a 
colonia, nor a fortress, nor a centre where roads met ; it was simply 
what it is now, a resort for health and pleasure, whither people gathered 
not only from all parts of Britain, but even from Gaul. The place was 
occupied very early, and it retained its importance till the Romans left 
the island. It is interesting to find that the Professor considers that 
Bath is " The Rum " of the old English poem.' Except the ruins of 
the Baths and fragments gathered from various portions of the city, 
Roman Bath has utterly perished, even the lines of the streets and the 
sites of the gates are unknown. An excellent account is given of the 
excavation of the baths, and of coins and inscriptions which have been 
discovered. Among the inscriptions is a very curious curse in words 
written backwards on a leaden plate. Another tablet of lead found at 
the same time with the curse is marked with scratches which the 
Bodleian librarian interpreted as a letter from Vimsius to Nigra. 
Professor Haverfield does not so interpret it. But it would have been 
better if he had given the librarian's reading, especially because, if it is 
correct, it contains almost the only possible reference to Christianity 
which has yet been found at Bath. With regard to the rest of the county, 
there is an excellent map showing the localities where Roman remains 
have been found, and an exhaustive account of the remains which have 
been found at each place. When, however, the Professor says that there 
is no reason to put Iscalis at Uphill as some do, it is likely that these 
folk will hold to their opinion, for Ptolemy's differences of latitude and 
longitude between Bath and Iscalis place the latter station on the 
Somerset coast seven miles south of Uphill, and Iscalis would be a 
natural name for a station at the mouth of the Axe. 

The article on " Anglo-Saxon Remains " is rather slight, and it was 
scarcely needful to provide a map to show the position of the five places 
in which Anglo-Saxon remains have been found. The article on "Domes- 
day Survey " is also somewhat disappointing. It covers some fifty 
1 Transactions, xx. 277. 



Notices of Publications. 



325 



pages, and is mainly occupied with three subjects — the delinquencies 
of Mr. Eyton, the five hide unit of Mr. Round, and an account of the 
distribution of the lands of the county. The article would have been alt 
the better for the omission of the two former subjects. In 1895 Mr. 
Round stated in his Feudal England a new theory, that the geld assess- 
ment of Domesday was not regulated by area or value, but was of an 
arbitrary character, being so arranged as to apportion among the vills of 
a hundred its total assessment in blocks of five or ten hides. He was 
led to this conclusion by observing the extraordinary number of vills 
assessed at five hides or some multiple of five hides. It seems that in 
Somerset five-hide groups account for 1290 out of the 2321 hides of the 
county. Now every careful student of Domesday must be aware of the 
very deceptive flexibility of the Domesday numbers. There are blocks 
of units large and small, and there is an abundance of small broken 
numbers, so that almost any theory could be supported by one equipped 
with ingenuity and dominated by a pre-conceived theory. Moreover, 
the number of five-hide units in Somerset is in no way extraordinary. 
There lies before the writer a subscription list of the present year, con- 
taining 245 donations, of the value of £14,610 ; and no fewer than 184 
of these items are multiples of five stated either in guineas or pounds. 
The " five " unit here is fully two-thirds of the whole, as against the half 
of the Somerset hidage ; indeed, if the value of the gifts rather than 
their number was regarded, the amount expressed in gifts other than 
" fives " would be insignificant. The truth is that man is a penta- 
dactylic animal, provided with a " bunch o' fives," and he thinks accor- 
dingly. But more than this, the geld system does not go back beyond 
the reign of Ethelred the Unready, but many of the five-hide units were 
in existence long before that time. The condition of things set forth in 
Domesday had a previous growth and history, which must be taken into 
account. For instance, Banwell, with Compton Bishop, is rated at 
thirty hides in Domesday, and might be quoted in favour of the five-hide 
theory. But in fact a charter of 904 represents Compton as an estate 
of ten, and Banwell as one of twenty, manentes while a charter of King 
Eadgar describes Banwell as an estate of thirty mansas * : finally, the 
estate which the Conqueror granted to Wells Cathedral in 1068, and 
which included both Banwell and Compton Bishop, was one of thirty- 
hides. Here the fivefold division of the estate dates back for a century 
before the beginning of danegeld. It would be an absurdity to 
adduce Banwell in support of the five-hide theory, and what is true of 
Banwell is true of very many more fivefold estates in Somerset. For 
example, Mr. Round gives Corston, rated at ten hides, in proof of the 
1 K., C. D., mlxxxiv. ; C. S., 612. 2 K., C. D., dc. ; C S., 1149. 



326 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



correctness of his theory ; but Corston appears as an estate dents 
cestimatam mansiunculis in 972, long before the exaction of danegeld. 1 

Mr. Round says that Gloucestershire is a county in which the pre- 
valence of the five-hide unit is very marked. It would seem that no one 
has yet undertaken the Gloucestershire Domesday for the Victoria 
History ; but the one to whose lot the task may fall will find himself 
confronted by a group of five-hide units in original documents, and in 
Worcester, Pershore and Bath charters, which date from much earlier 
times than the reign of Ethelred the Unready. The statement of the 
Rev. T. W. Whale, " that as regards Somerset the five-hide unit is a 
myth," 2 is abundantly true ; it is equally true of Gloucestershire, and 
it is unfortunate that so much of the space of the Victoria History of 
Somerset should have been occupied with this five-hide theory. 

The tone of the criticism applied to Mr. Eyton is distinctly unfor- 
tunate. When you are standing on a man's shoulders you are in an 
excellent position to kick him on the head, but it is not a generous thing 
to do, and Mr. Round's article is deeply indebted to Mr. Eyton's book. 
The book itself is not faultless. It is written in a hard and somewhat 
assertive style. The author was a Shropshire rector writing far from 
Somerset, and his local knowledge was not always adequate ; the numeri- 
cal tables must be used with caution ; there are some errors, and some 
figures are repeated. But, putting all this at its worst, there was nothing 
like it before the book was published, and it would not be straining the 
force of words to say that the last quarter of a century has not produced 
anything equal to it in illuminating power so far as the Domesday of 
Somerset is concerned. In particular, the present writer is convinced 
that the principles of areal measurement are correct, and produce 
accurate results if they are rightly applied. But, of course, as the 
Inquest was one into values and not into areas, too high a standard of 
exactness of areas must not be looked for. The total area is obtained by 
adding together the areas of arable meadow wood and pasture, in the 
same way as the area under the tithe agreement of Banwell was ob- 
tained, by adding together the areas of arable pasture and wood, to- 
gether with certain areas which were tithe-free. The Banwell tithe 
agreement shows an estimated area of 4,829 acres, against 4,974 acres 
given by the Ordnance Survey, a deficiency of about three per cent. 
Mr. Eyton's estimate of the area of the estates of ancient demesne in 
Somerset is 108,741 acres, against 110,756 acres of modern ascertain- 
ment, a deficiency of two per cent, in an area extending over more than 
one-tenth of the county. In 1903 the present writer worked out, in a 
paper written for the Northern Branch of the Somerset Archaeological 

1 K., C. D., dlxxiii. ; C. S., 1287. 2 Principles of the Somerset Domesday, p. 2. 



Notices of Publications. 



327 



Society, the Domesday area of a district lying between the Avon and 
Severn,' the road from Bristol to Cross, and the Yeo and the Clevedon 
Branch Railway. The result gave 5 3-389 acres registered in Domesday, 
as against 52,596 acres of modern ascertainment, an excess of about one 
per cent. In each case Mr. Eyton's principles of measurement applied 
over these large areas gave a result which was relatively more accurate 
than the estimate of the area of Banwell made in 1837 by men possessed 
of full local knowledge. The methods will not generally give such 
accurate results for single manors, or for small areas, partly because 
there may be an error of as much as fifty acres in the estimate of arable 
land partlv because detached portions of the estates dealt with may he 
at a 'distance, outside the area which is considered, and partly because 
the boundaries of the Domesday estates may not coincide with the 
boundaries of the relative modern parishes. Altogether, Mr. Eyton s 
methods give 871,110 acres as being in some way held under profitable 
occupation in 1086; in 1896 the Agricultural Returns showed that 
0.6630 Somerset acres were profitably cropped. The deficiency, 
l % per cent., is not excessive, and it must be remembered that Domesday 
only professes to mention land which was in some way a source of pront. 

The remainder of Mr. Round's article is a very valuable contribution 
to the knowledge of the Domesday of Somerset, and all those who are 
interested in the matter will be grateful to him for it. 

The Rev E Bates has contributed to the volume a map showing the 
position of estates mentioned in Domesday ; a translation of the 
Exchequer Domesday, with modern names and identifications of the 
estates, and with various insertions from the Exeter Domesday ; and 
a translation of the Geld Inquest of 1084. The map is very well and 
clearlv printed, and it marks the properties belonging to the kmg to 
various ecclesiastical owners, and to the Count of Mortam. The estates 
of the Bishop of Coutances might well also have been marked Lege, 
for Abbot's Leigh, ought to have been marked as a possession of the king, 
for it was a member of the royal estate of Bedmmster. With regard to 
Mr Bates' translation of the Record, it must be remembered that it is 
a compilation, and therefore cannot be quoted as it stands. The ground- 
work is a translation of the Exchequer Domesday, with additions from 
the Exeter book, and identifications by the translator. One is tempted to 
wonder why the translation was not made directly from the Exeter book. 
Mr Bates identifies Contitone, an estate of Earl Eustace, with Compton 
Bishop, but this is clearly an error, for Compton Bishop is included with 
Banwell in the grant bv the Conqueror to the Church of Wells m 1068. 
1 Proceedings of the Somersetshire Archxolo g ical and Natural History Society, xxiii. 57, 6a ; 



:xxiv. ill 



328 



Transactions for the Year iqo6. 



The translation of the Geld Inquest will be most helpful to all students 
of the Somerset Domesday. The task which Mr. Bates undertook must 
have been a heavy and wearisome one, but he has given to us an excellent 
piece of work, and one which will be of lasting value. 

So far as paper, printing and illustrations are concerned, the volume 
leaves nothing to be desired ; but the humble subscriber for a cloth 
copy might wish that the binding were somewhat stronger. 



THE ENGLISH CHURCH from the Accession of George I. to the 
End of the Eighteenth Century. By the late Rev. Canon John 
H. Overton, D.D., and the Rev. Frederic Relton, A.K.C. 
London : Macmillan & Co., 1906. 

As it is true that the part of the History of the English Church which 
is most misunderstood is the history of the English Reformation, so 
it is probably true that the part which is least known generally is the 
history of that Church during the eighteenth century. Indeed, it is 
likely enough that a very common view is this : — that the Church during 
that period had no history, any more than a man has a history when 
he is asleep at night. As contradicting this idea the present book will 
be most helpful. The task of writing an account of the period was 
committed at first to the one who of all others was best fitted to 
perform it— Canon Overton, Rector of Epworth— but unhappily he 
died before he had completed the work. The general arrangement of 
the book, however, and more than half the matter contained in it 
are his ; but his work has been revised, and re-arranged and 
amplified, though Mr. Relton tells us that he has " not willingly parted 
with a line— scarcely a word— of what he had written." And no doubt,, 
in dealing with the work of so complete a master of the subject, this was 
the best course to adopt. Equally, of course, it was a method which 
was fatal to clearness of arrangement, neatness of style, and vigour of 
expression. Especially with regard to chapters vii., viii. and ix., there 
is a good deal of repetition, and the tone of the book generally is some- 
what flat and colourless, a condition of things for which, however, 
Mr. Relton cannot be fairly blamed. The history is divided into four 
periods : 1714-38, marked by the Deistic controversies ; 1730-60, the 
time of the Methodist Revival under the Wesleys and Whitefield ; 
1760-89, during which time the new life began to swell and grow ; 
and finally, 1789— 1800, during which time the force of the Evangelical 



Notices of Publications. 



329 



Revival was a very marked power in the Church of England. It is 
interesting to note that our district was the cradle of the Methodist 
Revival. The Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Chapel in Broadmead, 
Bristol is the oldest Methodist preaching house in the world, and 
•externally, at any rate, it stands as John Wesley built it, except that 
it presents a somewhat neglected and woe-begone appearance. The 
Methodist class-meetings and ticket system originated in Bristol, and 
it was in the Broadmead preaching house that John Wesley appointed 
Dr Coke to be Bishop in America on September end, 1784. two months 
before Bishop Seabury was consecrated to the Diocese of Connecticut 
by the Scottish Bishops at Aberdeen. George Whitefield was descended 
from Rectors of Rockhampton, and was ordained in Gloucester 
Gathedral, while it was in Kingswood, to the East of Bristol, that 
John Wesley and Whitefield began their open-air preaching early in 

'"The English Church entered on the eighteenth centnry in a sadly 
maimed and truncated condition. In 1662 many ministers of Puritan 
.opinions renounced her communion, rather than eome under the 
provisions of the Aet of Uniformity. The exact number of these 
Nonconformists is uncertain, but many of them were men of learning 
and piety, and as they all belonged to one school of thought, their 
departure left those Puritan feelings and sympathies, which continued 
to have considerable influence among the lay people, insufficiently 
represented among the clergy. Their departure was' followed m 169! 
by the secession of the Non-jnrors, who refused to swear allegiance to 
William III. They were comparatively few in number, but they were 
men who were conspicuous for learning and piety, and the, r ^ departure 
marked qnite as serious a loss to the Church as did that of the Non- 
conformists a generation before. To put the matter m a modern form, 
the Low Churchmen were weakened by the loss of the Nonconformists, 
the High Churchmen were weakened by the secession of the Non- 
urors; and as the generation of learned divines of the 
period died away, the tone of the great middle party which was left 
came to be rather that of looseness of thought than liberahty of vrew 
and few people are more illiberal than the loose thinker. And so rt 
came to pass that the first twenty years of the period were marked by 
sharp controversy. Whiggism m political life passed into Latitudm- 
arianism in theology, and that naturally degraded into 
And this was so among Nonconformists at least as much ^ a^among 
Churchmen. Many of the older Unitarian Chapels were, like Lewm s 
Mead Chapel at Bristol, originally homes of Trinitarian Nonconform^ 
It was not a happy time ; the lines applied to the time of Izaah Walton 



330 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



apply with at least equal truth to the early day-: of the house of 
Hanover : 

"A fouler vision yet; an age of light, 
Light without love glares on the aching sight." l 

In this controversy Churchman and Non-juror stood side by side, 
and more than held their own. The Bangorian and Deistic controver- 
sies are things of the past, but the forms of thought which found 
expression then are alive to-day, and much that Bishop Butler and 
Waterland and William Law wrote still possesses a high value, and 
may very probably possess a still higher value in the near future. 

But there were sparks among the stubble, even of the reigns of the 
two first Georges, and after a while they glowed into life, and ran to 
and fro, and kindled a flame in the dry mass. There must have been 
many homes such as Epworth Vicarage in the early part of the 
eighteenth century, as there were many like the home of the Kebles 
at Fairford a century later, and the true life of the Church was preserved 
from age to age in such homes as those : 

"Sprinkled along the waste of years 
Full many a soft green isle appears : 
Pause where we may upon the desert road, 
Some shelter is in sight, some sacred, blest abode." 2 

And it was this hidden life of the Church of England which formed the 
motive power of the Methodist movement, as the societies or guilds— 
as they would probably now be called— which formed so prominent a 
feature in the Church life of the reign of Queen Anne, determined the 
outward form taken by the movement. With regard to the relation 
of the movement to the Church of England, it must be remembered 
that though the Wesleys were sound Churchmen in doctrine and 
principles to the very end , so that the clergy of the Church of England 
are to this day the only ministers who are qualified to serve in a 
Wesleyan place of worship for more than three years, yet their methods 
were distinctly contrary to Church order. They gathered not with the 
Church, and therefore it was that they scattered. Moreover, from the 
beginning many of the members of the societies were Nonconformists 
who, though they would willingly submit to the discipline of an organ- 
isation which they found helpful to themselves, would not on that 
account join the Church of England. The societies were from the 
beginning something separate and apart from Church order. As early 
as May 12th, 1739, when John Wesley laid the foundation stone of the 
Broadmead preaching house in the parish of St. James, Bristol, he had 

1 Christian Year, Advent Sunday. 2 Ibid. 



Notices of Publications. 



33i 



taken his position as a law unto himself. The question whether in 
that matter, and in others, the circumstances of the time gave just 
cause for what he did, is one to which more than a single answer might 
he returned. With regard to the attitude of the bishops and clergy 
towards the Methodists, the ministers of the Church have often been 
very unjustly blamed. Readers of Wesley's journal will find many 
more cases where he was opposed by the lay people than by the clergy, 
and he was certainly not hindered by the bishops. It is not likely that 
any succeeding generation of bishops and clergy would have done 
better ; certainly a generation which has persistently misunderstood 
and harassed the Ritualists may throw no stones. 

The method of the book is mainly biographical, and the biographies 
are the stories of the lives of great men. There were giants in those 
days not only intellectually, though with regard to sheer intellectual 
force any generation of eighteenth-century bishops would hold their 
own with any of their successors, and the clergy as a whole held a far 
more commanding position with regard to human knowledge than they 
hold now. No doubt it is well that great weight should be laid on the 
pastoral ,vork of the clergy, but " the priest's lips should keep know- 
ledge " and the Church is suffering from the want of learning among 
the ciergy. and is likely to suffer still more in the future. There were 
those who were endowed with a perfect genius for sainthness, such as 
Bishop Benson and William Law. Lady Huntingdon and Hannah More. 
No idea is further from the truth than that the religion of the eighteenth 
century was marked by slovenliness or want of care^ Ever, , ancient 
church in Bristol was well cared for at that time. Some, like Christ 
Church and St. Nicholas, were entirely rebuilt ; some, like St. Michael 
and St. Thomas the Martyr, were rebuilt except their towers ; all were 
carefnlly repaired, and the work which was put into them was work 
which will last. There is no sadder part of the story of the restora- 
tions " of the last half century than that which records the wasteful 
destruction of the eighteenth-century woodwork. Where it was kept- 
as in the case of the oak seats at St. Thomas the Martyr, set up original y 
in 17 ,s_it may be trusted to be well-nigh as good as it is now, when 
much of the deal and foreign oak of the last half century has found 
its way to the rubbish heap. The eighteenth century was an age 
great men in the Church as well as in the State, and the book has at any 
rate the merit of bringing out the salient points in their characters in 
such a way as to leave an impression of each one which will fix its ma rk 

^KoTou" e was to a great extent a hidden life, and the cen fury 
was a period of gestation, whose offspring came to the birth m after 



332 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



years. The Evangelical movement, it is true, came into being before 
the end of the century, but its complement, the Tractarian movement, 
was no less an inheritor of eighteenth-century life. When Keble 
preached his Assize Sermon, and the Tracts for the Times were issued, 
the followers, who gathered round the leaders like armed men springing 
from the ground, needed no conversion, for they recognised in the 
teaching of the Tractarians the truths which their parents had learned 
in the eighteenth century, and had handed on to their children. Later 
on the looseness of thought and carelessness of expression, which 
manifested itself in an impatience of the use of ancient formularies, 
was but a revival of the feeling which Waterland had met and crushed 
a century before. No one will understand the history of the Church 
of England in the nineteenth century till he has mastered her history 
in the century before. And it may very well be that the history of the 
eighteenth century holds the key of the future. Two centuries ago 
the Caroline divines, a body of wise and learned leaders, had passed 
away, and though their influence remained for the time, their 
successors were not equal to them. The bishops were separating 
themselves from the clergy, and were shrinking up into a caste, thereby 
possibly increasing their power, but certainly losing their influence. 
A considerable number of the clergy began to sit very loosely to the 
teaching of the Church, and to become impatient of ancient forms of 
faith, with the result that a period of bitter controversy set in that 
•occupied the thoughts and consumed the energies which might have been 
devoted to better things. In all such times he will be best fitted to 
meet the difficulties which may arise who best understands the spirit 
and methods of the great divines of the eighteenth century. Only 
the one who would wield their weapons will need their strength. 

It is often thought that the eighteenth century was a period when 
Nonconformity was an active and a growing force, though the Church 
stood still. But this was not the case, unless the Methodist societies 
are regarded as being Nonconformist bodies, a condition which did not 
exist — in name at least — during the life of John Wesley. The tone 
of the older Nonconformity was the same with that of the Church, 
and very few new Nonconformist places of worship were built. When, 
however, the Methodist societies broke loose from the Church, the 
older Nonconformist bodies caught the spirit of their vigour, and for 
the first thirty years of the nineteenth century Nonconformity grew 
very rapidly, while the Church hardly grew at all. 

The volume is one of the series which Messrs. Macmillan are pub- 
lishing on the history of the English Church, and though the volumes 
by Dr. Gairdner and Mr. Frere on the English Reformation may prove 



Notices of Publications. 



333 



to be more generally interesting, there is not a volume in the series 
which will more fully>epay careful study than this history of the Church 
during the eighteenth century. There is a full list of authorities at 
the end of each chapter, and the book is furnished with a good index. 



THE VICTORIA HISTORY OF THE COUNTIES OF ENGLAND- 
GLOUCESTERSHIRE. London : Archibald Constable & Co. 
1907. Volume II. 
Volume II. has appeared before Volume I., and the reason of this 
inverted order is apparent in the Provisional Prospectus, issued m June, 
1907 Of the subjects dealt with in Volume I. of the Somerset work, 
and which, therefore, might be expected to form part of the first volume 
for Gloucestershire, no writer is named for " Early Man," " Ancient 
Earthworks " " Introduction to Domesday Book," and " Translation 
■of the Domesday Text." For the second of these subjects a name will 
occur to everyone who is familiar with the archaeological literature 
of the shire as being that of a writer who would have been qualified, 
before all others, to give an account of the Ancient Earthworks of 
Gloucestershire, while for two of the other subjects an offer to take them 
was made by one whose work on those subjects is repeatedly quoted 
in the volume without a word of correction, and the offer was refiised 
bv the Editor of the History. It is worth noting that the only members 
of the County Archaeological Society whose names appear among the 
contributors write on different branches of the Animal Kmgdom- 
a tribute, at least, to the variety of their attainments. 

The articles which more especially concern the work of our Society 
are those on " Ecclesiastical History " and » Religious Houses," while, 
of course, the articles on » Social and Economic History," « Industries 
Arts and Manufactures," » Agriculture," " Forestry," and Ancient 
and Modern Sport," have relation to our work in the earlier portions 
of the periods which are dealt with. The article on Ecclesiastica 
History" extends over forty-eight pages, and gives a good general 
account of the subject with which it deals. The mischief -ought by 
the svstem of appropriations is very well brought out, though the 
wnter y low S that "she" possesses the charity which believeth all things 
when she tells us that the advowsons were granted to religious houses 
with the laudable intention of putting patronage into the hands of 
those who might use it better than laymen, the truth being that any 
■excuse was good enough to justify the religious m attempting to 

Vol XXIX. 



334 Transactions for the Year 1906. 



impoverish the parish churches. If a convent overbuilt itself, if its 
members preferred to spend money on themselves to bestowing it in 
hospitality, if an aged or incompetent abbot let his house drift into 
debt, if an ambitious or extravagant head wasted its goods, if there 
were any kind of general muddle, it was a signal for an appeal to the 
bishop to remedy the mischief by transferring the revenues of parish 
churches in the patronage of the religious house from the secular to 
the religious clergy. With regard to what is said concerning Bristol 
on page 14, by ancient right the burgesses could not be summoned to 
answer without the walls in any cause with regard to which justice 
could be had within the borough. So offenders against Ecclesiastical 
Law were handed over to the Dean of Christianity, as representing 
the Bishop of Worcester, north of Avon, and to the Dean of Redcliff, 
as representing the Bishop of Bath and Wells, south of the river. 
The spread of Lollardism in Gloucestershire is dealt with, but no 
special reasons are given for the influence of Wycliffe's opinions in 
this district. It is curious that on pages 25 and 109 it is implied that 
not all religious houses of a less value than ^200 a year came under 
the Act of 1536 ; but the words of the Act were very wide, and there 
can be no doubt that it embraced all such houses, though the friars 
were not troubled immediately. A map is given showing the Deaneries 
of Gloucestershire in 1536. The list of Parishes in the Deaneries of 
the Diocese of Gloucester is already out of date, as the present Bishop 
has recently re-arranged them, and the Bristol list should have been 
revised by someone possessing local knowledge. The article on the 
" Religious Houses of Gloucestershire " is a very careful compilation 
provided with an abundance of references. It should have been noted 
with regard to St. Oswald's at Gloucester, that it had been given by 
Cnut to Duduc, Bishop of Wells, and that it was on Duduc's death 
that it passed into the possession of Archbishop Stigand. Both with 
regard to St. Peter's Minster, and with regard to the Grey Friars at 
Gloucester, it is noted that the mortality from the Black Death cannot 
have been great ; and as it seems clear that no great interruption of 
building occurred at St. Peter's, it is possible that Gloucester was less 
affected by the pestilence than some other parts of the country. It 
is said on page 118 that St. Bartholomew's Hospital at Bristol was 
granted in 1531 to found a Grammar School at Westbury-on-Trym ; 
the School was, of course, the Bristol Grammar School, but it was to 
be organised under the direction of John Barlowe, Dean of Westbury- 
on-Trym, among others. 

With regard to the article on " Social and Economic History," the 
reckoning of villeins with serfs among the unfree at the date of Domesday 



Notices of Publications. 



335 



(p. 128) is a reading of a later condition of things into the pages of the 
great record. So far as his person was concerned, the villein was as free 
as the lord ; and so really he was with regard to his holding, for while he 
could not leave the land, the lord could not turn him out so long as he 
rendered the services which were due. It seems to be considered (on 
p. 129) that villeinage in the thirteenth century was the same thing with 
villeinage in the eleventh, but really it was a very different thing, and 
the thirteenth century villein was far less free than his eleventh-century 
ancestor. The writer seems rather to exaggerate the power of the lord 
in the manor court ; the court was quite capable of holding him m 
check if he transgressed the customs. There is an unfortunate mistake 
on p. 151, where it is said that Bristol had no charter till the reign of 
John. Henry II. granted a charter of freedom from toll to the burgesses, 
which must have been given in 1 155, because it is signed by Roger, Earl' 
of Hereford, who died before the end of the year, and John's charter was 
granted not when he was king, but as prince, in his capacity of lord of 
Eristol, a position which he held in right of his wife. There is a good 
account of the development of the cloth trade in the shire. The fleece 
of wool appears at Cirencester in Domesday as a source of profit to the 
Queen, and in the twelfth century the names " Fuller, Dyer and Weaver " 
are found at Gloucester and Cirencester. But it does not seem to have 
been before 1300 that the trade became one of chief importance, and 
then very possibly on account of the immigration of Flemings, as it was 
again strengthened by the immigration of the Huguenots in the sixteenth 
century. Th.^ name " Fleming " occurs in 1328 at Guiting, but that is 
not likely to have been the first place of settlement for the aliens. In 
the early years of Queen Elizabeth, the cloth trade of Bristol was much 
decayed, and the Vestry of St. Thomas the Martyr— which parish, as 
the names " Tucker Street " and " Long Row " (anciently lange-rewe) 
show, was one of the centres of the cloth trade— obtained the grant of a 
cattle-market to mitigate their poverty. On p. 160 " Beverley " is 
wrongly written for " Berkeley." The article closes with a good sketch 
of the history of the administration of the Poor Law from the time when 
poverty first became a pressing problem in consequence of enclosures 
and the disturbance of the social system in the reigns of Henry VIII. and 
Edward VI. A short table of wages at the end of the article shows that 
the daily wage of carpenters rose from 4 d. in 1 302 to 3s. 9 d. to 8s. in 1906, 
of tilers from 4 d. to 4s, to 6s. 8d., of agricultural labourers from £d. in 
1266 to 2S. 2d. in 1898. Contrary to what might have been expected, 
the Black Death did not raise the wages of the two skilled classes of 
workmen, for in 141 2 for carpenters, and in 1 397 for tilers, the rate, was 
still 4d. ; but between 1 266 and 141 2 the rate for ordinary labourers had 



336 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



-risen from M. to 2d. It is a pity that the price of wheat at the different 
dates is not given in this table. The writer of the article on " Bell- 
founding " underrates the skill of the mediaeval founders, for the three 
heaviest bells at St. Mary Redcliff about 1470 each weighed within a few 
pounds of the three heaviest bells now in the ring at St. Paul's Cathedral, 
a result which can hardly be accidental. 

There is an excellent article on the " Schools of the Shire " by Mr. A. 
R. Leach, who says that hardly any county in England is better equipped 
than Gloucestershire with secondary schools ; and indeed he seems to 
imply that Bristol and Gloucester are rather over supplied in that respect, 
a fault— if so it be— at any rate on the right side. It is shown that both 
in Bristol and Gloucester schools existed long before the time of the 
Reformation, and that in Bristol a school which had been held near the 
Froom Gate was transferred about 1 540 to the buildings of St. Bar- 
tholomew's Hospital, and is now the Grammar School, which is therefore 
an older institution than the foundation of the Thorn es— how much older 
no one can say. On page 356 Mr. Leach has tumbled into a curious trap. 
He quotes the words of an Inquisition held before the Dean of Christi- 
anity on May 15th, 1318, with regard to the rights and privileges of the 
Guild of the Kalendars, which "used to be at the Church of the Holy 
Trinity, Bristol, in the time of Aylward Mean and Bristoic his son lords 
of the said town before the last conquest of England." On this Mr. 
Leach comments thus : "It must be admitted that Bristoic looks 
remarkably like an eponymous hero evolved out of the name of the town. " 
But Bristol is too modern and business-like a place to indulge in epony- 
mous heroes. Bristoic is simply Brihtric, son of Algar, grandson of 
Aylward, lord of Tewkesbury in 1066. There is no reason for thinking 
that Brihtric had anything at all to do with Bristol, and the whole state- 
ment is no doubt a fabrication of the Tewkesbury monks, who did not 
come to Bristol till about 1 137, when the Priory of St. James was founded, 
and the Inquisition of the Dean, at any rate so far, is quite unworthy 
of credit. 

There is an excellent and practical article on " Agriculture," though 
for the most part it deals with times more modern than those with which 
we are concerned. It is strange, however, that the author should imply 
that oxen have so completely passed away. They were certainly not un- 
common on Cotswold between 1877 and 1890 ; and about 1885 the present 
writer saw a team of eight oxen ploughing in a field near the Seven 
Wells above Cubberly. This was, however, the only eight-oxen team 
he ever saw in thirteen years of travelling over Cotswold. Some striking 
figures are given on page 240, which show the increased productiveness 
both in stock and crops which arose from enclosure ; but while the 



Notices of Publications. 



337 



system enriched the rich, it impoverished the poor. The article on 
" Forestry " is full of information. It should be noted, for there seem 
to be difficulties about the matter, that in the district between Berkeley 
and Bristol, Cotswold and the sea there were three great woods — Kings- 
wood in the south, with Filwood in Somerset, dependent originally on 
Bristol ; Horwood to the north of it, the hunting-seat of which wood was 
at Alveston ; and a tract of wood to the north, dependent originally 
on Berkeley, of which portions were known as Kingswood, Michaelwood, 
and Huntingford Chase. 

The volume will be a welcome addition to Gloucestershire books. 
There is rather a large number of slips in spelling, and revision of- the 
proofs by some one possessing local knowledge would in some of the 
articles have proved to be helpful.' 



PARISH LIFE IN MEDIAEVAL ENGLAND. By Abbot Gasquet. 
London : Methuen & Co. 1906. 

We have it on the authority of the poet Burns that it would be an 
excellent thing for all of us if we could see ourselves as others see us, and 
it may be a subtle prompting of an instinct of this kind which led Messrs. 
Methuen to entrust an account of the parish life in mediaeval England, 
which was, of course, under the guidance of the secular clergy, to a 
member of a religious order. In some ways Abbot Gasquet's book 
sounds like a voice from ages long ago ; and in particular this is so with 
regard to what he says concerning tithes and the appropriation of tithes 
to the use of religious houses. Between the Norman Conquest and the 
Dissolution the constant remedy for any kind of extravagance or mis- 
management on the part of the members of a religious house was an 
application to a bishop to appropriate the revenues of parish churches 
to the use of the religious house, leaving as small a pittance as possible 
for the maintenance of the fabric and services of the parish church. It 
was so much more easy to put one's hand into the pocket of the secular 
clergy than it was to keep expenditure within bounds or to manage 
properly. Of course, Abbot Gasquet as a Benedictine is on the com- 
fortable side of the wall with regard to appropriations, and may see no 
harm in the system ; but if he were a secular priest in charge of a parish 
church whose funds are starved because it was appropriated five cen- 
turies ago to the uses of a religious house which has long ceased to exist, 
it is likely enough that he would think differently. Much of what he says 



338 



Transactions for the Year 1906 



with regard to the origin and distribution of church property is untrust- 
worthy, and in particular when he tells us " that a portion of the tithe 
should always be set apart for the relief of the poor, because as Bishop 
Stubbs has pointed out, in England, from the days of King Ethelred, 
' a third part of the tithe • which belonged to the church was the acknow- 
ledged birthright of the poorer members of Christ's flock/' one would 
like to see the whole of the passage to which reference is made. No 
reference is given, and though one would not wish to throw doubt on 
what so high an authority as Abbot Gasquet might find in so wide a field 
as the writings of Bishop Stubbs, a little more definiteness would have 
been helpful. 

The book, however, gives a very full and life-like account of the 
actual working of the parochial system of the media?val church. There 
are chapters on the Parish, the Church, its Officers and Services, the 
Sacraments and the Pulpit, its Finance, Festivals, Amusements and 
Fraternities. No doubt the system is idealised ; one feels that one is 
in the upper air. Still it is the system as it ought to have been, and 
there is no difficulty in reading into the story from present-day 
experience the rubs and faults and difficulties which no doubt were 
there. 

The period in which the story is set is for the most part the century 
and a half before the Accession of Queen Mary, when people had grown 
weary of the religious houses, and were spending their wealth and their 
energy on the building and adornment of the parish churches. Nothing 
that Abbot Gasquet says goes beyond what must have been the glory 
and the beauty of the fabrics and furniture of our parish churches four 
centuries ago. What they are now is to what they were much what a 
scraped and desiccated skeleton is to the body which clothed it when it 
was in the full vigour of life and health. With regard to the fabric of 
the church, the chancel was repaired by the rector, and the nave by the 
people, who were also responsible for the provision of all requisites 
for divine service ; when, however, we are told that the size of the 
chancel naturally varied according to the importance of the church, we 
cannot help remembering how often we have seen a noble nave towering 
over a puny chancel, and also how often when this is the case the church 
had been appropriated to some religious house, and though the lay 
people had made their portion exceeding magnifical, the clerical rectors 
had done nothing but bare repairs. The book brings out very clearly 
the way in which the life of the parish centred in the church, and the 
interest which was taken in everything connected with the fabric and 
its services, and the general willingness to supply any defects which may 
have existed. There can be no doubt that the complex organisation of 



Notices of Publications. 



339 



guilds and fraternities which marked parochial life was an excellent 
school of the art of self-government, and the fact that everyone had both 
rights and duties in the community of the parish gave an interest and 
an energy to parish life which it does not now possess. There can be no 
doubt also— though Abbot Gasquet does not enforce this truth— that the 
clean sweep which was made by the governors of Edward VI. of the 
properties of the guilds and fraternities, and of nearly everything which 
was beautiful inlthe furniture of the churches, did more than anything 
else to kill out interest in village life— the English village has never been 
either in its secular or religious aspect what it was before that disastrous 
time. Still we must remember that even in those days all parishes were 
not energetic, that archdeacons and rural deans existed, and acted and 
that bishops visited on occasion. 

There is a good account of the various classes of clergy connected 
with the parish churches, and an interesting sketch of the relation 
between the ages at which the different stages of University degrees 
might be taken, and those at which the successive steps of Holy Orders 
might beattained.' There are also some instances of provision for sick 
and aged clergy which are worth notice in an age when men who have 
done excellent work seem likely to be treated with something less than 
scant consideration. The sources of parochial income seem to have been 
many and various, such as charges for burials in the nave, the letting out 
of bride-gear, and the use of crucifixes at burials, pew rents, and the sale 
of gifts to the church. Country wardens may be interested to know 
that there were difficulties over seats as far back as 1287, when the 
Bishop of Exeter, with sound common sense, ordered : " Whoever first 
comes to church to pray, let him take what place he wishes in which to 
pray." Alms boxes to receive gifts for church expenses were dis- 
approved of, for some taught that " it was a better alms deed to put 
money into the common box than to give it to the parson," a doctrine 
which the parish priest could not be expected to endorse. There is a 
curious instance in which the wardens of Yatton, in Somerset, about 
1520, sold a piece of silver church plate, which had been bought some 
years before with the alms of the faithful, to provide means for repairing 
the sluices to prevent the Yeo from flooding the fields ; one wonders 
whether they obtained a faculty for the sale, and if not who is now 
responsible for replacing the plate. The wardens of Bury St. Edmunds, 
in 1463, seem to have possessed a grind-organ, which played the Introit 
of the Burial Mass, and in that year it ground around the town for thirty 
days in memory of John Baret ; truly there is nothing new under the 
sun. Abbot Gasquet tells us that " one of the great differences between 
ecclesiastical life in the Middle Ages and modern times lay in the fact 



340 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



that then people had no chance " of going to sleep." There was a regular 
system of periodical visitations, and everything was brought to the test 
of inquiry of a most elaborate and searching kind, in which every corner, 
so to speak, was swept out." Downside is locally in the diocese of Bath 
and Wells, but presumably its inmates do not know what goes on around 
them. In January last a return had to be made by all the clergy with 
regard to non-residence, quite out of date, but possessing, with the return 
to be mentioned last, the saving virtue that return postage was prepaid. 
As the bishop proposed to visit after Easter, there came in Lent a paper 
of questions addressed to the clergy, and a different set addressed to the 
wardens. The bishop, unhappily, was prevented from visiting by illness, 
but he has fixed a date when he hopes to come in the future. However, 
the chancellor visited, accompanied by the registrar, and charged the 
churchwardens, with special reference to the payment of fees. Soon 
after Easter the rural dean officially visited the parish, and finally there 
appeared an Official Parochial Return, containing some ninety questions,. 
de rebus ecclesiastic-is, et quibitsdam aliis, issued at the instance of the 
Convocations of Canterbury and York, with the sanction of the arch- 
bishops and bishops, and directed by the rural dean. All this in less 
than six months, and the archdeacon visited last year. It is doubtful 
whether any mediaeval bishop in his most inquisitorial moments ever 
attained unto such a system as this ; and if catholicity is to be measured 
by periodical visitations, then surely the English secular clergy of the 
present day are a most catholic order. 

There are some good illustrations, including a series of the 
ministration of the seven sacraments. It is to be noted, with regard 
to baptism, that though the font is represented as being large enough 
for immersion, the actual baptism was ministered by affusion ; and 
with regard to confirmation, in the picture from the Art of Good Lyvinge 
the children are certainly of an age to answer for themselves, while in 
the representation of the sacrament of holy matrimony the woman has 
her hair unloosed, as she still has it in Norway at her marriage service. 
There are also some good pictures of chancel screens. On a few points 
one might part company with the author. It might be doubted, for 
instance, whether the crucifix was in such frequent use as he seems to 
imply, or whether roods were placed on the rood-loft. Surely the rood 
—whether cross or crucifix — -commonly stood on a beam of its own 
above the loft. There are also not a few repetitions. But the book 
is helpful as giving a really good account of the working of the 
Mediaeval Parish Church at its best, and it is provided with a 
satisfactory index. 



Notices of Publications. 



341 



HOW TO JUDGE ARCHITECTURE. A popular guide to the 
appreciation of buildings. By Russell Sturgis, A.M. New York : 
The Baker and Taylor Co. 

This book covers a period of time extending from the date of the 
erection of the Temple of Psestum to that of Truro Cathedral, and 
ranges in space from Gerasa in Syria, to St. Paul on the Mississippi. 
It is evidently intended for the use of folk who will travel rapidly from 
point to point, and who desire to have an intelligent understanding of 
the buildings that they see. The size of the book, only about two 
hundred pages of large print, forbids, of course, any detailed account 
of the history of architecture, or even of the special peculiarities of the 
buildings which are mentioned ; but the book is likely to be a really 
helpful one to those for whose use it is designed. In the first place 
it is well illustrated. There are sixty-six pictures, for the most part 
evidently taken from photographs, showing buildings of such varied 
types as the Parthenon, St. Peter's at Rome, English and continental 
Gothic churches, Belgian and German secular buildings, French 
chateaux, Italian palaces, a Berlin beershop, and an American 
insurance office ; and this wealth of illustration is most helpful, for 
the subjects are well chosen, and the pictures are very clear and give 
an excellent idea of the buildings represented. The heads under which 
the subject is treated are these : early Greek design, later Greek and 
Roman design, early central and late mediaeval design, early and later 
revived classic design, eighteenth century design and nineteenth 
century design, both imitative and original, thus covering the whole 
development of classic, Gothic and Renaissance architecture in Western 
Christendom. The book is well written, and is likely to be very useful 
to those for whom it is designed, and in any case it will be of service 
to those who desire to know something of the different types of 
architecture, even though they may not stray far from home. There 
is a good and well-arranged index. 



A GUIDE TO THE EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE 
ANTIQUITIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM. Printed by order 
of the Trustees, 1903. 
Some time since notice was drawn to the valuable guides to stone, 
bronze, and iron implements in the museum collection, and the present 
guide is equally useful with regard to the subjects with which it deals. 



342 



Transactions for the Year 1906. 



There is a real want of a short illustrated book giving an account of 
the early Christian Church as it was, and not simply as it seems to be 
as viewed through somebody's tinted spectacles ; and this little book 
goes- far to supply the need. It is provided with fifteen plates, and 
eighty-four illustrations in the text, which are well executed, and so 
chosen as to draw out the meaning of the text. Naturally it is not 
possible in the space of one hundred pages to go very deeply into an 
account of the subjects which are treated, but the book is an excellent 
shilling's worth, and might well be placed in the hands of any who are 
likely to be interested in the subject. 



INDEX 



Abingdon Abbey, Carrels in, 213 
Abyngdon, Richard, 93 
^Ifric, Canons of, 222 
Agad?, Library at, 206 — 207 
Ailesford, Carmelite friary, 138 
Akeman Street, 48 
Alcuin, 216 

Aldesworthe, Robert, 118 
Aldhelm, 47 

Aldworth, Robert, 29, 30, 3 1 

Alexander II., Pope, 86 

Alfred, King, 3, 5 __ . , , , 

Alfred, Attempted injury to King Atncl- 

stan by, 50 
Almondsbury, Chantry priest's pension, 120 
Alnwick, Carmelite friary, 138 
Alveston, 44 
Alvington, William, 115 
Alye, E., Bailiff of Tewkesbury, 251 
Ambrose, John, 115 

William, 119 
Anselme, Richard, 119 
Armorial Bearings of— y 

Arthur, 36 

Arundel, 160 

Barre, 237 

Bay ley, 11 

Bearpacker, 56 

Beauchamp, 160 

Berkeley, 36, 147— 153, 159— 160 
Blanchard, 58 
Blundeville, 160 
Breaus of Gower, 160 
Brien, 240, 250 

Bristol Merchant Venturers, 23, 24 

Brother ton, 160 

Carpenter, n 

Chabb'enore, 237 

Chamber, 58 

Chedder, 38 

Choke, 42 

Clare, 240, 256 

Codrington, 56 

D'Abitot, 257 

Delabere, 237 

De la Zouch, 239 

Eyre, 260 

Feek, 56 

Ferrers, 230 

Fitzalleyn, 160 

Franklyn, 28 
C-ough, n 

Gunning, 27 

Hampton, 38 

Hancock, 259 

Howard, 159 

Huddleston, 238 

Hunsted, 237 

Ingler, 11 

Ireton, 237 

James, of Sutwell, 10 

Kynardisley, de, 237 

Langton, 27, 28 

Malton, de, 170 

Marshall, 160 

Mewter, 28 



Armorial Bearings of (continued)— 
Milborne, 58 
Montacute, 250 
Mowbray, 159 — 160 
Mumby, 28 
Newman, 237 
Penbruge, 237 
Perceval, 38 
Pinckney, 160 
Plantagenet, 160 
Renshaw, 262 
Richmond, 56 
Roberts, 254 

Rooke, 11 i 

Ryce, 257 

Segrave, 159 — 160 

Spanish Merchants' Company, 28 

Strange, 257 

Viner, 56 

Walwyn, 238 

Warren, 11, 160 

Webb, 56 

Williams, 262 
Armour on Effigies. See Effigies. 
Arnolde, Michael, 118 

Sir Nicholas, 115 
Arthur, Edward, 36 

Richard, Arms of, 36 

Family, 34 
Arundel Family, Arms of, 160 
Arundell, Thomas, 114 
Ascelin, 34 

Ashchurch Church, Effigy in, 230—232 
Ashton, Cold, Church, Notes on, 50, 51 
Derivation of name, 49 
Manor, Owners of, 49, 5°. 5 8 
Manor House, 50 
Rectory, 51, 57 
Visit of the Society, 49— 5 1 
Ashton Court, Visit of the Society and 
Notes on, 42 — 44 
Estate, 33 
Ashton, Long, Estate, 34 
Assyrian Libraries, 206 
Aston Ingham, Rector of, 297 
Astonene, William de, 296 
As tonne, John, 118 

Robert, 118 
Athelney Monastery, 101 
Athelstan, King, Attempted injury to, 50 
Augmentations, Court of, 95 
Augustine, St., at Aust, 5 
Aure, John de, 298 
Aust, Conference at, 5 
Austen, William, 119 
Austin Canons, 86 
Avernal, William, 295 
Aylesbury, 46 
Ayleworth, Anthony, 115 
John, 113, 118— 119 

Babylonian Libraries, 206 
Baddeley, St. Clair ; Certain Roman Re- 
mains at Watercombe, 173—180 
ger, Giles, 232 



ii 



Index. 



Badger, William, 115 
Badlesmere, Giles, Lord, 244 
Bailie, Thomas, 116 
Baker, Mr., 174, 176, 179 

John, Chantry priest, 123 
Balle, Thomas, Chantry priest, 121 
Banwell Church, Pews in, 37 
Barkeley, Humfrey, 118 

Maurice, 115 
Earners, William, 116, 118 
Barnwell, Directions for preservation of 

books at, 209 
Barre Family, Arms of, 237 
Barrey, Philip, Chantry priest, 121 
Barrington, William, 115 
Barton by Bristol, Hidage of, 81 

Manor of, 44 
Basil, St., 138 
Baskarvyld, Thomas, 119 
Bates, John, 117 
Bath Abbey, 103 

Lands of, 49, 50, 53 

Token, 132 

West Saxon Occupation, 46 — 49 
Bath and Wells, See of, 58, 59 

Jocelin, Bishop of, 59 
Batman, Stephen, 229 
Baugh, Richard, 255 

Baxter, Christopher, Chantry priest, 124 
Bayeux, Bishop of, 286, 288, 292 
Bayley Family, Arms of, 11 
Beachley, Danes besieged at, 3 
Bearpacker Family, 52 ; Arms of, 56 
Beauchamp, Katherine, Effigy of, 148 

Family, Arms of, 160 
Beaufoi, Richard de, 284 
Beaufort, Duke of, 4 
Bective Abbey, 284 

Beddoe, John ; Notes on Crania found on 
site of Carmelite Friary, Bristol, 
142 — 146 

Bedford, Battle at, 46 

Belle, Thomas, 116 

Benedict, St., 209, 213 ; Rule of, 223 

Benedict III., Pope, 218 

Benedictines, Loose rule of, 86 

Benet, Sir John, Grant to Pembroke Col- 
lege, Oxford, 317 — 321 

Bensington, 46 

Berard, Vicar of Marshfield, 53 
Berkeley, Alice, 36 

Frances, 160, 162 

George, Lord, 319 

Henry I., 17th Lord, Effigy and Arms 

of, 157 — 162 
James I., nth Lord, Effigy and Arms 

of, 153—157 
James, Effigy of, 153 — 157 
Katherine, 147 — 150, 157 — 162 
Mary, 160, 162 
Robert de, 86, 87 

Thomas III., 8th Lord, 319; Effigy and 

Arms of, 147 — 150 
Thomas de, 43, 86, 87 
Family, 320 ; Arms of, 36 
Berkeley, Barony of, 34, 161 

Castle, Murder of Edward II. at, 150 
Church, Berkeley Chantry, Grant of 
rents of, 319 
Chantry priests' pensions, 121, 126 
Effigies in, 147 — 163 
Berosus, 206 

Bertrand, Grand Master of Templars, 290 
Berwick, Siege of, 316 
Bery, Richard, 123 
Beverston Castle, 164 

Church, Effigy in, 163 — 164 
Bicknor, English, Forest clearance, 2 



Bigod, Ralph, 284 
Bigswear, 7 
Bilbie, Thomas, 41 

Binding of monastic manuscripts, 217 — 
218 

Bishop, Ambrose, Token of, 132 
Blackenburv Camp, Bronze dagger found 

at (Mas.), 281—282 
Blanchard, Jovce, Arms of, 58 
Bleyth, William, de Killicote, 298 
Blois, William of, Bishop of Worcester,. 

53. 279 
Blossome, William, 116 
Blundeville Family, Arms of, 160 
Blycke, Gabriell, 257 

Bodleian Library, Destruction of books,. 
228—229 
Early arrangement of shelves, 220 
Bohun, de, Family of, 9 
Bolesdon, Thomas de, 297 
Bond Family, n 

Bonor, William, Chantry priest, 122, 126 
Bookroom and Bookcase, Evolution of, by 

T. W. Williams, 205 — 229 
Books, Early forms of, 206 

Richard de Bury's instructions for their 
care, 226 — 227 
Boteler, Theobald de, 284 
Bourton-on-the-Water, Chantry priest's 

pension, 122 
Boyce, Richard, of Tickenham, 38 
Boydon, Richard, 116, 122 
Bradeley, John, Chantry priest, 121 

William, 116 
Bramble, Lt.-Col. ; Notes on Chelvey 

Church, 40 
Braose, Margaret de, 284 
Bray, Barbara, 11 

Hugo de, 298 
Brayne, Henry, 10 1, 105 
Brean Down, Fortifications on, 305 
Breaus of Gower, Arms of, 160 
Brettas, The, 45, 46 
Briavellus, British prince, 7 
Bridge, Henry, Chantry Priest, 125 
Bridgeman, John, 115 
Bridges, Sir John, 117 
Brien, Guy de, Lord Welwyn, 244 ; Sup- 
posed effigy of, 249 — 252 ; Arms 
of, 240, 250 
William de, 252 
Bristol, Bishop of ; Notes on the Battie of 

Dyrham, 46, 47 
Bristol- 
Abbey of St. Augustine, 85, 90, 93, 94,. 
98, 104, 106, in 
Charges on, at dissolution, 119 
Dissolution, 99, 108 — 109 
Endowments, 33 
Antiquities, exhibition of, 67 — 69 
Archaeological Notes for 1904, 127 — 145 ; 

for 1905, 265 — 283 
Architectural Court suggested, 266 — 267 
Architecture, Domestic, Removal of 

examples of, 265 — 272 
Art Gallery, 266—267 
Assembly Rooms, Curious clause in 
lease, 131 
Visit of the Society, and notes on, 24, 25 
Austin Friary, 89, 98, 101, 105 
Bank-notes, 74, 75 
Books, Exhibition of, 72 
Carmelite Friary, 89, 97, 100, 105 

Excavations of site of, and historical 
notes on (illus.), 133 — 146 
Castle, Constable of, 33 
Cathedral, endowments, 33 
Find at an excavation, 272 



Index. 



iii 



Bristol Cathedral {continued) — 
Foundation, 99 

Grant of Carmelites' Screen, 139 
Portraits of bishops exhibited, 75 
Chantries dissolved, 102, 106 
Chantry priests' pensions, 120 — 126 
Churches — 

All Saints, 102 — 103 

Repairs to, 273 
Holy Trinity, 83 
St. Augustine-the-Less, 86 
St. Brendan's, 83 
St. Ewen's, 83, 103 
St. James de Fraia, 83, 84 
St. John's, 83, 103 
St. Mary Redcliff, 89 

Porch, 36 
St. Michael's, 83 
St. Nicholas, 26 
Crypt, 28, 29 
St. Peter's, 81, 82, 83 
SS. Philip and Jacob, 83, 85 
St. Stephen's, 103 
St. Thomas the Martyr, no 
St. Werburgh's, 279 
Civil War tracts, Exhibition of, 73 
Coins found, 131 — 132 
Coins of Bristol Mint, Exhibition of, 
69—71 

Colston Hall, Site of, 133, 141 
Coopers' Company's Hall, 25 
Danish attack, 33 
Defences of, 47 

Dominican Friary, 83, 84, 86, 88—90, 

101, 104, 105 
Drawings, Exhibition of, 76, 77 
Dutch House, Efforts for its protection, 

270—272 
Elizabeth, Queen, at, 141 
Elton mansion, 266 

Exhibition of plans, coinage, &c, 32, 
61—80 

Franciscan Friary, 88, 89, 100, 104 — 105 

Freedom of, Grant of, 43 

Friars of the Sack, 89 

Grammar School, Foundation of, 90, 92 

Great House, 134- 136, 141 

Guardians, Board of, 31 

Hospital of St. Bartholomew, 87, 92 

Hospital of St. John, Grant of rent of 

site of, 31 8 
Hospital of St. Katharine, Bedminster, 

86, 87 

Hospital of St. Laurence, 87 

Hospital of St. Mark, 86, 87, 90, 93, 94, 
98, 104 — 106, 108, in 
Dissolution, 100, 109 

Hospital of St. Mary Magdalene, Bright- 
bow, 86, 87 

Hospital of St. Peter, Visit of the Society 
and Notes on, 29—31 

Houses, Old, demolished, 128— 131,! 265 
—272 

Inns, Old, 269 

Kalendars, 102—103, 120 — 122, 126 
Lady Huntingdon's Court, 133 
Lamb Inn, Demolition of, 268 
Langton House, Removal of chimney- 
piece, 265 — 266 
Visit of the Society and Notes on, 

25—29 
Heraldry in, 27, 28 
Latimer at, 93 
Library, Public, 270 
Manuscripts, Exhibition of, 71, 72 
Mayors, 25, 26, 27, 29, 34, 49 
Medals found, 132, 280 — 281 
Merchant Taylors' Hall, 25 



Bristol {continued) — 
.Merchant Venturers, Arms of, 23, 24 

Master of, 25 
Methodist preaching house, 88 
Mint, 30, 31 

Nunnery of St. Mary Magdalene, 86, 87, 

94, 101, 105 
Paintings, Exhibition of, 77 
Parliamentary Representatives, 93 
Paten, Pewter, found {illus.), 278 
Plans, Exhibition of, 32, 63 — 66 
Portraits, Exhibition of, 75, 76 
St. James's Priory, 81 — 85, 90, 94, 98, 99, 

101, 105 — 106, 109 
Proceedings of the Society at, 17 — 60 
Propositus, 34 

Religious houses of, and their dissolu- 
tion, by Rev. C. S. Taylor, 81—126 
Sheriffs, 25, 34 

Spicer's Hall, Doorway from, 267 
Spoons, Pewter, found {illus.), 279 — 280 
Sugar house, 30 
Swan Inn, 129 
Tobacco trade, 130 
Views, Exhibition of, 78 
Waterworks Company, 266 
Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological 

Society, Report of the Council, 19 — 

21 

Bristol Library, List of books presented, 

198—204 
Bristoll, Thomas, 120 
Bristowe, Thomas, 117 
Brockley, Manor of, 42 
Brockwear, 7 

Broke, William, Chantry priest, 123 

William de, 91 
Bromefield, Richard, 318 
Brooke, David, 119 
Brotherton Family, Arms of, 160 
Browne, John, Chantry priest, 124 
Bruton Monastery, 94 
Bubwith, Bishop, 219 
Burfford, William, 119 
Burford, Edmund, 115 
Burghersh, Bartholomew, Lord de, 248 
Burley Family, 246 
Burnell, Richard, Chantry priest, 123 
Bury, Richard de, his Philobiblon, 225—227 
Bury St. Edmunds Abbey, Carrels in, 213 

Library, 219, 221 
Bush, Paul, Bishop of Bristol, 100 
Butler, Bishop, 59 



Caerwent, Earthworks at, 3 
Cambridge College libraries, 219—222, 228 
Jews, 218 

Campden, Chantry priests' pensions, 123 — 
124 

Cann, William, 25 

Cantelupe, Walter de, Bishop of Wor- 
cester, 53, 84 . 
Canterbury, Christ Church, Carrels in, 213 
Library, 222 
St. Augustine's, Library of, 225 
Cantref Coch (Forest of Dean), 7 
Capes, Roger, Chantry priest, 125 
Cardiff Castle, 248 
Caritas, William, 116 
Carlisle, Austin Canons' church, 86 
Carmelite Friars, Historical Notes on, 138 
Carpenter Family, Arms of, 11 
Carrels, their use in monasteries, 211 — 213 
Carthach, 47 
Castle Tump, 7, 13 

Catchmay, Mariana, Monument to, 10 
Thomas, 11 



iv 



Index. 



Catchmay, Tracey, n 
Ceawlin, 45 

Cesena, Early library at, 220 
Chabbenore Family, Arms of, 237 
Chaldaean libraries, 206 
Chamber, Anne, Arms of, 58 
Chambers, Robert, 29 
Chamiffatte, Christopher, 116 
Chantries, Act for their dissolution, 101 — 
102 

Chantry priests, Pensions of, at dissolu- 
tion, 120 — 126 
Chatterton, Sarah, 32 
Chatterton relics exhibited, 32, 74 
Chedder, Thomas, Arms of, 38 
Chedwoth, William, 118 
Cheltenham, Chantry priest's pension, 121 
Cheltenhame, Richard, 118 
Chelvey Church, Architectural Notes on, 
40, 41 
Heraldry in, 42 
Monuments, 40, 41 
Court House, 42 
Visit of the Society, 40 — 42 
Chepstow Castle fortifications, 3 
Historical Notes on, 3 
Toll from ships, 2 
Church of St. Mary, Architectural Notes 
on, 4 

Derivation of name, 6 
Proceedings of the Society at, 1 — 6 
Chester, Thomas, 141 

William, 101 ; Mayor of Bristol, 103 — 
104 

Chester Cathedral, 100 

Chewton Mendip, Roman road cut 

through at, 303 — 310 
Child's Wickham, Morecote Chapel, 124 
Choke, Richard, Chief Justice, 34 

Family, Arms of, 42 
Chorleton, Chantry priest's pension, 126 
Circester, Robert, Prior, 109, 117 
Cirencester Abbey, Value of, and charges on, 
at dissolution, 108 — 109, 113 — 114 

Chantry priests' pensions, 123 — 124 

Museum, 173, 179 

Roman tiles found, 179 — 180 

West Saxon occupation, 46 — 49 
Clapton, Wido de, 36 
Clapton Church, Description of, 35 

Court, 35, 36 

Heraldry at, 36 

Manor of, 34 

Visit of the Society to, 35, 36 
Clare, Eleanor de, 244 
Frances, 257 

Gilbert de, Earl of Hertford and Glouces- 
ter, 5 ; Effigy ascribed to, 233 
Sybil, Effigy and Arms of, 255 — 258 
Walter de, 14 

Family, 252 ; Arms of, 240 
Cleeve, Bishop's, Church, Effigies in, 232 — 
239 

Clevedon Court, Visit of the Society and 
Notes on, 38 — 40 

Manor of. 34 

Rectory, 33 
Clevering, William de, 302 
Cleydone, William de, 299 
Clifford, Henry, 168—169 

Sir Hugh, 168 — 169 

Isabel, 168 

Sir John, 168 

Richard, 168 

Richard, Bishop of Worcester, 85 
William, 168, 170 
Family, Effigies of, 166 — 170 
Clivedon, Sir John, 150 



Clivedon, William de, 34 
Clyfton, Thomas, 97 
Cockes, Roger, 115 
Cocks, Michael, 118 
Codex, Meaning of, 208 — 209 
Codrington, Elizabeth, 56 

Family, Arms of, 56 
Coke, John, Chantry priest, 124 
Colchester, Abbot of, in 
Cole, William, 117 
Colston, Edward, 141 
Columba, St., 213 
Colyar, John, Chantry priest, 120 
Colyns, John, Chantry priest, 121 
Commail, King, 45 
Compton, Richard, 117 
Comyn, Robert, 117 

Conder, Edward ; Some notes on the 
purlieus of the Forest of Dean, 293 
—302 

Condidan, King, 45 

Constantine, King, 47 

Cooke, Robert, Herald, 23, 24 

Cooper, George, Chantry priest, 125 
Walter, 116 

Corbett, William, Chantry priest, 125 

Cormeilles Abbey, 4, 298—299 

Cornden, Manor of, 262 — 263 

Corne, John, 29 

Costume on effigies. See Effigies. 
Cotham, Bewell's Cross, 275 — 277 

Excavations at, 273 — 274 

Gallows, 274 — 275, 277 
Plan showing site, 276 
Cottle, William, 41 
Coutances, Geoffrey, Bishop of, 33, 34 
Coventry, St. Michael's Church, 162 
Craker, Lodovic, 116 
Crane, Henry, 117 

Crania found at Bristol, 134, 142 — 146 

Creswick, Dr., 88 

Crispe, Elias, 55, 56 

Croft, George, 92 

Crofts, Sir John, 317 

Cromwell, Richard, 118 

Thomas, 112, 140; in Gloucestershire, 
94, 98 

Croyland Abbey Library, 221 
Cubberley, Chantry priest's pension, 125 
Curteys, Wm., Abbot of Bury, 224 
Custom Scrubs, Roman remains at, 173 
Cuthbert, St., 218 
Cuthwine, 45 



D'Abitot Family, Arms of, 257 
Davies, John, 26 
Dawbeney, John, 114 
Day, Sir Thomas, 30 
Dean Forest, 138 

Boundaries, 293 — 295 

Death of Earl Milo, 8 

Historical Notes on, 2 

Iron Ore mines of, History of, by 
W. H. Fryer, 311 — 316 

Origin of name, 2 

Purlieus of, Some notes on, by E. 
Conder, 293 — 302 
Deane, George, 115 

William, 126 
Deerhurst Priory, 264 
Delabere, Kenard, 238 — 239 

Richard, Effigy and Arms of, 235- — 239 
Thomas Baghott, 238 
De la Motte, George, Drawings by, 77 
De la Warre, Lord, 92 
De la Zouch Family, Effigy and Arms of 
unknown member, 239 — 240 



Index. 



v 



Dening, C. F. W. ; Notes on Clapton 
Church, 35 ; Notes on Weston 
Church, 36, 37 

Dennis, Maurice, 101 
Richard, 49 

Sir Walter, Grant of lands to, 49 
Family, Monuments to, 45 
Despenser, Edward, 6th Baron, Effigy of, 
247—249 

Lady Elizabeth, Effigy of, 241 — 244 

Hugh, 5th Baron, Effigy of, 241 — 244 

Hugh le, 244, 298 — 300 

Family, 3 
"Devil's Chapel," Scowles, 12 
Dewye, William, 117 
Dicke, Humfrey, 116 
Dolvoron Castle, Governor of, 295 
Doward, Great, Scowles at, 12 
Dowell, David, Chantry priest, 121 
Dowsurg, Hugh, Chantry priest, 125 
Draicote, Edward, 115, 119 
Drewe, John, 171 — 172 
Driffield, Manor of, 320 
Dugdale, Elizei, 120 
Duntisbourne, 284 

Durham Cathedral library, 219, 211 — 213 
Dursley, Chantry priest's pension, 123 

Church, Effigy in, 164 — 166 
Dymock, Chantry priest's pension, 126 
Dyrham, Battle of, Historical Notes on, 
45—49 

Camp, Visit of the Society, 45 — 49 



Eadnoth the S taller, 33 
Eadwig, King, 5 

Easton-in-Gordano, Origin of name, 33 

Eden, Richard, 120 

Edgar, King, 218 

Edmond, Henry, 114 

Edmonde, Thomas, Chantry priest, 124 

Edmund, King, Murder of, 44 

Edward I., 144 

Edward II., Murder of, 150 

Edward IV., Gift by, 87 

Edward, William, 115 

Edwy, King, 44 

Effigies, Monumental, by I. M. Roper, 

147 — 172, 230 — 264 
Elizabeth, Queen, at Bristol, 141 
Ellis, John, 100 
Elton, Sir Abraham, 34 

Sir E. H., 266 
Ely, William, 298 
Ely, Bishops of, 218 
Ethelbert, King of Kent, 46 
Etheldrede, John, 119 
Evelyn, John, at Bristol, 30 
Evesham Abbey, Carrels in, 213 
Evreux, William d', 284 
Evroul, Theodori, Abbot of, 216 
Ewelme, Grant of land at, 50 
Exley, Mr., 273 
Eynsham, 46, 48 
Eyre Family, Arms of, 260 



Farcey, John, 318 
Farington, Robert de, 246 

William de, 246 
Farinmael, King, 45 
Feek Family, Arms of 
Ferrers, John, 119 

Roger, 231 — 232 

William, Effigy and Arms of, 230 — 232 
Fiddington, Bequest for repair of roads, 

231 

Firth, Mrs., of Ashwicke Hall, 55 



Fishepole, Hugh, Chantry priest, 123 
Fishponds, 44 
FitzAlan, William, 284 
Fitzalleyn Family, Arms of, 166 
FitzBaderon, William, 7 
FitzGilbert, Richard, Earl of Hertford, 4 
FitzHamon, Robert, 53, 82 
Fitzhardinge, Robert, 33 ; Grant by, 33 ; 
Grant of lands to, 33 ; Founder of 
St. Augustine's, Bristol, 85, 86 
Fitzjohn, Pain, and Gilbert de Laci, Paper 
on, 284 — 292 
Sybilla, 284, 289, 292 
FitzOsbern. See Hereford 
FitzPayn, Robert, 168 
FitzRichard, Gilbert, Earl of Pembroke, 3 
Flaxley Abbey, 318 
Library, 222 
Object of foundation, 8 
Fletcher, Richard, Chantry priest, 123 
Florence, Medicean Library, 220 
Forest, Charter of the, 2 
Forthampton Court, Effigy at, 239 — 240 
Fosse, The, 48 

Construction of, 309 
Frampton-on-Severn Church, Effigies in, 
166 — 170 
Manor of, 168 — 169 
Franklyn & Co., tobacco manufacturers, 
25, 26, 28 
Family, Arms of, 28 
Freeman, John, 255 
Freman, Richard, 116 

William, 116 
Fryer, Edward, Chantry priest, 126 
Fryer, W.' H. ; Notes on the iron ore 
mines of the Forest of Dean, 311 
—316 



Gamage, William, 119 
Gardiff, Philip, 117 
Gase, Laurence, 117 
Gaunt, Maurice de, 86, 89 

Henry de, 86 
George, W. E., 32 
Gerald du Barri, 86 
Gibbes Family, 52 
Gibbons, Grinling, 270 
Glastonbury Abbey, 58, 94, 107 

Abbot of, in 

King Edmund buried at, 44 
Glou, John, 125 

Gloucester, Earls of, Descent of lands to, 

Humphrey, Duke of, 228 

Robert, Earl of, 36, 82, 85, 89, 286—288, 

291 — 292 
William, Earl of, 82, 288 
Gloucester, Abbey of St. Peter, no 
Possessions of, 289, 300 
Value of and charges on, at dissolu- 
tion, 108 — 109, 113, 118 
Castle, 287 

Cathedral, Carrels in, 212 
Income at foundation, 100 

Chantry priests' pensions, 122 — 125 

Honour of, 34 

Priory of St. Oswald, 320 

Religious houses, Dissolution of, 96, 97 

Supplies from Dean Forest, 2 

West Saxon occupation, 45, 47 — 49 
Glynne, Sir Stephen, 52 
Godefridus, Bishop, 279 
Gordano, Meaning of name, 33 
Goslett Family, 55 
Gough, George, ( n 

Warren, Arms 



Index. 



Gough, Mrs. Warren, Monument to, 10 
Goiirnay, Robert de, 86 
Grace Dieu Abbey, Gift to, 13 
Graunte, Eleanor, 94 

Gravenour, Richard, Chantry priest, 124 
Great Western Railway Company, 24, 25 
Gregory, Sub-prior of St. Barbara, 213 
Grenville, Sir Bevil, 51, 56, 57 
Greves, John, 118 

Thomas, 118 
Grey, Richard, 138 

Griffith, Richard, Chantry priest, no, 121 

Gryffyth, Philip, 119 

Gryffythe, John, 120 

Guardians, First Board of, 31 

Guilds, Suppression of, 103, 105 

Gunni, Dane, 34 

Gunning, John, 49, 50 ; Arms of, 27 
Gunter, Jacob, 119 
Gurney, Matthew, 89 
Gwente, Thomas, 115, 117, 119 
Gwernewett, Brecon, 262 — 263 



Hale, Thomas, 118 
Halhagun, Manor of, 285 
Halle, William, Chantry priest, 126 
Hampne, Manor of, 100 
Hampton, Richard, Arms of, 38 
Hamswell House, Heraldry in, 57 
Visit of the Society to, 56 — 58 

Lands in, 49 
Hancock, Charles, Effigy of, 260 — 261 

John, 116 

William, Effigy and Arms of, 258 — 261 
Hanger, George, 320 
Hanke, Henry, 114 

Hanlowe, John, Forest Warden, 297 — 298 

Hardwicke, Earthworks £t, 3 

Hareford, John, 117 

Harman, Edmund, 117 

Harmare, Thomas, Chantry priest, 125 

Harreis, Barnard, Chantry priest, 122 

Nicholas, 121 
Hartelonde, John, 117 

Thomas, 118 
Harvey, Dr. A. ; Notes on Bristol Assem- 
bly Rooms, 24, 25 
Harvy Family, 42 

Hawkesbury, Chantry priest's pension, 125 
Hawkins, J ames, 263 ; Arms of, 262 
Hayles Abbey, 15, 16 

Value of and charges on, at Dissolu- 
tion, 108 — 109, 113, 119 
Haynes, Thomas, 59 
Hempstede, John, 115 
Henlouee, William, 115 
Henry VIII., 161 
Heraldry at Clapton, 36 

In Langton House, Bristol, 27, 28 

See also Armorial Bearings 
Herbert Family, 3 

Hereford, Bishop of, 5, 294 ; Dispute with 

foresters, 301 
Dean and Chapter, of 11 
Cecilia, Countess of, 284, 285, 290 
Milo FitzWalter, Earl of, 7, 287—288 ; 

Sheriff of Gloucestershire, 7 ; His 

death, 7, 8 
Roger FitzMilo, Earl of, 8, 284, 288— 

289, 298 ; Confirmation of lands 

of, 285 

Wm. FitzOsborn, Earl of, 3 ; Grant of 
land to, 7 ; Tithes granted by, 9 
Herley, John de, 302 
Hertford, Lord, 43 
Hertford, Paper mill at, 208 
-Hesding, Emmelina de, 291 



Hewelsfield, Lord of the manor, 11 

Manor of, 2 
Hide Abbey, 218 
Higons, Thomas, 117 
Hill, Richard, 171 
Hinton Hill, Camp at, 45 
Hoare, Sir Richard C., His investigations 

on a Roman road, 303 — 306 
Hobhouse, Bishop, 33 
Hodgekins, Richard, 115 
Hodges, John, 115 
Hodgeson, Christopher, 120 
Hoell, Edmund ap, 118 — 119 

William ap, 119 
Holder, William, Chantry priest, 126 
Honorius III., Pope, 84, 138 
Hooper, Bishop, 97 

Henry, Chantry priest, 123 
Hope Mansel, Manor of, 300, 301 
Hoper, Johan, 97 
Hopkins, Thomas, 120 
Hop ton, Sir Ralph, 56 
Horton, Christopher, 119 
Horwood Forest, 44, 48 
Hoskins, Charles, 11 

Thomas, 11 
Howard, John, at St. Briavels, 8 

Family, Arms of, 159 
Howe Hill, Inquiry held at, 301 
Howper, Johan, 97 
Hubberdin, preacher, 94 
Hudde, Thomas, 114 
Huddelstone, Anthony, 118 
Huddleston, Eleanor, 239 ; Arms of, 238 
Hughes, Richard, 119 
Hunsdon, Lord, 160 
Hunsted Family, Arms of, 237 
Hunte, William, Chantry priest, 121 
Huntingdon, Countess of, 133 
Hurrold, John, Chantry priest, 120 
Hwiccas, The, 47 
Hyde, Richard, 115 



Illumination of manuscripts, 215, 217 

Ingleby, Mount Grace Abbey, 90 

Ingler, Thomas, Arms of, 1 1 

Ingulph of Croyland, 221 

Ingworth, Richard, Bishop of Dover, 140 ; 

Commissioner for suppression of 

friaries, 96 — 98 
Innocent IV., Pope, 138 
Ire ton Family, Arms of, 237 
Iron ore mines of the Forest of Dean, by 

W. H. Fryer, 311 — 316 
Iron workings, Forest of Dean, 11,12 



James, Maurice, tobacco manufacturer, 130 
Family of Sutwell, Monument to, 10 ; 
Arms of, 10 
Jefferies Family, 267 
Jenyns, Walter, Chantry priest, 122 
Jervys, Roger, 115 
J ocelin, Bishop, 44 
J ohn, King, Grant of land by, 87 
John X., Pope, 50 
John, Dane, 34 
John of Monmouth, 13 
Joinville, Geoffrey de, 284 
Jones, Henry, Chantry priest, 123 
Joye, Robert, Chantry priest, 124 
Jubbes, Thomas, 93 
Juxon, Archbishop, 319 



Kellame, John, 115 
Kempe, David, 115 



Index. 



Vll 



Ken, Thomas, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 34 
Kenn Moor, Executions on, 34 
Kerseye, Richard, 119 
Ketford, Walter de, 298 
Keynsham Abbey, 55, 82 

Land of, 53 
Keys, Thomas, Rector of Cold Ash ton, 51 
Kilcott, Manor of, 295 

Wood, 295 — 297 
Killeen Castle, 290 
Kilpec, Hugh de, 295 
Kinge, Thomas, 121 
King's Langley, Prior of, 96 
King's Stanley, Roman altars found, 174 
Kingston, Sir Anthony, 113— 114, 117— 

118, 120, 318 
Kingswood Abbey, 107 — 109 

Church, 59 

Forest, 44 
Knovill, Bogo de, 295 — 298 
Kynardisley, de, Arms of, 237 
Kynersley, 238 

Laci, Agnes de, 284, 290 
Emma de, 284, 291 

Gilbert de, and Pain Fitzjohn, Paper on, 

284 — 292 
Henry de, 284, 292 
Hugh de, 284—287, 290 
Ilbert de, 286—288, 291—292 
Robert de, 286 
Roger de, 284—286, 291 
Walter de, Abbot of Gloucester, 284, 289 
Family, Pedigree of, 284 
Lacy, Gilbert de, Prebendary of Sarum, »7 
Lake, John, Bishop, 281 
Lane, Reginald, Chantry priest, 120 

Richard, 114 
Lanfranc, Archbishop, 223 
Langley, Wychwood, 299 
Langton, John, 25, 27, 28 
Sir Thomas, 25, 26 
Family, 25, 26, 50 ; Arms of, 27, 28 
Lansdown, Battle of, 51, 54 5 Account of, 

'56, 57 . , , _ 
Lanthony Priory, Founder of, 284 
Library, 222 

Value of and charges on, at dissolu- 
tion, 108 — 109, 113— 114 

Lasci, Bayeux, 285 — 286 

Latimer, Hugh, at Bristol, 93 ; Appeal 
for preservation of monasteries, 112 

Lax Penyard Wood, 294 

Layton, Richard, Visitation of monas- 
teries by, 94 

Lechlade, Chantry priest's pension, 124 

Leigh, Granted to St. Augustine s, Bristol, 
33 

Manor house, 99, 100 
Lekehampton, Thomas, 117 
Leland, John, in Bristol, 139 
Lenborough, 46 
Leo III., Pope, 218 
Leopold, Emperor, 58 
Lethe, John, Chantry priest, 124 
Lewes, Roger, Chantry priest, no 121 
Libraries, Early and Mediaeval, by T. W. 

Williams, 205 — 229 
Library, Definition of, 205 
Lindors Estate, 13 
Liofa, robber, 44 
Lire Abbey, Grant of tithes to, 9 
Lismore Monastery, 47 
Lisours, Robert de, 292 
Littledean, Chantry priest's pension, 123 
Llewellyns, bellfounders, 55 
Long, Dionysia, 55, 56 



Vol. XXIX. 



Longchamp, Wm. de, Bishop of Ely, 218 

Ludlow, Lordship of, 289 

Lusignan, Guy de, 290 

Lydney, Chantry priest's pension, 124 

Chapelry of, 1 1 

Grant of Land at, 7 
Lymington, Manor of, 318 — 319 
Lyons, Nicholas de, 34 

Thomas de, 34 



Machin, John, 118 

McMurtrie, James; On a Roman road 
cut through at Chewton Mendip, 
303—310 

Maiden Bradley Monastery, 94 

Maildubh, 47 

Malemort, Robert de, 298 

Malmesbury, St. Peter's, Grant of lands 
to, 50 

West Saxon attack on, 46, 47 
Malton, Catherine de, 169 

Family, 167—169 ; Arms of, 170 
Maltravers, William de, 286 
Malvern, Great, Priory of, Appeal for its 

preservation, 112 
Manuscripts, Monastic, Method of com- 
pilation, 214 — 217 . . 
Maps of Gloucestershire, Exhibition of, 66. 

67 

Mareschal, Earls, 3 

Marisco, Geoffrey de, 284 

Marshall, Thomas, Chantry priest. 124 

Sir Thomas, 273 

Family, Arms of, 160 
Marshfield, Almshouses, 55, 56 

" Angel Inn," 52, 54 

Assembly Room, 51 

Church, Architectural Notes on, 51, 52, 
54, 55 

Chantry priests' pensions, 125 
Heraldry in, 56 
.Historical Notes on, 52 — 55 

Corporation, 56 
Mace, 55, 56 

Home Farm, 56 

Manor, Owners of, 53> 55 

Visit of the Society, 51 — 56 
Masbury Camp, 304 
Mascoit, Forest of, 289 
Mathew, David, 115 
Matilda, Queen, 7 
Meriot, John de, 43 
Mery, John, Chantry priest, 123 
Mewter, John, Arms of, 28 
Micheldean, Chantry priest's pension, 123 
Michelwood Chase, 45 
Milborne Family, Arms of, 58 
Milverton, John, Prior, 140 . 
Minchinhampton, Chantry priest s pension, 

Mitchinson, Bishop, 319 5 Letter on 
grant to Pembroke College, Oxford, 
320 — 321 

Moffett, Thomas, 92 

Monastic libraries, Arrangement of, 209— 
213 

Monchcnsi, William de, 284 
Monmouth, Roesia de, 284, 290 
Monnslowe, Richard, 116 
Montacute, Elizabeth, 243—244, 252 , 
Arms of, 250 

Sir Simon, 89 

Sir William, 89 
More, Hannah, 44 
Moreton, Gabriel, 119 
Morgan, John, 115 

Richard, 114 



24 



Vlll 



Index. 



Morgan, Sir Walter, 33 
Morgins, John, 41 
Morke Chapel, 13 

Mortiboyes, Thomas, Chantry priest, 123 
Mortmain, Grant of land at, 292 
Mosey, William, Chantry priest, 125 
Mounslow, Robert, Abbot of Winchcombe, 
109 

Mowbray, Robert of, 33 

Family, Arms of, 159 — 160 
Muchgros, John, 295 
Muller, W. J., Drawings by, 76 
Mullett, F. T., 283 
Mumby Family, Arms of, 28 
Myners, John de, 300 



Nantwich, 47 

Nasshe, William, 119 

Neale, Henry, Chantry priest, 54, 125 

Thomas, Chantry priest, 124 
Netherton, William, 120 
Nevile, John de, 43 
Nevill, Hugh, 302 
Newent, 296 

Chantry priests' pensions, 122 — 123 

Manor of, 298 — 299 

Priory, Disputes with forest keepers, 

298 — 300 
Wood, 299, 300 
Yartledon Farm, 299 
Newland, Chantry priests' pensions, 123, 

126 

Forest clearance, 2 
Newman, John, 238 ; Arms of, 237 
Newnham Aure, Manor of, 317 — 318 
Newport, Chantry priest's pension, 123 
Newporte, Thomas, 117 

William, 118 
Newton, Sir Henry, 29 

Sir John, 38 

Mary, 32 

Nibley, North, Church, Effigy in, 170—172 
Norfolk, Dukes of, 3, 157, 160, 162 

Roger Bigod, Earl of, 14 
Northampton, John of, 84 
Northleach, Chantry priest's pension, 125 
Norton, Sir George, 29 

Thomas, 29 

Walter, 29 

William, 29 
Norton, Grant of land at, 50 
Noureddin, Sultan of Aleppo, 290 
Nympsfield, Chantry priest's pension, 126 



Oakridge, Roman remains at, 174, 178 
Oatley, G. H. ; Notes on Clevedon Court 
39, 40 

O'Connor, Rose, 284, 290 
Offa, King, Conquests of, 6 
Offa's Dyke, 3, 5, 13 

Course of, 6 
Oglander, John, 54 
Oglander, John, 54 
Olive, Rev. Mr., 41 
Olveston, Tockington Chapel, 123 
O'Neill, Hugh, Drawings by, 77 
Oryell, Richard, 119 
Ossulston, Baron, 317 
Owen, Dr. G., 318 

George, 119 
Oxford, Christ Church Cathedral, 100 

College libraries, 219 — 220, 228 

New College, 54 

Pembroke College, Grant by Sir John 
Benet, 317 — 321 r 



Pachomius, St., 209 
Pagett, Hugh, 117 

Painswick, Chantry priest's pension 12s 

Manor of, 285, 289 

Roman remains at, 180 
Pannage, Meaning of, 296 
Pantibibla, 206 

Paper, First manufacture of, 207—208 
Papyrus, its use in writing, 207 
Parchment, its use in writing 207 
Parker, Richard, 116 
Thomas, 106, 109, 118 
William, Abbot, 109 
Parton, Robert de, 320 
Parton, Manor of, 319 — 320 
Pate, Richard, 114 
Patey, Thomas, 270 
Paulet Gaunts, Manor of, 100 
Pauncefoot, Grimbald, 296, 301 
Pauntley, Chantry priest's pension, 125 
Paynter, William, Chantry priest, 124 
Pembroke, Aymer de Valence, Earl of, 299 
Penbruge Family, Arms of, 237 
Penda, King, 47, 49 
Penyard Chace, 301 — 302 
Pepwell, John, 49 

Michael, 49 
. Win., Bequest of lands by, 49 

Family, 57 
Percival, Richard, Monument of, 37, 38 

Family, 34, 38 ; Arms of, 38 
Pereson, William, 124 
Peressone, William, 298 
Pergamon, 208 

Perpyn, Thomas, Chantry priest, 126 
Perry Grove, Scowles at, 12 
Pershore, Thomas, Abbot of, 82 
Peterborough Cathedral, 100 

Library, 221 
Pevensey Castle, 150 
Phillippe, Walter, 119 
Pinckney Family, Arms of, 160 
Pirton, Manor of, 319 — 320 
Plantagenet, Arms of, 160 
Pliny, 208 

Plybyen, Jacob, 114 

Poitou, William of, 290 

Pole, Stephen, Chantry priest, 12 s 

Pollio, 208 

Polstede, Henry, 116 

Pomfreye, George, Chantry priest, 123 

Pontefract, Honour of, 286 

Popeley, William, 120 

Potter, William, Chantry priest, 126 

Poulett, John, Lord, 44 

Poulton, Manor of, 317 — 31S 

Powell, James, 255 

Poyner, Laurence, 117 

Presteburie, William, 115 

Priston, Manor of, 50 

Pritchard, John E. ; Bristol Archaeo- 
logical Notes for 1904, 127 — 141 ; for 
1905, 265—283 ; Notes on Langton 
House, Bristol, 25—27 ; Catalogue 
of Bristol plans, 63 — 67 

Prothero, Henry A., Obituary notice of, 181 

Provis, Tom, 43 

Pucklechurch Church, Effigies in 4 s 

Hundred of, 49 

Manor of, 58, 59 

Murder of King Edmund at, 44 

Visit of the Society, 45 
Pye, John, 118 

Pynchyn, Thomas, Chantry priest, 121 
Pyne, John, Prior, 140 



Quenington, Templars' preceptory, 



Index. 



ix 



Radstock, Construction of Fosse Road at, 
309 

Pahan Monastery, 47 
Rastall, John, Chantry priest, ng — 120 
Rathebone, James, Chantry priest, 126 
Reade, John, 118 
Roger, 120 

Thomas, Chantry priest, 120, 122 
Reading Abbey, 107 

Abbot of, in 
Red Earl's Dyke, Course of, 5 
Rede, Thomas, Monk of Hailes, no 
Religious houses, Dissolution of, no — 112 
Religious houses of Gloucestershire, List 
of pensions payable in 1555 to in- 
mates, 113 — 126 
Renshaw Family, Arms of, 262 
Reve, Clement, 114 
Revelsford, Walter de, 284 
Richard L, 58, 218 

Richmond, Margaret, Countess of, Portrait 
of, 234 
Family, Arms of, 56 
Richmond, Yorks., Grey Friars church, 98 
Ricketts & Co., tobacco manufacturers, 130 
Ridgeway, The, 48 

Road, Roman, from Old Sarum to Uphill, 
303 — 3io 

Roberts, John, Effigy and Arms of, 254 — 

255 

Robery, Edward, 117 

Rockingham Castle, 9 

Rodmarton, Roman remains at, 179 

Roman libraries, Arrangement of, 208 

Roman remains at Watercombe, by St. C. 

Baddeley, 173 — 180 
Roman road from Old Sarum to Uphill, 

Paper on, by J. McMurtrie, 303 — 

310 

Rooe, George, 116 

Rooke, James, Arms of, 11 

Roper, Ida M. ; Monumental effigies, 

147 — 172, 230 — 264 
Rose Green, Whiterield and Wesley at, 59 
Russell, John, 116 

Thomas, 116 
Russett, John, 114 
Ryce Family, Arms of, 257 



Sadler, Sir Ralph, 101 
Sagar, Otho, 119 

St. Margaret's Grove, Offa's Dyke at, 13 
St. Briavels, 298 

Castle, Constables, 13, 287 

Description of, 8 — 9 

Historical Notes on, 7 — 8 

Office of Constable, 8, 9 
Castle Tump, 7, 13 
Church, Architectural Notes on, 9, 10 

Chantry priest's pension, 123 

Heraldry in, 10, 11 

Monuments, 10 
Hermitage, 13 

Residence of Forest Warden, 3 

Visit of the Society, 6 — 11 
St. Victor, Order of, 86 
Sanderson, Robert, 98 
Sandwich, Ralph de, 295 
Sapi, Robert de, 299 
Sarum, Old, Roman road at, 303 — 304 
Saumar, Abbey of St. Florent, 9 
Saunders, Nicholas, Chantry priest, 122 
Savage, Robert, Chantry priest, 54, 125 
Savaricus, 58 
Saybroke, Thomas, 119 
Scowles, Iron workings, 11, 12 
Scriptoria, Routine of scribes in, 214 — 217 



Sea Mills, Roman remains at, 128, 282 — 

283 

Seale Church, Kent, 252 

Sedbury Park, Earthworks in, 5 

Segrave Family, Arms of, 159 — 160 

Selwood Forest, 46, 47 

Sharpnell, W. F., 165 

Shawe, John, Chantry priest, 123 

Sheppard, Mr., 103 

Sherborne, Wulfm, Bishop of, 222 

Sherle, Thomas, 115, 117 — 118, 120 

Sherman, John, Chantry priest, 122 

Shipman, John, 93 

Shipward, John, 29 

Shipway, John, 163 

Katherine, 163 

Nicholas, 164 

Sarah, Effigy of, 163 — 164 
Shirley, Sir John, 160 
Silke, Thomas, 120 
Silchester, 46 
Silvester, John, 120 

Simpson, J. J. ; Notes on St. Peter's 

Hospital, Bristol, 29 — 31 
Sippara, Burial of books at, 206 
Skehingthorpe, Manor of, 232 
Sling, Iron workings at, 11, 12 

Visit of the Society, 11, 12 
Slymbridge, Chantry priest's pension, 124 
Smith, Ambrose, 319 

John, Mayor of Bristol, 34 
Smyth, Florence, 44 

Grace, Effigy of, 170 — 172 

Sir Hugh, 43 

John, of Nibley, 171 — 172 

Thomas, of Ash ton, 43, 44 
Smythe, Christopher, 114, 116 — 117 

Thomas, Chantry priest, 126 

William, 114 
Smythyman, William, Chantry priest, 122 
Sodbury, Chipping, Guild incumbent's 

pension, 125 
Somerford, Grant of land at, 50 
Somerset, Charles, 4 
Southam Chapel, 235 

House, 239 

Manor of, 238 — 239 
Spanish Merchants' Company, Arms of, 28 
Spelly, Elias, 29 

Spencer, William, accused of high treason, 
29 

Spendall, Henry, Chantry priest, 122 

Stanhope 1 , Sir Michael, 162 

Stanleye, Richard, Chantry priest, 125 

Stanwaye, Edward, 117 

Stapleton, Colston charity, 141 

Staunton, Forest clearance, 2 

Stonyhurst, MS. at, 218 

Stothard, Charles, 246 

Stowe Grange, 13 

Stradlinge, John, 118 

Strange, Robert, 29 

Family, Arms of, 257 
Straunge, John, 114 

Stremishame, William, Chantry priest, 117, 
125 

Supremacy, Act of, 93 
Surrey, Henry, Earl of, 162 
Swalowe, Edward, 115 
Sweteman, Thomas, Chantry priest, 125 
Swinfield, Bishop, dispute with foresters, 
301 

Symes, William, 119 

Syon Monastery library, 221 



Tailor, John, 117 
William, 124 



X 



Index. 



Talbot, Geoffrey de, 287 

Tanner, Thomas, Effigy of, 164 — 166 

Tate, John, 208 

Tatwick, Manor of, 49 

Taylor, Arthur, 26 

Taylor, Rev. C. S. ; The religious houses 
of Bristol and their dissolution, 81 — 
126; Letter to, on grant to Pem- 
broke College, 320 — 321 

Tecla, St., her cell near Chepstow, 4, 5 

Temple, Earl, 50 

Temple Guiting, Land at, 290 

Tetbury, Chantry priests' pensions, 125 — 
126 

Tewkesbury Abbey, in 
Dissolution of, 99 
Effigies in, 240 — 255 
Its connection with St. James's Priory, 

Bristol, 82—85 
Peter, Abbot of, 84 
Possessions of, 53, 319 
Value of and charges on, at dissolu- 
tion, 108 — 109, 113, 116 
Free School, Bequest for, 231 
Lords of, 244, 248 
Theste, Thomas, Chantry priest, 121 
Thomas, David, 121 

William, 171 
Thornbury, Chantry priest's pension, 126 
Thorne, Nicholas, 92 

Robert, Bequest by, 90, 92 
Thorneburye, Thomas, 117 
Throgmorton, Clement, 116 

Robert, 116 
Tibbott, Daniel, Chantry priest, 124 
Tickenham Rectory, 33 
Tidenham, Grant of land at, 5 
Tintern Abbey, Descriptive Notes on, 13 — 
16 

Visit of the Society, 13 — 16 
Titchfield Abbey library, 221 — 222 
Townsend, Sir Roger, 160, 162 
Tracye, William, 120 
Trelawney, Sir Jonathan, Bishop, 281 
Trenthame, William, 116 
Trotman, Canon E. F. ; Notes on Marsh- 
field Church, 52 — 55 
Trussell, Thomas, 120 
Turbutte, Walter, 116 
Twynho, John, 29 

Twyning Church, Effigies in, 255 — 261 

Gift of Plate to, 261 
Twynyng, Thomas, 117 . 
Tydemerch, Roger de, 298 
Tylar, Ade, 120 
Tynte Family, 40 — 42 
Tyson, William, 275 

Ulpian, jurist, 206, 209 
Underwoode, William, 119 
Uphill, Roman road at, 303 

Vagan, Symon, 97 
Veale, John, 118 

Thomas, 118 
Verdon, John de, 284 
Vesey, John, 138 
Viele, Sir Peter le, 150 
Viner Family, 52 ; Arms of, 56 

Waddam, George, Chantry priest, 123 
Wakeman, John, Abbot and Bishop, 109 ; 
Effigy ascribed to, 253 
Nicholas, 117 
Waldegrave, Earl, 306 
Waleran, William, 295 



Walker, Mathew, Chantry priest, 124 

Waller, Sir William, 57 

Wallingford, M.P. for, 317 

Walmesby, Anthony, Chantry priest, 122 

Walter, William, 118 

Walton-in-Gordano, 33, 34 

Walweyn, Edward, 117 

Walwyn Family, Arms of, 238 

Wansdyke, Object of construction, 5 

Warbutt, William, 114 

Warren, William, 11 ; Monument to, 10 ; 

Arms of, 1 1 
Family, Arms of, 160 
Warwick, St. Mary's Church, Effigy in, 148 
Watercombe, Roman remains at, by St. 

C. Baddelev, 173 — 180 
Waters, John, 117 

Wayefeld, Thomas, Chantry priest, 121 

Webb Family, Arms of, 56 

Webster, James, Archdeacon, 165 

Wells Cathedral library, 212, 219 
Dean of, 88 
See of, 44 

Grant of land to, 53 

Welneford, John, 118 

Wenlock, Lord, Effigy ascribed to, 246 

Were, F. ; Grant by Sir John Benet to 
Pembroke College, Oxford, 317 — 
321 ; Notes on Heraldry in St. Bria- 
vel's Church, 10, n ; Notes on Arms 
of Society of Merchant Venturers, 
23, 24 ; Notes on Heraldry in 
Langton House, Bristol, 27, 28 ; 
Notes on Heraldry at Clapton, 36 ; 
Notes on Heraldry in Chelvey 
Church, 42 ; Notes on Heraldry at 
Hamswell House, 57, 58 

Wesley, John, 88 ; at Rose Green, 59 

Wessington, Prior, 219 

West, Sir Thomas, 92 

West Saxons, their conquest of Gloucester- 
shire, 45—47 
Westbury Brook Mine, Tools found in, 12 
Westbury-on-Trym Collegiate Church, 87, 
90, 93, 101, III 
Chantry priest's pension, 123 
Westeburie, Richard, 115 
Westerleigh, Manor of, 58 
Westminster Abbey, Carrels in, 212 — 213 
Weston-in-Gordano Church, Description 
of, 36, 37 
Heraldry in, 38 
Monuments, 37 
Visit of the Society to, 36 — 38 
Court, 38 
Manor of, 34 
Origin of name, 33 
West-town, Marshfield, 54 
Wetherston, Thomas, 116 
Whale, Richard, 122 
Whalley Abbey, 107 
Whitefield, George, at Rose Green, 59 
Whittingdon, Hugh, 117 
Whittington, John, 58 
Sir Richard, 58 
Robert, 57 
Family, 57, 58 
Whorewoode, William, 116 
Wick Court, Visit of the Society, 58, 59 

Roman Remains, 59 
Wigmore Priory, 86 
Williams, Sir David, 262 — 263 
Hester, 262 
Richard, 116 
Williams, T. W. ; On Early and Mediaeval 
Libraries and the Evolution of the* 
Bookroom and the Bookcase, 205 — 
229 



Index. 



xi 



Williams, Thomas, Effigy and Arms of, 261 
— 263 

William, Chantry priest, 125 
Willington, William, Chantry priest, 125 
Wills, Sir Edward, 35 

W. D. and H. O., original business house 
of. 130 

Wilson, William, Chantry priest, 123 
Wimbledon, Battle at, 46 
Winchcombe Abbey, Value of and charges 
on, at dissolution, 108 — 109, 115 
Robert, Abbot of, 82 
Church, Effigy in, 261 — 263 
Grant of land at, 290 
Winchester, Henry, Bishop of, 218 
Winter, Edmund, Monument to, 35, 36 

Family, of Dyrham, 34 
Winterbourne, Chantry priest's pension, 
120 

Prehistoric remains at, 281 
Win tour, Sir Edward, 59- 

Sir John, 59 
Woodall, Richard, 114 
Woodcroft, Visit of the Society to, 2 
Woode, John, Chantry priest, 126 
Woodwarde, Richard, 120 
Woolstone Church, Effigy in, 263—264 
Worcester, Henry, 117 

William, 115 



Worcester Cathedral, Recesses for books 
in, 209 

Henry, Bishop of, 83 

Mauger, Bishop of, 83 

Roger, Bishop of, 9 

Simon, Bishop of, 53, 82 

William, Bishop of, 84 
Wotton, William, Chantry priest, 125 
Wraxall, Thomas, 97 
Wren, Sir Christopher, 221 
Writing, its early use in monasteries, 214 — 
217 

Wulfgar, Abbot of Bath, 5 
Wyatt, Philip, Chantry priest, 122 

Richard, 115 
Wyegate, Manor of, 2 
Wykeham, William of, 219 
Wymbole, Richard, 118 
Wyrcestre, William, 81, 139 
Wyther, Robert, 298 



Xisuthros, 206 



Yonge, Sir John, 141 
Yuor, John, 298 



Zouche, Sir John, 160 



Erratum, Vol. XXVIII., p. 96, see p. xiii. 



J. W. Arrowsmith, Printer, Quay Street, Bristol. 



ERRATUM, Vol. XXVIII., pp. 96, 97. 
Heraldry of Stephens. 



Paragraph 8. — " Party per chevron, argent and azure, in 
chief two falcons rising or," for Stephens. I very much 
doubt the panel and coat being painted, but if it was such as 
the blazon, it is false, as the falcons would be metal on metal. 
The true Stephens is " Party per chevron azure and argent," 
&c, and as the first may be quoted it is better to correct it 
properly in each copy. This must have escaped notice. 

Paragraph 9. — Judging by the heraldry the tomb is that 
of Edward Stephens. The arms are the family coat, and so 
along with the effigy may be Edward's ; but the arms of my 
note on p. 96 would say that they were his son's, Richard, 
who is stated to have married, secondly, Anne Kerry, widow, 
though the Gloucester Visitation, 1682, p. 175, says it was 
Edward's grandson Nathaniel that married Anne Kerry. 
Most probably either the son or grandson erected the tomb. 

Note to p. 98, paragraph 8. — " An eagle displayed in the 
first quarter " is what Rudder says. This is wrong, as it is in 
sinister chief, which, although Bigland does not say so in his 
blazon, his engraving plainly shows. There is one great 
peculiarity about the charge ; the head of the eagle is sinister- 
ways, which is not common except in a double-headed one. 
Can it have been sculptured from the matrix of a seal ? Again, 
line 24, " Three eagles." I only mentioned the fact that 
Edmondson gave three eagles, but then these were " on a 
bend," which if it was painted would be a bend sinister. 



Erratum. 



It seems to be more allied to the false coat in Bristol Cathedral 
east window, where on a dexter quarter argent is an eagle 
displayed or, which Leversage, p. 21, quotes as being identical 
with the Minchin Hampton tomb. I am inclined to think 
that it is quite possible that when the window was restored 
in 1847 this shield might have been reversed, and plain 
glass inserted instead of what most probably was an ermine 
field, when the blazon would be, " Gules on a sinister quarter 
(or canton) ermine an eagle displayed sinisterways or." No 
De la Mere coat like this seems to be known, but this would 
make it a true one. 

F. WERE. 



Bristol anb Gloucestershire 



1907. 



frreeioent. 

W. St. Clair Baddeley, Esq., 
Castle Hale, Painswick, Stroud. 

Ipresioent of Council. 

F. F. Fox, Esq., F.S.A., Yate House, Yate, R.S.O., 
Gloucestershire. 

1bon. (Beneral {Treasurer. 

G. M. Currie, Esq., 26 Lansdown Place, Cheltenham. 

Don. Eottor. 

Rev. C. S. Taylor, M.A., F.S.A., Banwell Vicarage, Somerset, 

R.S.O. 

1bon. jILibradana. 
Rev. Canon Bazeley, M.A., and F. J. Cullis, 
Eastgate, Gloucester. 

1bon. Secretary for Bristol. 
John E. Pritchard, Esq., F.S.A., 85 Cold Harbour Road, 
Redland, Bristol. 

1foon. General Secretary. 

Michael G. Lloyd-Baker, Esq., The Cottage, Hardwicke, 

Gloucester, 



PRESIDENT OF COUNCIL, VICE-PRESIDENTS, 
MEMBERS OF COUNCIL, AND SECRETARIES, 

July 8th, 1907. 

President of Council : F. F. FOX, F.S.A. 

City of Bristol. — Vice-Presidents : The Right Hon. the Lord 
Mayor of Bristolf ; The Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of Bristol, F.S.A. ; 
F. F. Tuckett, F.R.G.S. ; Council Proper: James Baker, F.R.G.S.; 
Alfred C. Fryer, Ph.D., F.S.A.; Alfred Harvey, M.B. ; A. E. Hudd, 
F.S.A.; Jas. McMurtrie, F.G.S. ; J. J. Simpson; R. Hall Warren, F.S.A. 
Secretary: John E. Pritchard, F.S.A. 

City of Gloucester— Vice-Presidents : The Right Worshipful the 
Mayor of Gloucester-]-; H. W. Bruton. Council Proper : Oscar W. 
Clark, M.A., M.B.; F. J. Cullis, F.G.S. ; C. H. Dancey ; H. Medland. 
Local Secretary: H. T. Bruton. 

Cheltenham— Vice-Presidents : R. V. Vassar-Smith ; G. B. Witts, 
C.E. Council Proper : C. E. Gael. Local Secretary : A. Cockshott. 

Cirencester Division— Vice-President : Christopher Bowly. Local 
Secretaries: Cirencester— Rev. Canon Sinclair, M.A. Fairford-Rev. 
A. W. Douglas, M.A. Stow-on-the- Wold— Rev. Canon Broome Witts, 
M.A. 

Forest of Dean Division.— Council Proper': Douglas J. Wintle. 
Local Secretaries: Chepstow-The Rev. R. C. Lynch Blosse, M.A. 
Lydney — G. W. Keeling. Newent— Edward Conder, F.S.A. 

Stroud Division.— Vice-Presidents : Rev. Canon Bartleet, M.A., 
F.S.A.; F. A. Hyett, B.A. Council Proper: W. St. Clair Baddeley. 
Local Secretaries: Nailsworth-A. E. Smith. Stroud-W. J. Stanton. 

Tewkesbury Division.-VicE-PRESiDENTs : The Right. Hon. Sir 
J E Dorington, Bart., M.A. ; Rev. E. R. Dowdeswell, M.A. Council 
Proper: G. S.Blakeway; T. Dyer-Edwardes, M.A. ; E. Sidney Hartland, 
F.S.A- : Rev. Canon O. P. Wardell-Yerburgh, M.A. Local Secretary: 
Tewkesbury— F. W. Godfrey, Junr. 

Thornbury Division.-VicE-PRESiDENT : F. F. Fox, F.S.A. Council 
Proper: Rev. W. E. Blathwayt, M.A. ; Rev. Canon Ellacombe, M.A. 
Local Secretary: Wotton-under-Edge-Vincent R. Perkins. 

Not Assigned. — Vice-Presidents : Rev. Canon Bazeley, M.A. ; John 
Beddoe, M.D., F.R.S. ; J. G. P. Palmer Hallett, M.A. Council Proper : 
A. T. Martin, M.A., F.S.A. ; Rev. W. Symonds, M.A. ; Francis Were. 



f When a Member of this Society. 



SUBSCRIBING MEMBERS, 1907. 



Names of Life Members are given in heavier type 

An asterisk is affixed to the names of Members of Council for 1906-7. 

The Treasurer will feel obliged if Members will inform him of any 
change in their address. 

Abbot, Miss Constance, 30 Caledonia Place, Clifton, Bristol. 

Abbot, H. Napier, M.A., 2 Beaufort Road, Clifton. 

Ackers, B. St. John, Huntley Manor, Gloucester. 

Adams, J. W., Glanmire, Archfield Road, Bristol. 

Adams, W. Avery, The Guildhall, Bristol. 

Aitken, SamL, Spa, Gloucester. 

Alexander, A. J.. 103 Pembroke Road, Clifton 

Allen, Rev. William Taprell, M.A., 36 Ampthill Road, Fulwood Park, 

Liverpool. 

Allen, Clement F. R., Southfield, Woodchester, Stroud, Glos. 

Allen', T. J., The Mount, Winterbourne, Bristol. 

Amor'y, F. H., 35 Apsley Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Andrews, Hugh, Toddington Manor, Winchcombe, R.S.O., Glos. 

Anthony ]. M., 16 Leigh Road South, Clifton, Bristol. 

Archer, Lieut. -Col. G. W., R.E., The Rookery, Frensham, Farnham. 

Armstrong, Miss F., Iffley, Oxford. 

Arrowsmith, J. W., 6 Upper Belgrave Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Ashbee, C. R., Woolstapler's Hall, Chipping Campden, Glos. 
Asher & Co., 13 Bedford Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. 
Ashman, Sir Herbert, Cooks Folly, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 
Atherton, K,ev. W. Bernard, B.A., Taynton House, Taynton, near 
Gloucester. 

Auden, Mrs., Caer Glou, Churchdown, Cheltenham. 
Austin, Roger L., Richmond Hill Avenue, Clifton, Bristol. 

*Baddeley, W. St. Clair, Castle Hale, Painswick, Stroud. 
Baker, A., The Old Bank, Tewkesbury. 

Baker, Arthur, Henbury Hill House, Henbury, near Bristol. 

Baker, Granville E. Lloyd-, Hardwicke Court, Gloucester. 
*Baker', Michael G. Lloyd-, The Cottage, Hardwicke, Gloucester (Hon. 
General Secretary). 

Baker, Hiatt C, Oaklands, Almondsbury, R.S.O., Glos. 
*Baker, James, F.R.G.S., F.R. Hist. S., Sewelle Villa, Goldney Road, 
Clifton, Bristol. 

Baker, W. Proctor, Sandhill Park, near Taunton. 

Ball, A. J. Morton, The Green, Stroud. 

Banks, C, 6 Westfield Terrace, Longford, Gloucester. 

Barclay, Rev. Chas. W., M.A., The Vicarage, Hertford Heath, Herts. 

Barnett,' J. W., Highmead, Tuffley, Gloucester. 

Barnsley, A. E., Pinbury Park, Cirencester. 
*Bartleet, Rev. Canon, M.A., F.S.A., Dursley Rectory, Gloucestershire. 
*Bartlett,' Rev. C. O., M.A., Minsterworth Vicarage, Gloucester. 

Bathurst, Charles, M.A., 3 Stone Buildings, Lincolns Inn, London, 
W.C. 

Batten, Lieut.-Col. H. C. G., Leigh Lodge, Abbot's Leigh, Clifton. 
Baxter, Wynne E., D.L., Granville Cottage, Stroud. 
*Bazeley, Rev. Canon, M.A., Matson Rectory, Gloucester (Hon. Member), 
(Hon. Librarian). 



5 



Bazley, Gardner S., M.A., Hatherop Castle, Fairford, Glos. 
Bazley, Sir Thomas S., Bart., Kilmorie, Ilsham Drive, Torquay, 
S Devon. 

Beach, Rev. W. H., M.A., The Mythe, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 
*Beddoe, John, M.D., F.R.S., The Chantry, Bradford -on- Avon. 
Bennet, Jno. Ryan, 3 Upper Belgrave Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, c/o Kegan Paul, Trench Trubner & Co., 

Dryden House, 43 Gerrard Road, W. 
Biddell, Sidney, New University Club, St. James' Street, London, 

S.W. 

Biddulph, Right Hon. Lord, Ledbury. 

Birchall, J. Dearman, Bowden Hall, Gloucester. 
*Blakeway, G. W. S., Staniforth, Tuffley, Gloucester. 

Blathwayt, Geo, W. Wynter, Melksham House, Melksham, Wilts. 
*Blathwayt, Rev. Wynter Edward, M.A., Dyrharn, Chippenham. 

Blathwayt, Rev. Wynter T., M.A., Dyrham Park, Chippenham. 

Blathwayt, Lieut.-Col. Linley, Eagle House, Batheaston, Bath. 

Blood, G. E., 15 Clyde Road, Redland, Bristol. 

Blood, John N., Huntley Court, near Gloucester. 
*Blosse, Rev. R. C. Lynch, Tidenham Vicarage, Chepstow. 

Bodleian Library (E. W. Nicholson, Librarian), Oxford. 

Bolton, Herbert, F.R.S.E., Natural History Museum, Bristol. 

Bond Fredk. Bligh, F.R.I.B.A., Star Chambers, St. Augustine's, Bristol 

Boucher, Chas. Ernest, B. Sc. Lond., 21 Oakfield Road, Clifton, 
Bristol. 

*Bowly, Christopher, Siddington House, Cirencester. 
Braikenridge, W. Jerdone, 16 Royal Crescent, Bath. 
Bramble, Lieut.-Col. James Roger, F.S.A., Seafield, Weston- 
super-Mare. 

Bravender, T. B., 96 Oakfield Road, Anerley, London, S.E. 
Brewster Rev. A. J., 36 Brunswick Road, Gloucester. 
♦Bristol, The Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of (George Forrest Browne, 
D.t>., D.C.L., F.S.A.), The Palace, Bristol. 
Bristol Municipal Public Libraries, Central Library, Bristol. 
British Museum, c/o Messrs. Dulau & Co., 37 Soho Square, London, W. 
Brocklehurst, H. Dent, Sudeley Castle, Winchcombe, R.S.O., Glos. 
Bromehead, Rev. J. N., Beverston Rectory, Tetbury, Glos. 
Brown, Jas. Arnold, 11 Quay Street, Bristol. 
Brown, Walter, M.B., Carlton House, Gloucester. 
Bruton, Basil V., Bewick House, Gloucester. 
* Bruton, H. T., Newlyn, Gloucester. 
*Bruton, H. W., Bewick House, Wotton, Gloucester. 
Bruton, Tames, Wotton Hill Cottage, Gloucester. 
Bryan, H. Dare, F.R.I. B. A., Croome Cottage, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 
Bubb, Henry, Ullinwood, near Cheltenham. ^ . 

Bullen, F. St. John, M.R.C.S., 12 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Burn, Charles, 19 Elmdale Road, Clifton. . 
Burroughs, Jno. B. C, 18 Westbury Park, Durdhani Down, Bristol. 
Bush, Edward, The Grove, Alveston, R.S.O., Gloucestershire. 
Bush' John, 9 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Bush R C, 1 Winifred's Dale, Cavendish Road, Bath. 
Bush' Robert Edwin, The Knoll, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 
Bush', T. S., 20 Camden Crescent, Bath. 
Butt, Rev. Walter, M.A., Kempsford Viearage, Fairford. 

Cardew, C. E., A.M.I. C.E., c/o Messrs. Thos. Cook & Son, Ludgate 

Circus, E.C. 
Cardew, G. A., 5 Fauconberg Villas, Cheltenham. 
Carpenter, R. H. ( 43 Canynge Road, Clifton. 

Carter, T. M., M.R.C.S., 28 Victoria Square, Clifton nyf ,^ 
Cave, Sir Charles D., Bart., M.A., D.L., Stoneleigh House, Clifton 
Park, Bristol. 



6 



Cave, Charles H., B.A., D.L., Rodway Hill House, Mangotsfield, Glos. 
Cay, Arthur, Lyndhurst, Leigh Woods, Clifton, Bristol. 
Charles, E. J., Seisdon, Brampton Road, St. Alban's, Herts. 
Cheesman, Rev. A. H., Derby Road, Gloucester. 
Cheltenham College (A. A. Hunter, Bursar), Cheltenham. 
Cheltenham Public Library (Librarian, W. Jones, Cheltenham). 
Chilton, George Horace David, 14 Cambridge Park, Bristol. 
Chilton, Guy, Churchfield, Westbury-on-Trym, near Bristol. 
Church, A. H., M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., Shelsley, Kew, Surrey. 
*Clark, Oscar W., M.A., M B., S. Luke's House, Spa Road, Gloucester. 
Clarke, Alfred Alex., Vicar's Close, Wells, Somerset. 
Clarke, W. Sefton. B.A., Camb., 28 Broad Street, Bristol. 
Clay, Miss Rotha, St. Michael's Rectory, Tyndall's Park, Clifton, Bristol. 
Clifford, A. W., Chestal, Dursley, Glos. 

Clifton, The Right Rev. the Bishop of (Dr. George Crompton 

Burton), St. Ambrose, Leigh Woods, Clifton. 
Clifton College Library, Clifton, Bristol. 
Cockshott, Arthur, 7 Pittville Crescent, Cheltenham. 
Codrington, Rev. R. H., D.D., St. Richard's Walk, Chichester. 
Cole, Rev. R. T., M.A., 18 Great George Street, Park Street, Bristol. 
Cole, R. M., Northgate Street, Gloucester. 
Cole, Sanford D., Canada House, Baldwin Street, Bristol. 
Collett, Jno. Hy., Hillfield, Gloucester. 
Collett, John M., Hillfield, Wotton, Gloucester. 
*Conder, Edward, F.S.A., Conigree Court, Newent, Glos. 
Constable, F. C, Wick Court, near Bristol. 
Cooke, P. B., Lismore, Wotton, Gloucester. 

Cornwall, Rev. Alan King-scote, M.A., Burghope, Worsley, 

Bradford-on-Avon . 
Cotterell, A. P. T., Woodcroft, Sneyd Park, Bristol. 
Cotterell, H. F., 207 Redland Road, Durdham Down, Bristol. 
Cotteswold Naturalists' Field Club (L. Richardson, F.G.S., Hon. Sec), 10 

Oxford Parade, Cheltenham. 
Craven, Campbell, J., 11 Lansdown Place, Victoria Square, Clifton, Bristol. 
Crawley-Boevey, A. W., 24 Sloane Court, London, S.W. 
Crawley-Boevey, Rev. R., M.A., Kirkby Vicarage, Liverpool. 
Crawley-Boevey, Sir T. H., Bart., Flaxley Abbey, Newnham, 

Gloucestershire. 
Creese, C. R., Enderley House, Tewkesbury. 
Crewdson, Theodore, Norcliffe Hall, Handforth, Manchester. 
Cripps, Mrs. Frederick, Cirencester. 
Cripps, Henry Kater, Redcliffe, Clifton Down, Bristol. 
Cripps, Mrs. Wilfred, Cripps Mead, Cirencester. 
Crooke, Wm., Langton House, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham. 
Cullimore, J., Christleton, Chester. 
*Cullis, F. J., F.G.S., Barnwood Court, Gloucester. 

Cunningham, Mrs. Jno , 12 Elmdale Road, Tyndall's Park, Clifton, Bristol. 
*Currie, G. M., 26 Lansdown Place, Cheltenham (Hon. Treasurer). 
Curtoys, Rev. W. F. D., Cromhall Rectory, Charfield, R.S.O., Glos. 

*Dancey, Charles Henry, 6 Midland Road, Gloucester. 
Dancey, H. A., Midland Road, Gloucester. 
Daniels, J. Harold, Lightpill, Stroud, Glos. 
Daubeny, Capt., 10 Pitville Lawn, Cheltenham. 
Davey, T. Ruding, Foye House, Leigh Woods, Bristol. 
Davies, Rev. John Silvester, M.A., F.S.A., Adelaide House, Enfield, 
London, N. 

Davies, Rev. R. P., The Rectory, Charfield, Glos. 

Davies, Rev. W. H. Silvester, M.A., Adelaide House, Enfield, London, N. 
Davis. Cecil Tudor, Public Library, Wandsworth, London, S.W. 
De Ferrieres, Baron, Bayshill House, Cheltenham. 
De Freviile, Rev. F., Oakridge Vicarage, Stroud, Glos. 



1 



De Provence, Marillier, 51 Oakneld Road, Clifton. 

De Sausmarez, F. B., M.A., 5 Queen's Parade, Cheltenham. 

Dening, C. F. W., The Hut, Portishead, Somerset. 

Dening, Edwin, Manor House, Stow-on-the-Wold, Gloucestershire. 

Derham, Henry, Sneyd Park, Bristol. 

Derham, Walter, M.A., F.G.S., 96 Lancaster Gate, London, W. 
Desprez, Ernest H., 72 Park Row, Bristol. 
Dester, J. Bates, Prince's Buildings, Clifton, Bristol. 
Dickinson, J. L., Park House, Eastfield Park, Weston-super-Mare. 
Dix, J. W. S., Hampton Lodge, Durdham Down, Bristol. 
Dobell, Clarence Mason, The Grove, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham. 
Doggett, Hugh Greenfield, Springhill, Leigh Woods, Clifton, Bristol. 
Dominican Priory, Rev. Prior of, Woodchester, Stonehouse, Glos. 
*Dorington, The Right Hon. Sir J. E., Bart., M.A., Lypiatt Park, 
Stroud. 

* Douglas, Rev. A. W., M.A., The Rectory, Hatherop, Fairford, Glos. 
*Dowdesvvell, Rev. E. R., M.A., Pull Court, Tewkesbury. 

Dowding, W. L., F.R. Hist. S., 13 Kingsley Road, Gotham, Bristol. 

Drew Joseph, M.D., Montrose, Battledown, Cheltenham. 

Ducie, The Right Hon. the Earl of, P.O., F.R.S., Tortworth 
Park, Falfield, R.S.O. 

Dugdale, R. W., Nethercliffe, Hucclecote, Gloucester. 

Duke Col J. C, Gwynfa, Moorend Park Road, Cheltenham. 
*Dyer-Edwardes, Thomas, M.A., Prinknash Park, Pamswick, Stroud. 

Eager, Reginald, M.D., Northwoods, Winterbourne, Bristol. 
Eales, Rev. Ernest, Naunton Rectory, Cheltenham. 
Eberle, J. Fuller, no Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Edwards, Herbert G., 16 The Avenue, Clifton. _ - 

*Ellacombe, Rev. Canon H. N., M.A., The Vicarage, Bitton Bristol 
Ellicott, A. B., His Honour, M.A., (The Chancellor of the Diocese). 
Ellis, T. S., St. Michael's House, Gloucester. 

Embrey, Geo., F.I.C., F.C.S., Hill Close, Park Road Gloucester. 

Emeris, Rev. William, C, M.A., The Rectory, Burford, Oxon. 

Evans, Arnold, 4 Litfield Place, Clifton Down, Bristol. 

Evans, Henley, 5 Albert Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Evans, Horace L., 4 Litfield Place, Clifton Down, Bristol. 

Fawcett, Professor E., M.D., University College, Bristol. 

Fawcett, Miss E.A., Sheephouse Court, Painswick 

Floyd, Walter C. L., M.I.C.E., 13 Miles Road Clifton, Bristol. 

Flux Edward Hitchings, Coopersale Hall W. Eppmg, Essex. 

Forbes, Col. G. H. A., R.A., Rockstowes, Dursley. 

Ford Andrew Hamill, Wraxall Court, Wraxall, near Bristol. 

Ford Roger, 8, Cambridge Park, Redland, Bristol. 

Foster, N. B., Guy's Cliff, Wotton, Gloucester. 

Foster', R. G., Lennox House, Gloucester. 

Fowler, O. W., Ashcroft House, Cirencester 

*Fox, Francis Frederick, F.S.A., Yate House, Yate, R.S.O., Glos. 
(President of Council) . 
Foxcroft, E. T. D., D.L., Hinton Charterhouse, Bath 
Fry, Claude Basil, Stoke Lodge, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 
Fry Francis ]., Cricket St. Thomas, Chard, Somerset 
Fry, Lewis The Right Hon., Goldney House, Clifton ^nstol. 
*Fryer, Alfred C, Ph.D. and M.A. Leipsic, F.S.A., 13 Eaton 
Crescent, Clifton, Bristol. . . 

Fryer, Miss Gertrude A., 13 Eaton Crescent, Clifton, Bristol. 
Fust, H. Jenner, Hill Court, Falfield, R.S.O. , Glos. 
•Gael, C. E., Porturet House, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham. 
Gainsborough, The Right Hon. the Earl of, Exton Park, Oakham, 

Rutland. ^, ti u 

Gardner, Rev. Canon, All Saints Vicarage, Cheltenham. 



8 



Gardner, W. J., "Record" Office, 7 Barton Street, Tewkesbury. 
George, Ch. W., 51 Hampton Road, Bristol. 
George, Rev. P. E., M.A., St. Winifred's, Bath. 
George, "W. E., Downside, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 
Gibbs, H. Martin, Barrow Court, Flax Bourton, R.S.O., Somerset. 
Gilchrist, Jas., 24 College Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Giller, William Thomas, 16 Tisbury Road, Hove, Brighton. 
Girdlestone, Mrs., 4 Downside Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Girdlestone, Miss, 4 Downside Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Gloucester, Right Rev. The Bishop of, The Palace, Gloucester. 
Gloucester, the Worshipful the Mayor and Corporation of, c/o Librarian, 
Public Free Library, Gloucester. 
* Godfrey, F. W., Junr., The Cross, Tewkesbury. 
Golding, Mrs., Tudor Lodge, The Park, Cheltenham. 
Goodden, Jno. Hy., 5 Woodlane, Falmouth. 
Gray, J. W., St. Elmo, Leckhampton Road, Cheltenham. 
Griffiths, G. C, 43 Caledonia Place, Clifton, Bristol. 
Griffiths, L. M., M.R.C.S., 11 Pembroke Road, Clifton. 
Grcsvenor. Wilshaw W., B.A., M.D., 4 Clarence Street, Gloucester. 
Guise, Sir W., Bart., Elmore Court, Gloucester. 
Gurney, W. Gerald, 12 Wellington Square, Cheltenham. 
Gwynn, Humphrey T. M. C, 3 All Saints Court, Bristol. 

Haines, Basil John, Travancore, Pursey, Wilts. 
*Hallett, J. G. P. Palmer, M.A., Claverton Lodge, Bath. 

Hallett, Mrs., Claverton Lodge, Bath. 

Hammersley, G. H., Copthorn,.Sneyd Park, Bristol. 

Handley, F. F., Eslington, Thirlestaine Road, Cheltenham. 

Harding, E. B , Chasefield, Upper Knowle, Bristol. 

Harding', Rev. Canon John Taylor, M.A., Pentwyn, Monmouth. 

Harding, Col., C.M.G., F.R.G.S., Highfields, Stratton, Cirencester. 

Harland, Miss, Rosenho, Moorend Road, Cheltenham. 

Harley, Edw. Mortimer, 8 Albert Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Harttand, Ernest, M.A., F.S.A., Hardwicke Court, Chepstow (Hon. Member). 
*Hartland, E. Sidney, F.S.A., Highgarth, Gloucester. 

Harvard College, U.S.A., c/o Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner & Co. Ltd., 
Dryden House, 43 Gerrard Road, London, W. 
*Harvey, Alfred, M.B., Ewelme, Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol. 

Harvey, Edward A., 26 Victoria Square, Clifton, Bristol. 

Hatton, A. V., Colebridge House, Gloucester. 

Hawkins, J. G., Staunton Court, Gloucester. 

Hayes, C. A., Ashley House, Ashley Down Road, Bristol. 

Hay ward, The Venerable Archdeacon, M.A., College Green, Gloucester. 

Hayward, Col. Curtis, Quedgeley House, Gloucester. 

Healing, Saml. H., Lloyds Bank Chambers, Cheltenham. 

Helps, Arthur S., Barton Street Gloucester. 

Hemmons, G. E., 30 Woodstock Road, Redland, Bristol. 

Herapath, Howard M., 2 St. John's Road, Clifton. 

Herbert, Arthur Grenville, 28 Elvaston Place, Queen's Gate, 
London, W. 

Herbert, W. Hawkins, Paradise House, Painswick, Glos. 
Hewitt, J. H., Manor House, Maugersbury, Stow-on-the-Wold, Glos. 
Hickman, Hubert, Royal Societies' Club, St. James' Street, SW. 
Higgins, Henry, Willsbridge House, near Bristol. 
Hirst, Francis J., M.A., 41 Nicholas Street, Bristol. 
Hirst, H. C. M., A. R.I. B. A., 22 Duchess Road, Clifton. 
Hobbs, J. N., Concord, Moorend Grove, Cheltenham. 
Hobbs, R. Cuthbert, 11 Cotham Vale, Redland, Bristol. 
Hockaday, F. S., Highbury, Lydney, Glos. 
Hodson, Rev. Thos., Oddington Rectory, Stow-on-the-Wold. 
Holbrow, Rev. Thomas, B.A., Shaw Well, Corbridge-on-Tyne. 
Holford, Major G. L., C.V.O., c/o D. Lindsay, Esq., Estate Office, 
Tetbury, Glos. 



9 



Holt, Rev. Vernon, M.A., 4, Berkeley Square, Clifton. 

Hopkinson, H. L., Duntisbourne House, Duntisbourne Abbots, Cirencester. 

Horder, P.Morley, 6 Hamilton Terrace, London, N.W. 

Hore, Mrs. A. H., 22 Lansdown Terrace, Cheltenham. 

Household, W. H., College Court, Gloucester. 

Howard, Edward. Stafford, 9 Egerton Place, London, S.W. 

Howell Tas. H., 118 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Howell Rev. W. C, M.A., 32 Regent's Park Road, London, N.W. 
*Hudd Alfred E., F.S.A., 108 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Hughes, W. W., Downfield Lodge, Clifton, Bristol. 

Huntley Rev. O. C, Boxwell Court, Wotton-under-Edge, Glos. 

Hutton, Rev. W. H., B.D., The Great House, Burford, Oxon. 
*Hyett, F. A., B.A., Painswick House, Painswick, Stroud. 

Irving, D., M.I.C.E., Stapleton, near Bristol. 
Isack'e, Miss, Stratford Abbey College, near Stroud. 

Tebb Mrs., Oaklands, Brockworth, Gloucester. 

Tenkins, Frederick A., 58, St. John's Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Jennings, Rev. A. C, M.A., King's Stanley Rectory, Stonehouse, 

Gloucestershire. 
Tohnson, Miss H. T., Ellesmere Lodge, The Park, Cheltenham. 
Tohnstone-Vaughan, W. J., The Old Rectory, Wotton, Gloucester. 
Tones Avery N., Haslemere, Walton-by-Clevedon, Somerset. 
. Tones', David, St. Helier, Weston Road, Gloucester 
Tones, Rev. R. C. S., The Vicarage, Northleach R.S^O., Glos. 
Judge, Frederick, 116 Richmond Road, Montpelher, Bristol. 

* Keeling, George William, 10 Lansdown Terrace, Cheltenham. 
Kempthorn, Rev. P. H., Wick Rissington, Stow-on-the-Wold, Glos. 
Kennedy-Skipton, H. S., n Lansdown Terrace Cheltenham. 
Ker Miss Flora C, Fallowfield, St. Stephen's Road, Cheltenham. 
Kerr Russell J., The Haie, Newnham-on-Severn. 
King-, Miss, Avonside, Clifton Down, Bristol. 

King Miss A M. Meade, Dunkirk Manor House, Amberley, Stroud, Glos. 
King' Percy L., 2 Worcester Avenue, Clifton, Bristol. 
Knowles, Henry, Egerton House, The Spa, Gloucester. 

Landale, Dy.-Surgeon-General, Dunholme, The Park, Cheltenham. 

Lefroy Rev. F. A., Haresfield Vicarage, Stonehouse, Glos. 

Leiffh E Egerton, D.L., Broadwell Manor House, Stow-on-the-Wold. 

Leofard Geo. Hare.'jr., 1 Beaufort Buildings, Clifton Down, Bristol. 

Levv-Langfield, A./14 Whiteladies Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Lewis "Archibald M.,\, Upper Byron Place, Clifton, Bristol. 

Lincoln's Inn Library, London, W.C. . . 

Lippincott, R. C. Cann, Over Court, Almondsbury, Bristol. 

Little E P., Pitchcombe House, near Stroud. 

Little' F. A., Atcombe Court, Woodchester, Glos. 

Liverpool Free Library, Liverpool. 

T/IPWPllin John, C.E., Hazeland, Devizes, Wilts. 

LlevTellin W MCE., 8 Cotham Lawn Road, Cotham, Bristol. 

Lloyd, Philip J., 22 Hurle Crescent, Clifton .Bristol 

London Library, 12 St. James' Square, London SW. Somerset 

Long Col. William, Woodlands, Congresbury, R.S.O., East Somerset. 

Lowe, C. J., 8 St. Stephen's Street, Bristol. 

Lowenfeld, Mrs. Arscott, Oakfield, The Park, Cheltenham. 

Macpherson, J., 27th and I Streets San Diego, California, U.S.A. 
Malleson, Miss, Dixton Manor, Wmchcombe, R.S.O., Glos. 
Mallorv D., 27 Park Place, Cheltenham. 
Manchester Library (Charles W. Sutton Sec ), Manchester. 
Mardon, Heber, 2 Litfield Place, Clifton Down, Bristol. 
Margetson, Jack, Brightside, Stroud, Glos. 



12 



Sneath, Rev. T. A., The Lawn, Woodchester, Stroud. 

Society of Merchant Venturers, The Worshipful the Master of the, Bristol. 

Soutar, J. G., M.B., Barnwood House, Gloucester. 

Soutar, Mrs., Barnwood House, Gloucester. 

Spence-Jones, Very Rev. H. D., Dean of Gloucester, The Deanery, 
Gloucester. 

Spofforth, Fairfax, 21 Belgrave Road, Tyndall's Park, Clifton, Bristol. 
Squire W W., M.Inst.C.E., 15 Eaton Crescent, Clifton, Bristol. 
St. Aldwyn, Rt. Hon. Viscount, Coin St. Aldwyn's, Fairford, Glos. 
Stanton, Rev. Canon, M.A., Hasleton Rectory, Cheltenham. 
Stanton, Charles Holbrow, M.A., Field Place, Stroud. 
Stanton, Rev. W. D., Toddington Vicarage, Winchcombe, Glos. 
*Stanton, Walter John, Stratford Lodge, Stroud. 
Stephens, Albert J., 29 Denmark Road, Gloucester. 
Stevens, Mrs., Springhill, Nailsworth, Glos. 
Sturge, Francis, Foster's Chambers, 17 Small Street, Bristol. 
Sturge, Theodore, 14 Hurle Crescent, Clifton. 

Sturgeon, Wentworth, 4 King's Bench Walk, Temple, London, W.C. 
Swann, E. J., D.L., The Gables, Leigh Woods, Bristol. 
Swayne, Miss, 129 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Swift, W. T., Churchdown, Cheltenham. 
*Symonds, Rev. W., M.A., Kirkby Vicarage, Liverpool. 

Tait, C. W. A., M.A., 29 Collington Road, Edinburgh, N.B. 
Tagart, Francis, F.L.S., F.R.G.S., Old Sneyd Park, near Bristol. 
Tarr F J , Westaway, Yatton, R.S.O., Somerset. 

*Taylor, Rev. C. S., M.A., F.S. A.. , Banwell Vicarage, Somerset, R.S.O. 
Taylor, Edmund J., Town Clerk, Council House, Bristol. 
Thomas, R. Beaumont, Dennel Hill, Chepstow.. 
Thompson, Mrs., Endcliffe, Henbury, near Bristol. 

Thompson, J. Cyril, Shute House, Ellenborough Crescent, Weston-super- 
Mare. 

Thorpe, Thomas, Osborne House, Frocester, nr. Stonehouse, Gloucester- 
shire. 

Thursby, Mrs., Broadwell Hill, Moreton-in-Marsh, Glos. 

Tibbitts, John, 5 Theresa Place, Gloucester. 

Tidswell, R. T., Haresfield Court, Stonehouse, Glos. 

Timmis, Major G. D , Matson House, Gloucester. 

Tinson, C. J., The Cleevelands, Marie Hill, Cheltenham. 

Tombs, R. C, I.S.O., 37 Henleaze Gardens,Westbury-on-Trym, nr. Bristol. 

Tothill', Waring W., 123 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Townsend, Charles, St. Mary's, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 

Townshend, C. W., Springfield, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham. 

Trapnell, Alfred, Great Chalfield, Wollstonecraft Road, Bournemouth. 

Trees, Mrs., Wager Court, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham. 

Trvori, Stephen, Hallen, near Bristol. 

Tubbs, Stanley W., Beaconsfield, Wotton-under-Edge, Glos. 
*Tuckett, Francis Fox, F.R.G.S., Frenchay, near Bristol. 
Tudway, Clement, Cecily Hill, Cirencester. 

Vale, Hy., 16 Darlington Street, Wolverhampton. 
Vass'all, R. L. Grant, Oldbury Court, Fishponds, Bristol. 
*Vassar-Smith, R. Vassar, Charlton Park, Cheltenham. 
Vaughan-Hughes, Gerald M., Wyelands, Chepstow. 
Veasey, Rev. A. H., The Rectory, Duntisbourne Rous, Cirencester, Glos. 
Venner' Capt., The Reddings, Stonehouse, Gloucestershire. 
Vincent, Rev. Marshall Clarke, Sengora, Priory Parade, Cheltenham. 
Vickers, Kenneth H., Cedar Hall, Frenchay, Bristol. 

Waddy, H. Edw., Rhossili, Brunswick Road, Gloucester. 
Wait, H. W. K., 2 Worcester Villas, Clifton. 
Waller, F. W., 18 College Green, Gloucester. 
Walls, John, 7 Woodland Road, Tyndall's Park, Clifton. 



13 



Walters, Rev. C, M.A., The Vicarage, Forthampton, Tewkesbury. 
Ward H. W., Frenchay, near Bristol. 

*Wardell-Yerburgh, Rev. Canon O. P., The Abbey, Tewkesbury. 

Warner Wiclif, Ardagh, Horfield Common, Bristol. 
♦Warren,' Robert Hall, F.S.A., 9 Apsley Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Waterman, A. N., M.A. Oxon., 4 Westmoreland Road, Durdham Park, 
Bristol 

Watson, Edw. J as., F.R. Hist.S., F.R.S.L., St. John's Arch, Bristol. 

Way Lewis Upton, 15 Caledonia Place, Clifton, Bristol. 

Webb, W. E., Capital and Counties Bank, Bristol. 

Welch Miss, Arle House, Cheltenham. 

Wells, Charles, F.J.I. , 134 Cromwell Road Bristol. 

Wells C Courtenay, 7 Brunswick Road, Gloucester. 

Wend'en, Tames Gordon, The Chantry, Dursley. 

*Were Francis, Callingwood Hall, Tatenhill, nr. Burton-on-Trent, Staff. 
Whitcombe, George, The Wotton Elms, Gloucester 
White, Sir George, Bart., Cotham House, Bristol. 
Whitwill Mark 6q Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Wilkins , Rev H J . , D.D., Westbury-on-Trym Vicarage, Redland Green, 

WilkiSon^Rev. L., M.A., Westbury House, Westbury-on- Severn, Glos. 
Willcox, Robt., Craigside, 31 Whiteladies Road Clifton. 
Williams, P. Watson, M.D., 4 Clifton Park, Clifton. 

Williams, Seymour, Downend, Bristol. _ w ._ ton suoer _ 

Williams, Thos. Webb, B.A., Greystones, South Road, Weston-super 

Wilbur Frederick, Bart., M,P., Manor Heath, Bournemouth. 
Wills' G A., Burwalls, Leigh Woods, near Bristol. 
Wilson, Robert, M.B., Millbrook, Nailsworth. 
Wintle Charles, 30 Baldwin Street, Bristol. 

*5biiev J :H Hi Kl^rS; fSSSS^, Bat, 
Wise, William Henry, The Council House, Bristol 

SSTSg 1& WE2&. Slau gh te, Lo.er 

*Wit S ts a G h B r 'c E.'°Hii? House, Leckhampton, Cheltenham. 
Wollaston G. H., M.A., Flax Bourton, near Bristol. 
Wollaston Mrs. S. C, Flax Bourton, near Bristol. 
Wood Tos Foster 9 Westbury Park, Durdham Down Bristol 
Woodward, Miss E. K., M.A., Sandhurst Lane Gloucester 
WoollrSS Major, Junr. U.S. Club, Charles Street, London, S W . 
S Vh' Mant, Lulworth House Keynsham near Bristol. 
Wright! Major, Hidcote House, Chipping Campden, Glos 
Wrifht, Jno Alfred, C.E., 122 Brynland Avenue, Bishopston, Bristol. 

Y.bbicom Col T H , C.E., Isleworth, Oakfield Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
S e Baring, baylesford House, Chipping Norton Oxon. 
Sung Jas. M.D., Clouds Hill House, St. George, Bristol. 



Zachary, Henry, Bartonbury, Cirencester. 



Literary Societies exchanging Transactions with this Society : 



The Society of Antiquaries of London, Burlington House, Piccadilly, 
London, W. 

The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, National Museum of Antiquities, 
Queen Street, Edinburgh. 

The Royal Society of Antiquaries (Ireland), Dublin. 

The Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 20 
Hanover Square, London, W. 

The British Archaeological Association, 32 Sackville Street, London, \Y. 
The British School at Rome. 

The Birmingham and Midland Institute, Archaeological Section, Birming- 
ham. 

The Cambrian Archaeological Society, 28 Great Ormond Street, London, 
W.C. 

The Clifton Antiquarian Club, Hon. Sec, A. E. Hudd, Esq., F.S.A., 108 
Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

The Royal Institute of Cornwall, Museum, Truro, Cornwall. 

The Cotteswold Naturalists' Field Club, Hon. Sec, L. Richardson Esq 
F.G.S., 10 Oxford Parade, Cheltenham. 

The Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Hon Sec 
Percy N. Currey, Esq., 3 Market Place, Derby. 

The Essex Archaeological Society, Hon. Sec, n Rawston Road, Colchester. 

The Kent Archaeological Society, Museum, Maidstone, Kent. 

The Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle, The Castle, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

The Powys Land Club, Museum and Library, Welshpool. 

The William Salt Archaeological Society, Stafford, Hon. Sec , Maior-Gen 
The Hon. G. Wrottesley. 

The Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society, The Castle, 
Taunton. 

The Shropshire Archaeological and Nat. Hist. Society, Hon. Sec, F. Goyne 
Esq., Dogpole, Shrewsbury. 

The Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History Hon Sec 
Rev. F. E. Warren, Bury St. Edmunds. 

The Surrey Archaeological Society, Castle Arch, Guildford. 

The Sussex Archaeological Society, Lewes, Sussex. 

The Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Devizes, Wilts. 

The Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical Association Hon 
Librarian, E. K. Clarke, Esq., jo Park Street, Leeds. 

The Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, U.S A, 



TERMS OF ADMISSION TO THE SOCIETY. 



Those who are desirous of joining the Society, can be admitted, after 
election by the Council, on the following conditions : 

I. As Life Members for a Composition of £5, and an Admission 
Fee of 10s. 6d., which will entitle them to receive gratuitously 
for life, the annual volumes of Transactions of the Society that 
may be issued after the date of payment. 

II. As Annual Members upon payment of 10s. 6d. Entrance Fee, and 
an annual subscription of 10s. 6d., which will entitle them to 
receive gratuitously, the annual volume of Transactions for 
every year for which their subscriptions are paid. 

The Annual Subscription becomes due on the 1st of January, and the 
Hon. Treasurer, Mr. G. M. Currie, will be obliged if members 
will send their subscriptions to him at 26 Lansdown Place, 
Cheltenham. 

By order of the Council, the Transactions of the Society are only issued 
to those members who have paid their subscriptions for the 
corresponding year. 

Application for admission as members to be made to one of the 
Hon. Local Secretaries, or to 

MICHAEL G. LLOYD-BAKER, 
The Cottage, 

Hardwicke, 

Gloucester, 
Hon. General Secretary.